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443 it 445 BBOADWAT. 

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Hanrard UnlTenitty 

dowioal Department Libraiy 

From the Library of 

'Prot . Clement L. Smith • 

Maroh 7, 1911. 

.. { ,. V.I .-: V5 • ,c. 

'\ .•..hV 3 1911.. . 
■■■•' n,,.,^^ . ,. i-y' 

Enfterad, according to Act of Gongreu, in the year 1^ by 

D. AvFLuroH & Co., 

In tlM Clerk's Office of the District Coort of the United Stntce 

for the Soathem District of New Toik. 


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Raphael Kuhner, the author of the following Grrammar 
was bom at Gotha, in 1802. From 1812 to 1821, he 
studied at the celebrated gymnasium in his native city. 
Among his classical teachers were Doringt Bost and Wiiste- 
mann. From 1821 to 1824, he enjoyed, at the University 
of Gottingen, the instructions of Mitscherlichy Dissen and 
Ottfried Miiller. While there, he prepared an essay on 
the philosophical writings of Cicero, which received a 
prize. Since 1824, he has been a teacher in the Lyceum 
at Hanover. The principal works from the pen of Dr. 
Kiihner are the following : 

1. Versuch einer neuen Anordnung der griechischen Syntax, 

mit Beispielen begleitet. 1829. " Attempt towards a 
new Arrangement of the Greek Syntax," etc 

2. M. Tull. Ciceronis Tusculan. Disputationum libri. 1829 

ed. altera 1835 ; ed. tertia 1846. 

3. Sammtliche Anomalien des griechischen Verbs in Attisch. 

Dialecte, 1831. " Anomalies of the Greek Verb, etc 

4. Ausftihrliche Grammatik der griechischen Sprache, in 2 

Theilen, 1834, 1835. « Copious Grammar of the Greek 
Language, in two Parts." The second Part of this 
grammar, containing the Syntax, translated by W. E. 
Jelf, of the University of Oxford, was published in 
1842; the first Part in 1845. A second edition of 
Jelf s translation of this work was published in 1851. 
This work is, however, only in part a translation, Mr. 

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Jelf being the author of the remarks on the Caset, the 
particle dv, the compound verbs, etc. 

5. Schulgrammatik der griechischen Sprache, 1836 ; zweite 

durchaus verbesserte u. vermehrte Auflage, 1843; 
dritte verbesserte und vermehrte Auflage 1851. 
" School Grammar of the Greek Language, third 
edition, improved and enlarged.^' The present vol- 
ume is a translation of this Grammar^ from the 
sheets, furnished for this purpose by the author. 

6. Elementargrammatik der griochischen Sprache, ncunte 

Auflage 1850. " Elementary Grammar of the Greek 
Language, containing a series of Greek and Eng^ 
lish exercises for translation with the requisite vocab- 
ularies." This Grammar, translated by Mr. S. EL 
Taylor, one of the translators of the present volume, 
has passed through eleven editions in this country. 

7. Xenophontis de Socrate Commentarii, 1841. 

8. Elementargrammatik der lateinischen Sprache, siebent 

Auflage, 1850. " Elementary Grammar of the Latin 
Language with Exercises." This Grammar, trans- 
lated by Prof. Ghamplin, of Watehrille CJollege, has 
passed through several editions in this country. 

9. Lateinische Vorschule nebst eingereihten lateinischen 

und deutschen Ubersetzungsaufgaben, vierte Auflage, 

10. Schulgrammatik der lateinischen Sprache, dritte sehr 

verbesserte Auflage, 1850. "School Grammar of 

the Lsttin Language, third edition, greatly improved." 
Dr. Kiihner has also published in the Bibliotheca Graeca 
the first part of his edition of Xenophon's Anabasis. 

From the above statements, it will be seen that Dr. 
Kiihner has enjoyed the most favorable opportimities for 
preparing the work, a translation of which is now pre- 
sented to the public. The names of his early instructors 
are among the most honored in classical philology. For 

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nearly thirty years, he has been a teacher in one of the 
principal German gymnasia, and has thus had ample facili< 
ties for testing in practice the principles which he has 
adopted in his Grammars. At the same time, he has pur- 
sued the study of the classical authors with the greatest 
diligence, id connection with the productions which his 
learned countrymen are constantly publishing on the differ- 
ent parts of Latin and Greek grammar. Of course, his 
works might be expected to combine the advantages of 
sound, scientific principles with a skilful adaptation to prac- 
tical use. The " Bchool Grammar of the Greek Lan- 
guage," being his latest publication, contains the results of 
his most mature studies. Its chief excellences, it may be 
well, perhaps, briefly to indicate. 

First, The grammar is based on a profound and accurate 
knowledge of the genius and principles of the Greek lan- 
guage. The author adopts substantially the views which 
are maintained by Becker, Grimm, Hupfeld and others, and 
which are fully unfolded in the German grammars of 
Becker. According to these views, the forms and changes 
of language are the result of established laws, and not of 
accident or arbitrary arrangement. Consequently, language 
maybe subjected to scientific analysis and classification. 
The multitude of details may be embraced under a few 
comprehensive principles, and the whole may have some- 
what of the completeness and spirit of a living, organic 
system. Dr. Kiihner's grammar is not a collection of de- 
tached observations, or of rules which have no connection, 
except a numerical one. It is a natural classification of 
the essential elements of the language, an orderly exhibi- 
tion of its real phenomena. It is, at the same time, a truly 
practical grammar, fitted for its object, not by a theorist in 
his closet, but by an experienced instructor in his school 

Second, The author has adopted a clear and satisfactory 
arrangement of his materials. This can be seen by an 

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examination of the table of contents. To those, indeed^ 
who are familiar only with the common distribution of 
subjects in our Greek grammars, the arrangement of Dr. 
Kijhner may appear somewhat obscure and complicated 
A slight acquaintance, however, with the plan on which 
the Syntax, for example, is constructed, will show that he 
has followed the true and logical method. Abundant 
proofs of the justness of this remark may be seen in the 
exhibition of compoimd sentences. The particles are 
treated, not as isolated, independent words, but as a com- 
ponent and indissoluble part of discourse. 

Third, Fulness and pertinence of illustration. The cor- 
rectness of every principle advanced, especially in the Syn- 
tax, is vouched for by copious citations from the classics. 
If, in any case, a principle is stated in an abstract form, or 
if a degree of obscurity rests upon the enunciation of it, 
its meaning may be readily discovered by reference to the 
illustration. The paradigms contain much more complete 
exemplifications of conjugation and declension than are to 
be found in the grammars in common use in this coun- 
try. In this connection, it may be stated, that Dr. Kiihner 
has chosen a pure verb as the model of regular inflection. 
He can thus exhibit the stem unchanged, throughout the 
entire conjugation. 

Fourth, The perfect analysis to which the forms of the 
language, especially of the verb, is subjected, may be men- 
tioned as another excellence of the grammar. In learning 
a paradigm, in the manner which the author points out, the 
pupil first resolves the verb into its elements, and then 
rearranges these elementary parts into a complete form. 
In this method, and in no other, can he attain a mastery 
of this most difficult portion of the subject. 

Fifth, Every part of the grammar is equally elabomted. 
The closing pages exhibit the same fulness and conscien- 
tious accuracy, which characterize the forms, or the first 

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portions oi the Syntax. No part can be justly charged 
with deficiency or with 'superfluous statement The view 
of the Third Declension, the scientific list of Irregular 
Verbs, the Dialectic peculiarities, the observations on the 
Use and Position of the Article, on the Middle and Passive 
Verbs, on the delicate shades of thought indicated by the 
Modes and Tenses, and on the difference between the use 
of the Participle and Infinitive, may be referred to as spe- 
cimens of careful observation and nice analysis. 

The Appendix on Versification has been supplied by the 
translators, the grammar of Kiihner containing nothing on 
that subject. The materials were drawn from a variety of 
sources. A more full view is less necessary, as the excel- 
lent work of Munk on Greek and Boman Metres, trans- 
lated by Profs. Beck and Felton, is now accessible. 

Much pains have been taken in verifying the almost in* 
numerable references to classical authors. The very few 
exceptions are those cases where the author made use of 
an edition of a classic not accessible to the translators. In 
this verification, the following editions of prose authors 
were used : Kuhner's edition of the Memorabilia ; Weiske's 
and Tauchnitz's editions of the other works of Xenophon ; 
Schafer's and Tauchnitz's editions of Herodotus ; Becker's 
and Tauchnitz's editions of Thucydides ; Dobson's edition 
of the Oratores Attici ; and Stallbaum's Plato. There are 
slight variations in numbering the lines of poetry in differ- 
ent editions, particularly in the tragedians. 

The present edition has been prepared from the third 
German edition, in which the author had made many im- 
portant improvements, particularly in the Syntax, having 
availed himself of the corrections or remarks of his learned 
friends and his reviewers. This the translators have en- 
deavored to put into such a form as would best meet the 
wants of American scholars. They have not aimed merely 

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at a translation ; it has been their object to state in as deai 
and concise a manner as possible the principles contained 
in the original, without reference to the particular form in 
which the statements were there made. The translators 
have also added principles and illustrations of their own, 
where it seemed desirable. 

The numbering of the paragraphs has not been changed 
in the present edition, and most of the subdivisions and 
Remarks are the same as in the former edition. The 
changes in this respect have been so few, that it has not 
been thought necessary to indicate them. 

The labor of preparing the first edition cf this work was 
shared equally by the translators ; so, also, in the second 
edition as far as the 210th page. At this point in the 
progress of the work, the state of Professor Edwards's 
health made it necessary for him to relinquish his labors in 
connection with it, for the purpose of seeking a milder 
climate. After a {ew, months' residence in one of the South- 
ern States, he was called away from his labors on earth, 
deeply lamented by his associate, and the large circle of 
friends to whom his character presented so many attractive 
qualities. His loss will be extensively felt also in the cause 
of Biblical and Classical literature, for which none cher- 
ished a deeper interest, and for the promotion of which he 
contributed with great zeal and success the rich stores of 
his elegant and varied learning. 

The proofe of the Ghranmiar have been read by Mr. P. 
S. Byers, an associate Instructor in Phillips Academy, to 
whom special acknowledgments are due for these servicea^ 
as well as for many valuable suggestions. 

Andover, July 15, 1852. 

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Chapte&I. — Lbttxbs Aim Sounds ov thx Lakouaos. 

Alphabet ^1 

Bounds of the Letters 2» 

History of the Alphabet 2b 

Organs of Speech 3 

Vowels 4 

' Consonants 5 

Breathings 6 

Changes of Letters 7 

Changes of the Vowels 8 — 16 

Hiatus 8 

Contraction of Vowels 9 

Crasis 10,11 

S^izesis 12 

Elision 13, 14 

N Paragogic {4^XKwrruc6y) ; 

o!ho9{ s) ; ^1 and ifcxov and ovk 15 
Strengthening and Weakening 

of Vowels 16 

Prolongation, Shortening. In- 
terchange and Variation, ... § !• 
Influence of a Vowel or Con- 
sonant on another vowel. ... 16 
Sjncope, Omission of a Vowel 16 

Euphonic Prothesis 16 

Changes of the Consonants. . . 17 — ^86 

Mutes 17 

Liqtdds 18 

Mutes and Liquids, Liquids and 

Mutes 19 

Sibilant tr with Mut. and Liq~. 20 

Change of separated Consonants 21 

Metathesis of Liquids 22 

Doubling of Consonants 23 

Strengthening and Addition of 

Consonants 24 

Expulsion and Omission of 

Consonants 85 

Chapt. IL — Stllables. 

Nature and Division of Syllables 26 

Quantity of Syllables 27 

Quantity of the Penult 28 

Accents 29 

Change and Bcmoyal of the 
Accent by Inflection, Compo- 
sition and Contraction 30 

Change and Removal of the Ac- 
cent in connected Discourse 31 — 35 

L Grave instead of the acute 31 

IL Crasis 31 

m. EUsion 31 

IV. Anastrophe 31 

V. Atonies or Proclitics. . . 32 

VL Enclitics 33—35 

Division of Syllables 36 

Punctuation Marks — ^Diastole. *37 


Division of the Parts of Speech.^Inflection, 

Chapt. L — Thb Substaktitb. 

Furst Declension 

L Feminines 

n. Masculines 

Differant kinds of Substantives. . . 39 

Gonder of Sabstantives 40 

Number, Case and Declension ... 41 


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Qoantity and Accentuation . § 45 

Second Declension 46 

Contraction of the second Dec. 47 
Attic second Declension .... 48 

Acccntuution 49 

Keinarks on Gender 50 

Third Declension 51 

Hemarks on the Case-endings 52, 53 

Paradigms 54 — 63 

Quantity 64 

Accentuation 65 

Gender 66 

Anomalous Nouns 67, 68 

Defective Nouns 69 

Interchange of Forms in the 

Declensions 70 — 72 

I. Redundant Nouns 70 

II. Heteroclites 71 

III. Metaplasts 72 

Indeclinable and Defective 

Nouns 7S 

Chaft. IL — The Adjectitb and Pabticiple. 

Nature, Gender and Declension 74 

Accentuation 75 

Summary of the Adjective and 

Part. Endings 76 — 80 

L Adjectives and Partici- 
ples of three Endings. . 76, 77 
n. Adjectives of two Endings 78, 79 
HI. Adjectives of one Ending 90 

Comparison of Adjectives 81 

A. -Tcpoy, 'r6oa, -rcpov, -rea-ost 

-rdrrif -rmmv 82 

B. -W, 'iov, -«!', -ov\ -urroSf -i|, 

'oy 83 

Anomalous forms of Comparison. 84 
Comparison of Adverbs 85 

Chapt. IIL — The Pbokoun. 

Nature and Division of Pronouns 86 

L Personal Pronouns 87-90 

II. Demonstrative Pronouns 91 
III. Relative Pronouns 92 

IV. Indefinite and Interrogative 

Pronouns 93 

Correlative Pronouns 94 

Lengthening of the Pronoun 95 

Chapt. IV. — The Nuherals. 

Nature and Division of Numerals 96 
Numeral Signs 97 

Principal classes of Numerals. ... 98 
Remarks on the Numerals 99 

Chapt. V. — The Adyeeb. 
Nature and Division of Adverbs 100 I Formation of Adverbs 101 

Chapt. VL— The Yebb. 

Nature and Division of the Verb 102 

Classes 102 

Tenses 103 

Modes 104 

Infinitive and Participle 105 

Persons and Numbers 106 

Conjugation of Verbs in -« 107 

Stem, Augment, Reduplication 

and Characteristic *. . . . 108 

Inflection -endings 109 

a. Tense-characteristic and 

Tense-endings 110 

b. Personal-endings and Mode- 

vowels Ill — 114 

Full Paradigm of a Regular Verb 1 1 5 
Remarks on the Inflection-endings 116 
Remarks on the Formation of the 
Attic Future 117 

Accentuation of the Verb 118 

Further view of Aug. and Redup. 119 

(a) Syllabic Augment 120 

( b ) Temporal Augment . . 1 21 , 1 22 

Reduplication 123 

Attic Reduplication 124 

Aug. and liedup. in Compounds 125-6 
Formation of the Tenses of Verbs 

in-« 127—167 

Division of Verbs in -« according 

to the Characteristic 127 

Derivation of Tenses 128 

I. Formation of the Tenses of 

Pure Verbs 129 

a. With a short Characteristic- 

vowel 130 

b. With or in Aor. Pass, and Peif. 

Mid.orPas8: 181 

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FAradigms of Pare Verbs § 1 32—1 37 

A. UDContracted Pure Verbs. . 132 

(a) Without <r in the Mid. or 

Pass 132 

(b) With e in the Mid. and 

Pass 133 

B. Contract Pure Verbs... 134^136 
Remarks on contract verbs... 137 

n. Formation of the Tenses of 

Impure Verbs 138 

Strengthening of the Stem 139 

Variation of the Stem-vowel. . . . 140 
Bemarks on the Secondary Tenses 141 

A. Formation of the Tenses of 

Mute Verbs i . 142—144 

Bemarks on the Characteristic 143 
Paradigms of Mute Verbs 145 — 148 

B. FonnAtioQ of the Tenaes of 

Liquid Verbs 149 

Paradigms 150—153 

Peculiarities in the Formation of 

Single Ve/bs 154 

. Svncope 155 

Meuthesis 156 

Verbs in -w with Stem of the Pres. 

strengthened 157 

I. Verbs with v inserted 158 

II. Verbs with the syllable w 159 

IIL Verbs with 6,¥ or tuv 160 

IV. Verbs in -o-icw, -laKw 161 

V. Verbs m-bw 162 

VI. Verbs with Reduplication. 163 
VIL Verbs whose Pure Stem- 

vowel a is strengthened by i 164 

Vlll. Verbs which assume e 165 

Verbs which assume an e in form- 
ing the Tenses 166 

Verbs whose Tenses are formed 

firom different Roots 167 

Coniugation of Verbs in -/u .... 168 
Division of Verbs in -/xi 169 

Characteristic-vowel and Strength- 
ening of the Stem of the Pres. f 170 

Mode-vowels : 171 

Personal-endings 172 

Formation of the Tenses. . . 173, 174 

Paradigms 175 

Remarls on the Paradigms 176 

Summary of Verbs in -lu. . 172 — 190 
1. Verbs in -fit which annex the 
Personal-endings immediate- 
ly to the Stem- vowel 177 

(a) Verbs in -a 177 

♦haU 178 

Deponents 179 

Ih) Verbs in -« 180 

(c) Verbs iv -i : ttfu, ^Zlfil.., 181 
n. Verbs in -fu which annex tw 

or rv to the Stem-vowel . . 182 

Formation of the Tenses 182 

Summary of this class of Verbs 183 

A. Verbs whose Stem ends in a 

Vowel 183—186 

(a) in -a 183 

(b)in-f 184 

(c)in-4 186 

(dj in-o 186 

B. Verbs whose Stem ends in a 

Consonant 187,188 

• (a) in a Mute 187 

ib) in a Liquid 188 

Inflection of Ktlfuu and Ijfuu 189, 190 
Verbs in -« analogous in Forma- 
tion to those in -/Ai . . 191 — 196 
L Second Aor. Act. and Mid- 
dle 191,192 

II. Perf. and Plup. Act.. . 193, 194 

OJSa and HoiKa 195 

III. Present and Imperfect .... 196 
Summary of Deponent Passives. 197 
Summary of Active Verbs with a 
Mid. Fut 198 

Chapt. VII. — Prepositions, Conjukctions and Intebjections 199 


A. Orthography. . 
Digamma or Labial Breathing F. 200 

Interchange of the Vowels 201 

Interchange of the Consonants 202-204 

Change of the Vowels 205-207 

Contraction, Diaeresis 205 

Crasis, Synizesis, Elision, N Par- 

agogic, Hiatus 206 

liengthening and Shortening of 
the Vowcb. — Syncope. — Apo- 
eope 207 


Prothesis and Insertion of Vowela 207 

Changes of Consonants 208 

Quantity 209 

B. Dialectic Forms. 

Declensions 210- 214 

Homeric Suffix ^t or ^ly 210 

First Declension 211 

Second Declension 21 S 

Third Declension 213 

Anomalous and Defective 
Words. Metaplasts 214 

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The Adjective f 215 

Comparison 216 

Pronouns 217 

Kumerals .218 

The Verb 219-230 

Augment and Reduplication . . 219 
Personal-endings and Mode- 
vowels 220 

Epic and Ionic Iterative Porm 221 
Contraction and Besolutlon in 
Verbs 222 

Pormation of the Tenses . . . ^ 2n 

Conjugation in-/u 224 

eIhI and Zlfu 225, 226 

Verbs in -w with a Sec. Aor. an- 
alogous to Verbs in -/u . . . . 227 

Verbs in -» with a Perf. and 
Plup. Act like Verbs in -fu 228 

Verbs in -« with a Pres. and 
Impf. Act. like Verbs in fu 229 

List of Dialectic Verbs 230 


Radical Words, Stems,Derivative8 231 

A. Derivation 232-235 

L Verbs 232 

XL Substantives 233 

IIL Adjectives 234 

IV. Adverbs 235 

B. Compounds 236 

Pormation of Compounds 237 



Chapt. L — Pabts of a Simple Sentskgb. 

Nature of a Sentence. — Subject 
and Predicate 238 

Compaxison. Attribute and Ob- 
ject 239 

Agreement 240 

Exceptions to the general rules of 
Agreement 241 

Agreement when there are several 
Subjects . 242 

Remarks on Peculiarities in use of 
Number 243 

The Article 244 

Position of the Article 245 

Use of the Article with Pronouns 

and Numerals 246 

The Article as a Demon, and 
Rel. Pronoun 247 

Classes of Verbs 248 

A. Active form 249 

B. Middle 250 

C. Passive 251 

Remarks on Deponents 252 

Tenses and Modes . 253 

A. Particuhir View of the Tenses 254 

(a) Principal tenses: Pres., 
Perf., Put 255 

(b) Hist Tenses : Aor., Impf., 

Plup 256 

Tenses of the Subord. Modes 257 

B. Particular View of the Modes 258 
Use of the Subj.,0ptjuid Imp. 259 

The Modes with iy 260 

Position and Repetition of &y 251 

Chapt. n.— Atteibutivb Consteuction. 

Ellipsis of the Substantive .... 263 
(a) Attributive Adjective .... 264 

1 1 

b) Attributive Genitive .... 265 

c) Apposition 266 

Chapt. m. — Objective Coksteuction. 

L The Cases 268 

Nominative and Vocative . . . 269 
(1) Genitive 270 

A. Local Relation 271 

B. Causal Relation 272 

(a) Active Genitive 273 

(b) Causal Genitive 274 

(c) Gen. denoting mutual re- 
lations 275 

(2) Accusative 276 

A. Local Relation 277 

B. Causal Relation 278 

(a) Ace. denoting effect . . . 278 

( b) Acc.of the Object on which 

tlie action is performed . 279 

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Two AccosatiTes ^ 280 

Bemarks on the Ace with the 

Passive 281 

(8) Dative 282 

A. Local Dative 283 

B. Dative as a personal Object 284 
C Dative of the thing 285 

H. Constraction of Prepositions . 286 

(1) Propositions with the Gen. 

only § 287, 288 

(2) With the Dative only .... 289 

(3) With the Accusative only . 290 

(4) With the Gen. and Ace. 291-294 

(5) With the Gen., Dat. and 

Ace 295-299 

Bemarks on peculiarities of the 

Prepositions 300 

Cbaft. IV. — The PBONOxm as Subject, Pbbdicatb, Attributb awd 


I. Personal Pronouns 302 

IL Bemaining Pronouns 308 

Ftospective and Betrospective 
Use of the Pronoun 304 

CjoArr. y. — The Infikitite akd I^aeticiplb used as ax Attsibutb 

▲KB Object. 

A. The Infinitive 805 

(I) Inf. as an Object without 

the Article 306 

Nom., Gen., Dat and Ace. 
with the Inf. « 307 

(II) Inf. with the Article .... 308 

B. The Participle 309 

(I) The Part, as the Comple- 
ment of the Verb .... 310 

Bemarks on the Inter- 
change of the Part, and * 

the Inf. 311 

(n) Part used to express Ad- 
verbial Subordinate Be- 
lations 31S 

Special Peculiarities in the 
Participial Construction 318 

Chapt. VL — The Adverbial Objectitb. 

9€d 315 

B. Confirmative Adverbs 816 

C. Emphatic Suffixes, y4f w4p, rd 317 

D. Negative Particles 818 

Chapt. VIL A. — Coobdination. 

Different Forms of Coordinate 

Sentences 320 

I. Copulative Coordinate Sen- 
tences 321 

II. Adversative Coordinate Sen- ' 
tences 322 

HL Disjunctive Coordinate Sen- 
tences 328 

lY. Causal Coordinate Sen- 
tences 324 

Bemarks on Asyndeton 325 

Chapt. Vni. B. — Subobdinatiov. 

Principal and Subordinate Sen- 
tences 326 

Sequence of Subjunctive Tenses 

in Subordinate Sentences 327» 

Use of Modes in Subordinate 

Clauses 327b 

I. Substantive Clauses 328 

A. Introduced by «t« or &j, that 329 

B. Introduced by Tw, so that, etc. 330 
XI. Adjective Clauses 331 

Agreement of the Bel. Pron. . . 33S 
Modes in Adjective Clauses . . 333 
Connection of several Adjective 

Clauses 33« 

Interchange of the Subordinate 
Clause with the Adj. Clause 834 
III. Adverbial Clauses 335 

A. Adverbial Clauses of Place 3Sb 

B. Adverbial Clauses of Time 387 

C. Causal Adv. Clauses . 338^-840 

Digitized by 




I. Denoting Groand or 

Cause $ 338 

n. Denoting Condition 339, 340 
ILL Denoting Consequence 
or Efl'ect 341 

D. Adverbial Clauses denoting 

Manner and Quantity 342, 343 
I. Comparative Adv.Ciauses 

denoting Manner 342 

IL Comparative Adv. Clauses 
denoting Quantity 843 

Chaft. IX. — Iktehbooatite Sentences. 

L Interrogatives 344 

n. Oblic^ue Discourse 345 

ni. Special Peculiarities in the 
Construction of Words and Sen- 
tences 346, 347 

Ellipsis, Brachylogy, 
Contraction, rleoni 
Anacoluthon . 


leonasm 846 


CnxPT. X. — Position op Woudb 348 

Appendix A. — Versification Page 574 I Index of Subjects Page 589 

Appendix B. Abbreviations I Greek Index 60S 

in writing 587 | Index for the Forms of Verbs 614 


Aesch. Aeschylus^ Ag. Agamemnon^ S. Septem adv. 7%. — Ar. .^rutopAonct. — 
Dcm. Demosthenes, 01. Olt/nth., Ph. Philipp., Cor. Corona, Chers. Chersones., Aph. 
Avhobus. — Eur. Euripides, M. Medea, C. Cyclops, H. Hecuba, O. Orestes^ H. F. 
Hercules Fwrens, Hipp. Hippolytus, — Her. llerodoiua. — Isae. Isaeus. — Lys. /^.y- 
SUM. — PL Plato, Cr. Crito, L. Leges, Th. Theages, Men. Meno, Soph. Sophista^ 
Crat Cratylus, Prot. Protagoras, Phil. Philebus, Rp. JiespuUica, — Soph. SophO' 
ties, O. C. Oedipus Coloneus, O. R. Oedipus Rex, Ant. Antigone, Ph. Pkiloctetes, 
Aj. Ajax, El. Llectra. — X. Xenojyhon, C. Commentarii, An. AnahaMs, H. HeUen- 
MO, S. Symposium, R. Ath. Respublica Atheniens,, B. L. RetpM fwrdaem, <X' 
Otomwnucus, Ag. Agesilaus, R. Equ. R, EqueMris, 

Digitized by 




1. The Greek language was divided into many different 
dialects, the most highly cultivated of which were the 
^olic, Doric, Ionic, and Attic. The ^olic prevailed in 
Boeotia, Thessaly, and in the ^olian colonics in Asia 
Minor ; the Doric, throughout the Peloponnesus, and in the 
J)orian colonies in Asia Minor, Italy, and Sicily ; the 
Ionic, in the Ionian colonies in Asia Minor ; the Attic, in 

2. The JEolic and Doric dialects are characterized by 
harshness and roughness, being the opposite of the Ionic, 
which is distinguished for delicacy and softness. The 
Attic dialect holds a beautiful medium between the two 
fomier and the Ionic, as it skilfully combines the soft and 
pleasant forms of the Ionic with the strong and full-toned 
forms of the Doric 

3. The Ionic dialect is divided into the Older and the 
Later Ionic. The older Ionic is the language of Hom>. 
and of his school, although these poets were not satisfied 
with their own dialect merely, but were able, in accordance 
with the true principles of art, to select, from all the 
dialects, those forms which corresponded to the ilature of 
their poetry ; and to employ — since the regular laws of 
versification had much influence in forming the language 


Digitized by 



— a peculiar and definite poetic language, called the Epif% 
c»r Homeric This had a great efleqt on the language of 
all the Greek poets even to -the latest times. We find the 
later Ionic in the works of the historian Herodotus, born 
484 B. c, and of Hippocrates, b. 460 b. c. 

4. The Attic dialect is divided, in accordance with cer- 
tain peculiarities, into the Older, the Middle, and the Latei 
Attic. The older is used by Thucydides, b. 472 b. c. ; the 
tragic poets ; w3Eschylus, who died 456 b. c. ; Sophocles, 
b. 497 B. c, d. 405 b. c. ; Euripides, b. 480 b. c. ; and the 
more ancient comic writers, e. g. Aristophanes, d. 390 b. a j 
by several orators, e. g. Antiphon, b. 479 b. c, and An- 
docides, b. 467 b. c. The middle Attic is used by Plato, 
b. 430 B. c. ; Xenophon, b. 447 b. c. ; and the orator Iso- 
crates, b. b. c. 436. The later Attic is employed by De- 
mosthenes, b. 385 b. c, and other orators, the later comic 
writers, and the prose authors in more recent times, who 
sought to preserve in their works the language bf the earlier 

5, After the freedom of the Greeks had been destroyed ' 
by Philip, king of Macedon, the Attic dialect came to be 
the common written language. As it extended, not only 
over all Greece, but also over the Macedonian provinces of 
Syria and Egypt, it lost much of its peculiar stamp by the 
introduction of foreign forms and words, and it then 
received the name of the Common, or Hellenic language, 
ij fcoLv^, or 'EXK7)vc/crf Sta\e«T09. It was used, e. g. by Apol* 
lodorus, Diodorus, and Plutarch. 

Digitized by 







and Sounds 

5 of t.ic 


i 1. Alphabet. 

The Greek Alphabet consists of twenty-four letters. 
















g ' 










e short 






' Zrjra 










































o short 

















































Digitized by VjOO 


Kemark 1. Sigma at the end of a word takes the form i, e. g. atur/Us, in 
most editions of the classics. This small s is also used in the middle of com- 
pound words, if the first part of the compound ends with Sigma, though such 
a usage is contrary to the authority of the manuscripts, e. g. irpos^4pu or 
wpoatpdixo, Svsycv^f or BxHryetrfis. 

Rem. 2. When 'and r come together, both letters may be expressed by one 
character, r, Sti, or Stigma. 

Rem. 3. Besides their use as alphabetic characters, c and v were originally 
nsed as mere marks of aspiration, the former for the spiritus asper (§6), for which 
in the earliest times H was also employed, the latter for the Digamma (§ 25) ; 
hence, as letters, they were called, in opposition to their use as aspirates, I }^t\6w 
and I y^ixSvf i. e. unaspirated. Omicron and Omega (small and large 0) derive 
their name from their relative size. 

Rem. 4. The principle on which most of the utters of the Greek alphabet 
are named, is entirely different from that adopted in this country and among 
the European nations, at the present day. We name each letter by the sound 
It represents, as o, 6, c, adding a vowel to the consonants in order to vocalize 
them. But among the Orientals, from whom the Greek alphabet was derived^ 
the name was not determined by the sound of the letter. They gave their 
letters the name of some familiar object, the first sound or syllable of which 
was the alphabetic character to be represented. For example, the Phoenicians 
and Hebrews called the first letter of the alphabet Aleph (Greek Alpha), which 
means an ox : now the first sound or syllable of Aleph is the character or 
element to be represented. The second letter was Beth (Greek Beta), a hoitse, 
the first sound of wliich is the character to be represented. The third is Gimel 
( Greek Gamma), a camd. This mode of naming letters, undoubtedly originated 
from the custom of designating those letters by the picture of the object from 
which they derived the name, instead of by the characters now used. Thus 
Aleph was represented by the picture of an ox, Beth by that of a house, etc. 

^ 2a. Sou7ids oy particular Letters. 

The sound of the letters is indicated by the Roman characters opposite to 
them. The following remarks on particular letters are all that is needed in 
addition:' — 

Remark. The sounds given to the following letters are those more usually 
adopted in pronouncing the Greek in New England; but the usage is not 
entirely uniform. 

A has the sound of a in fariy when it is folbwcd by a consonant in the same 
syllable, e. g. xa^-f<^*; the sound of a in /ate^ when it stands before a single 
consonant which is followed by two vowels, the firet of which is e or *, c. g. 
kycuTToaecoSj ffTparic&Tris ', also, when it forms a syllable by itself, or ends a 
syllable not final, c. g. fi^y-d-kriy ffrpa-rSs] it has the sound of a \nfatha\ when 
it is followed by a sinjrlc p, in tlio, same syllabic, and nlso when it ends a word; 
but a final in monosylla!)les has the sound of a in fatc.^ e. g. B<£p-/3a-poy, Tifp* 

Digitized by 



7, before y^ iCy Xt &n€l»{, has tho sound of ng in angle, or nasal n in ande, e. g 
IteyytXas^ ang-gshi ; xXayy^y .dangor ; *Ayxi<rriSt Anckises (Angchises) ; a-uyK6-in]f 
syncope ; Kdffvy^t larynx, y l)cfore vowels always has the hard sonnd, like g in 
prt ; also before consonants, except 7, k, x» €» c. g. 7(7as. 

6 has the sound of short e in met^ when it is followed by a consonant in the 
same syllablei e. g. iJuiy-us^ /xcr-^; the sound of long e in m«, when it ends a 
word or a syllable, or when it forms a syllable by itself, e. g. 7c, ^i-xa, fitunK' 

71 has the sound of e in me, e. g. fiorii. 

d has the sound of th in thickj e. g. ddyaros. 

I has the sound of t in mine^ when it ends a word or syllable, or fomu • 
syllable by itself, e. g. 4\irl'<n, Urt, irc9-(-oy ; the sound of i in pin, when it b 
followed by a consonant in the same syllabic, e. g. trply, xiy^vyos. 

K always has the hard sound of ^, and was expressed in Latin by c, e. g« 
KiXucla, Cilicia; K4iepcn^f Cecropa; Kucipogy, Cicero. 

I, at the beginning of a word or syllable, has the sound of 2, e.g. livos\ else- 
where, the sound of ar, e. g. lioJ^vw, trpa^ts, &ya^. 

9 has the sound of short in not^ when it is followed by a consonant in the 
lame syllable, e. g. \6y-os, Kv-pos ; the sound of long in go^ when it ends a 
word or syllable, or forms a syllable by itself, e. g. r^, ^^, ^o-6s, rof-J-nyt. 

<r has the sharp sound of a in son ; except it stands before /a, in the middle 
of a word, or at the end of a word affer tj or «, where it has the sound of 2, 
e. g. (TKriyiij r6fiifffjui, yrjsy ndXws ; before t it does not have the sound of s^, as in 
Latin, but retains its simple sound, e. g. * Atria =^^i-a, not A-shi-a. 

T followed by t has its simple sound, never the sound of ^, as in Latin, e. g. 
roAoT^ = Galati-a, not Galashi-a ; Kpvrlas ^^Kriti-as, not Krishi-as ; Aiy&imoi. 

V has the sound of u in ttdip, e. g. r^xn i ^^^ before p the sound of u in pitre^ 
e. g. v6p, yi^upa, 

X has the hard sound of ch in chasm, e. g. rax^* 

« has the sound of long o in notey e. g. $y». 

i 2b. Brief history of the Alphabet. 

1. The Greeks derived most of their alphabet from the Phoenicians. Ac- 
cording to the common tradition, letters were brought into Greece by Cadmus, 
a Phoiuician. The Phoenician alphabet, being nearly the ssime as the Hebrew, 
t^onsisted of 22 letters, the names of which are, Aleph, Beth, Gimel, Daleth, 
He, Van, Zain, Hcth, Teth, Jod, Kaph, Lamed, Mim, Nun, Samech, Oin, Pe, 
Tsade, Koph, Resch, Schin, Thau. Vau, the 6th letter of the Phoenician 
alphabet, was rejected by- the Greeks as an alphabetic character, and used only 
as the numeral sign for 6. Koph (Greek Koppa), the 1 9th letter of the Phoe- 
nician alphabet, was also rejected, because its sound so nearly resembled that 
of Kaph (Greek Kappa), and was used as the numeral sign for 100. Zaio 
nnd Tsade were modifications of the same sound; Tsade. like the Greek 2eta. 

Digitized by 



repi^sents the sound of both, and takes the place of Zain, becoming the 6th 
letter of the Greek alphabet, while Zain (Greek San, Sampi), was rejected as an 
alphabetic character, and nsed as a nnmerical sign for 900. Thns 19 letters of 
the Fhcsnician alphabet were adopted by the Greeks, as alphabetic characters. 
These are the first 19 letters of the present alphabet. To these the Greeks 
themselves added the five last letters of the alphabet, viz., v, ^, x* V'* ^* '^^^ 
seems to be the most rational view of the formation of the Greek alphabet, 
though somewhat different from the common legendary account, which repre- 
sents Cadmus as bringing only 16 letters into Greece, viz^ a, ^, 7, 9, €, 1, jr, A, 

^, y, o, T, p, 0", T, V. 

2. The alphabet was not brought at once into its present complete form. 
The old Attic alphabet contained but 21 letters. H was considered merely as 
a breathing, and the place of 17 and « was supplied by e and o, and that of ^ 
and ( by n and X2, e. g. AieEP (alHp), EXePON {4x»p&y), «2YXAI (i^xa<)i 
XXtV Uvy), The alphabet is said to havo been completed in the time of the 
Persian war, by Simonides, who added B, Y, and a, and changed the breathing 
H, to the long vowel 97. The lonians first adopted the present full alphabet 
of 24 letters, and by them it was communicated to the Athenians. This fiill 
alphabet was first used in Attic inscriptions in the archonship of Nuclides, 
B.C. 403, before this period only the old Attic alphabet is found in Attic 

3. The early Greeks used the capital letters exclusively, and left no spaces 
between the words, e. g. M£TAAETOYTONEin£XEIPCSO«0:S, i. e. fierii S^ rm^- 
Tov cTrc Xftpiao^s. The cursive, or small character, was not introduced till 
very late. A document has been found in "Egypt written in the curdive char- 
acter, 104 B. c. But cursive writing was not in general use till long after that 
time. It is first found in manuscripts in the eighth century. 

4. The early Greeks commonly wrote in the Oriental manner, i. e. finom 
right to left, as may be seen in several inscriptions. Other inscriptions, how- 
ever, of equal antiquity, are written from left to right, proving that both modes 
were in use. A third metliod was from left to right and right to left alternate- 
ly. Tliis was called ^owrrpo^7fi6y, because it resembled the turning about of 
oxen in ploughing. Solon^s laws were written in this way. But in the time cf 
Herodotus, the Greeks wrote only from left to right. 

§3. Organs of Speech. 

1. The organs of speech, used in forming or articulating 
words,- are tlie palate, the tliroat, the tongue, and the lips. 

2. The sounds which are emitted almost without any action 
of the throat, tongue, and lips, and which proceed in the freest 
manner from the breast, are called Vowels; the rest, Conso* 

Digitized by 


I 4.] VOWELS. 19 

M. Vowels. 

1. The Greek has seven vowels, a, t, v, which may be 
long or short, e and o, which are always short, rj and a> 
which are always long. The character (") over one of the 
vowels a, c, V, shows that the vowel is short ; (') that it is 
long ; (') that it may be either long or short, e. g. a, a, a. 

RsMAiur 1 a, 1, and v aro called the principal vowels, because they denote 
the principal sounds ; the other vowels are called subordinate, because their 
sounds are the intermediates of the principal sounds. Thus, the sound of e is 
intermediate between a and t, the sound of o is intermediate between a and v ; 
i| is produced by lengthening e or a, m by lengthening o. The relation of these 
vowels may be illustrated by the following diagram : — 


iZ At. 

2. When two vowels are so combined as to form but 
one sound, the sound so produced is called a diphthong. 
When both the vowels are sounded, the diphthong is called 
proper ; when only one, improper. 

3. The Greek diphthongs originate from the union of the 
vowels a, 6, o, v, 17, a>, with the vowels t and v, thus: — 

a-j- i =s cu, pronounced like at in aisle^ e. g. d^, 

a + w = ow, • " " an in laud^ " vovs, 

« -|- I = €1, " '* ei in sleight^ ** Sciy^r, 

^ + !!l^', } " " euin feudal,'' JfrXci^ro, n^fo*', 

o -(- 1 ^ M, " " ot in oil, " icou^6sf 

o -f. tf =3 ov, " " o« in aound, " obpaySs, 

V -f. I ra VI, « " wki in whine, " wWt, 

«.|. V B> «v, (only Ionic,) " " ou in sound, " ntMs; also tlio im 

proper diphthongs, f , ]7f r (i- e. a + t, ij -f i, » + 1) ; " oldxp?* fc4pt^ if, t^. 

Rem. 2. The pronnnciation of the diphthongs ^ , ^, ^ is the same as that of 
the simple vowels d, i|, w, though the ancient Greeks probably gave the 1 a 
Blight sound after the other vowel. 

Rbic 3. With capital letters, the Iota subscript of 9, p* 4*> is placed in a 
line with the vowels, but is not pronounced, e. g. THI KAAai= r^ xaXt^,. r^ 
Ai8|r, but jfSp. 

Digitized by 


20 VOWELS. H 4. 

Rem. 4. The Iota Bubscript, which in the most flourishing period of tht 
Greek language was always pronounced, at length became a silent letter, and 
was either omitted iu writing, or was written under the vowel' to which it 
belonged. It was first written under the vowel in the thirteenth centarj. 

Rem. 5. The following examples will show how the Romans sounded tho 
diphthongs : au is expressed by the diphthong ae, et by { and #, oi by oe, ov by « ; 
V was generally expressed by y, e. g. 

^aiZpos, Phaedrus ; E^pos, Enrus ; ^p^cts, Throces ; 

TAavicof , Glancus ; BotwWa, Bceotia; ep^croio, Threasa; 

NciXof , Nllus ; Moinra, Masa ; rpay^s, tragoedofl ; 

AvKctby, Lyceum ; EiXcfi^ia, Ilithyia; Kvpos, Ctfrtu. 

In words adopted later, the Romans expressed 9* by u, as 998^, ode. 

Rem. 6. When two vowels, which would regularly form a diphthong, are tc 
be pronounced separately, it is indicated by two points, called Diaeresis, placet 
over the second vowel {t, v), e. g. 0x^61, for cu9o7, 6lsj ivwos. If the acute 
accent is on the i or v, it is placed between the points ; if the circumflex, over 
them, as itSijy , icXeFSc, trpoiAs, 

Rem. 7. The pronunciation given under § 2a, as well as that given to the 
diphtliongs above, is the one more generally adopted in New England. The 
original pronuncian;«i of the Greek is lost. It is, therefore, the common cus- 
tom for scholars (in each country) to pronounce it according to the analogy of 
their own language. This is the method proposed by Erasmus in the sixteenth 
century, and is generally adopted in Europe at the present day. The pronun- 
ciation defended by Renchlin * in the same century, corresponds nearly with 
the modem Greek. 

* For the benefit of those who may wish to compare the two modes, the fol- 
lowing explanation of tho Reuchlinian is extracted from the Greek Grammar' 
of Sophocles : " A is pronounced like a in faiher^far, j8, 7, 8, like 6, g hard, 
d; in later times, like Romaic /3, 7, 8. Before «r, y, x> (> 7 ^^ ^^^ sound of 
ng in hang, e, like Romaic c, or Italian e. f, like 2, but stronger. 17, like French 
^, as in file. ^, like th in thiuy ether, saith. 1, like t in machine, k, like k. 
A, fif like /, m, respectively, v, like n. At the end of a word it was often pro- 
nounced and written as if it were a part of the next word. |, in the Attic 
dialect, like ^s ; in the other dialects, like ks. In later times, the sound ks pre- 
vailed. 0, like Romaic 0, or Italian o. ir, like p. p, like r. At the begin- 
ning of a word it was roiled; when it was doubled, only the second one was 
rolled. It was rolled, also, after ;&, ^, x> o'j like s in soft, past. Before ft, it 
was, in later times, sounded like f, and even changed into ( in writing ; as 
Zfjt^pyoy for tfiCpya, in an inscription, r, like t in tell, strong, v, like French ti. 
^, likey; but stronger. x» ^i^^ Romaic x» German ck, or Spanish j {x). ifr, in 
the Attic dialect, like tps ; in the other dialects, like irf. In later times, tlie 
sound irr prevailed, m, like o in note, nearly. When a consonant was doubled 
in writing, it was doubled also in pronunciation. During the most flourishing 
period of the language, both the vowels of a diphthong were distinctly heaid 

Digitized by 



i 5, Consonants. 

1. The consonants are divided, first, according to the dif« 
ferent organs of speech, by which they are formed, into — 

Palatals, 7 /e %, 
Linguals, S t^ v\ p a. 
Labials, ^ ir (f> fju 

HemaKk 1. The consonants, which aro produced by the same organ of 
speech, arc called ccxpiate consonants ; thus 7, ic, x are cognate consonants. 

2. Consonants are divided again, according to the greater 
or the less influence of the organs of speech in their forma- 
tion, into breathings, liquids, and mutes. 

(a) The Breathings form a land of transition from the 
vowels to the consonants. There are three breath- 
ings : the lingual cr; the Spiritus Asper ('), correspond- 
ing to our A (§ 6) ; and the labial F (Digamma) ; on 
the last, see the remarks upon the Dialects. 

(b) The Liquids, \ /jl v p, are so called, because they easily 
coalesce with the other consonants. 

Kem. 2. The Breathings and Liquids are also included under the common 
name of semivowels, forming a kind of transition to the full vowels. 

During the brazen age, and •probably during the latter part of the wlvcr age, 
the diphthongs cu, ct, ov, had each the power of a single vowel, cu, like at in 
aisle ; in later times, like 17, or French ^ ; during the latter part of the brazen 
age, like c. ow, like ou in our^ house; in later times, like aw, af. «, like ci in 
freighi^ nearly ; in later times, like 1. During the silver and brazen ages, e w:is 
often prefixed to 1 long, merely to mark its quantity ; as itf^ivwy rcTdrcu, rci/A^o-ai. 
And when quantity began to be disregarded, even short 1 was represented hy 
ti; as EiW8a»por, l.laoKpJeniSi yvfiyeurttapx^aas. ev, like eh-oo rapidly pro- 
nounced ; in later times, like er, ef. ot, like oi in oi7, nearly, ov, like 0/1-00 
rapidly pronounced ; in later times, like 00 in moon^ or like French om, Italian m. 
When the Boeotians used ov for 11, they pronounced it long or short, according 
as the original v was long or short -, thus, in oCdvp, aoiiv, it was short, like 00 in 
hook ; in otiKtiy iurovXla, long, like 00 in moon, w, like wi in Ut?{st ; bt, like win in 
whip; in later times, like v. As to the diphthongs f, ip^ 99, av, rpt, »v, tn(;y 
differed from cu, ci, 01, ov, ev, ov only in the prolongation of the first vowel. 
In later times, f , p, tp were pronounced like d, i|, », reapectiycly." — Tu. 

Digitized by 


22 ^ BK£A THINGS. [t fib 

(c) The Mutes are formed by the strongest exertion of the 
organs of speech", they are, fi '^ h^ kit t <f>')(. 

3. The Mutes are divided, 

(a) According to the organ of speech used in pronouncing 
them, into three Palatals, three Linguals, and tliree 
Labials ; 

(b) According to their names, into turee Kappa, tliree 
Tau, and three Pi-mutes ; 

(c) According to the force of articulation, into three smooth, 
three medial, and three rough Mutes. 

Rem. 3. ^ Hence each of the nine mntes may he considered in a threefold 
point of view, c. e. y may bo called a palatal, a kappa-mnte, or a medial, ac- 
cording as we wish to bring into view the organ by which it is pronounced, iti 
name, or the force of articiUation, a medial mute requiring less force to articu- 
late it than a rough mute. 



















Kem. 4. The consonants, which are produced by the same effort of the 
oigans, arc called coordinate, o. g. the smooth mutes, k, it, r, arc coordinate. 

4. From the coalescence of the Mutes with the Breath- 

ing a, three double consonants originate, — 

^ from irir ^ ^, as t^« (ir<r), x^^ (^)'> KceniXi^ (^o*), 

I from K<r y<r xcr, as K6pa^ (kct), Xrf|« (7<r), j$kv{ (x«r), 

( is not, like ^ and (, to be regarded as a sound compounded of two con- 
sonants, but as a soft hissing sound, to be pronounced like a soft a. 
Only in the adverbs in {«> is ( to be considered as composed of od, e. g. 
*Ad^raCe instead of 'AJ^i^a^c ; also, fi^iny (doae)^ for /S^Sqr (from /SvWtf, 
to stop^ Pcrf. fi4fivtrfjLou). It may be regarded, perhaps, as a transposition 
of sounds, as when the J£olic and Doric dialects use, in the middle oi 
a word, <r8 instead of f, e. g. fifXiadtrai for fu\i(tTeu. 

♦ 6. Breathings, 
1. Every word beginning with a vowel has a smooth or 
a rough Breathing; the former (Spiritus Lenis) is indi* 

Digitized by 


tt 7, 8.J HIATUS. 23 

cated by the maik ( ' ) ; the latter (Spiritus Asper) by the 
mark ( ' ). The rough breathing answers to the English 
and Latin A, e. g. laropla, historian history. The smooth 
breathing is connected with every .vowel which has not the 
rough ; but the smooth has no influence on the pronuncia- 
tion, c. g. ^AtroKKxaVi Apollo. 

Remark 1. With diphthongs, the breathing is placed over the second yowcI, 
e. g. iSoi^ c&k^f , oinUa. But when the improper diphthongs, f , j?* «f are capital 
letters, the breathing is placed oyer the first vowel, as these tliree diphthongs 
are regarded, to a certain extent, as simple yoweb. c g. "KAy^s (f8i}s) ; *^Hi,*^ai 

(p. ?)• 

Rem. 2. Originally, the Greeks had no mark for the smooth breathing. The 
rough breathing was at first denoted by E or H. But when H came to be used 
as a yowel, Aristophanes of Byzantium, about 200 years b. c, divided it into 
two characters I- and {, the former as the sign of the rough breathing, the 
latter of the smooth. Later, these became ( ') and ( ), and at last ( ' ) and ( * ) 

Rem. 3. The liquid p at tlie beginning of words has the rough breathing 
e. g. ^8of. When two p^s come together, the first has the smooth breathing 
the lost the rough, e. g. U^^pos, Pyrrhus ; but some editors omit both breath- 
ing") ®* g- Tl^ppos. 

Rbm. 4. At the beginning of a word, v always has the rough breathing, 
except in the JEolic dialect. 


i 7. General Remark. 

• Both the vowels and consonants are subject to a variety of 
changes. These changes result from the tendency of the 
language to euphony, from their grammatical significance, and 
from the difference of dialects. The last will' be considered 
in treating of the Dialects. 

I. Changes of the Vowels. 

i 8. Hiatus. 

The concurrence of two vowels in two successive sylla- 
bles or words, occasions a harshness in the pronunciation, 

Digitized by 



called Hiatus. Tlih is avoided by Contraction, Crasis, 
Synizesis, and Elision. 

Brhakk 1. The poets, particularly the Attic, were decidedly averse to the 
Hiatus of two vowels in two successive words ; among the prose-writers, the 
orators sought most carefully to avoid it. 

Rem. 2. In the Iambuses of the tragic poets, the Hiatus is allowed in the 
interrogative rl,- what f e.g. t{ oZp ; ri fTrts ; among the comic poets, its use is 
mostly confined to rf, Srt, ircp^, 2, e.g. 8rt ^r, 8rt ovx^ T«pl iffiAr, also in ov8i 
ifivj^k) elf {(ly)y ne unu3 ^uidenij to distinguish it from oUtlSf nullus. In addition 
to its use in the Iambic measure, the Hiatus is found frequently, even in the 
Tragedians, who endeavored to avoid it when possible ; still, it is mostlpr limited 
to special cases ; for example, it occurs with interjections and imperatives, e. g. 
&t yai, iya {up!), T^(, as t^i, l^i fioi roi^v, Suph. Ph. 832; iiW tata, i^ iipd 
¥tAv^ Aj. 194. On the Hiatus is the Epic dialect, see § 200. 

S 9. A. Contraction of Voicels. 

Contraction is the union of two successive vowels in the 
same word into one long syllable. These contractions arise 
either from the natural coalescence of two successive vowels, 
in accordance with the laws of euphony, or from grammatical 
principles. The first kind of contractions is called euphonic, 
tlie latter, grammatical. In the Common language, the follovr* 
iMg contractions occur : — 


Eaphonic Contractions. 


=» a 

as- c4Xaa'= <riK& 

« +• 

— Cl 

« ^U«€ = 4>/A« (Comp. No. IL) 

« +' 

= r 

" fr6fnu = ir6pri 


S3 OV 

" y6os = yovs 

(b) a + . 

^ 1 


" rifia* = rifM 


= » 

" yi,p«S^yf,n _ 

« + . 

' 1 


" Tifjuiaiuv = rifiiifjity 



" rtfjuifis = rifles • 


= ? 

" rtfxdjis = rifx^s 



" TifiA^tfu = rifji^fu 

a +m/ 

=s= « 

" rifjudov = rifiM 


= V 

« T€fx€& = rtixn (Comp. Na IL) 

. +& 

= d 

« Xo*a = Xoa 

. +« 

= Cl 

" T«fx** — '''•^X** 


= OV 

" <pi\4ofuy = ^tXovfity 



= t» 1 




Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



• +« 

= ffi 


: <ptk4us = ^iA«Af 

• +P 

= P 


^ V = 4>«Al,f 

. +0. 

= 0( 


^tk4ois = ^cAori 

. +.1, 

= ou 


^^ov = 4>iAoS 

(d) n + . 

= 1 


6\^«r(ra = {tKTtinra 


= p 


BpffiWtra == Bppaifa 




rtfiiftts — Ti^^f 

(e). +« 

=. r 


ir^priay = ir6fnls 

. +. 


IcSpTUS = ir<JpT4J 


= « 


oiJAi = alBv (Comp. No. 11.) 


= Ot/ 


filff^Ot = /xiff^ov 


= a» 


tuff^&rrre = ftur^Ort 


= ot 


alUl = o;«04 


= «(*) 


/*i<r^<J« = /u<r;^«, ir\<(f> = wA^ 

o 4- cu 

= m 


air\6ou = airXoT 

+ €i 


^<r^<J«i = fuff^oT (Comp. Rem. 2.) 


=■ ot 


;twr^<Jj7 = fiur^o? 



fiur^6oifu =: futr^oifu 

+ ow 

« ov 


fiur^Sovffi = luc^ovvi 

(g)<'+« • 


Ix^^ = Ix^vs 

» + . 



Ix^tx = iXi^WT 



Sctjfi^oi = itucyvrcu (rarely) 

(h)« + . 

= « 


fipota = fifw (only in Ace. of some Sab. of 

« + . 

= y 


KdtXffTos = T^ffTos. fdd D«c 

Remabk 1. The above contractions take place in accordance with the fol- 
lowing principles: (1) Both vowels are retained and form a diphthong, e. g. 
T€(x«r = T«(x"i cuSiJi =s cuJoi. (2) Both vowels coalesce into a cognate long 
vowel or diphthong, e. g. rifidofxey = riyuSiixtVy tuUa = cu8«. 13) A short vowel 
is absorbed by a diphthong or long vowel preceding or following it ; e. g. 
^iA/« = ^»A5, 4>t\/ow = ^«AoC, v\'fi(ffffa = 6\7i<r<ra, (4) The short vowels, a, i 
V, absorb the following vowel and become long ; e. g. rluat = tI/m, Ix^as = 
Ix^s. (5) A short vowel coalesces with the first vowel of a diphthong, ac- 
cording to the preceding principles j when the second vowel is *, it is subscribed 
with a, i|, o», but if i( is any other vowel it is dropped j e. g. rifAdps — ti/xJs, 
Ttfidoifu = Ttfi^fu = rifidov = rifjL&, r^irrcai = r&irrp. 

n. Grammatical Contractions. 

(ii) t -|r f =: ij, particularly in the third Dec, e. g. rpi^pet = rptiiprij y4ve€ 
= y^mi, 

(b* f + « ~ « in the second Dec, e. g. ior^o = ^crro, xp^ata = xpvo4l 
(PL), and elsewhere, if a vowel precedes, e. g. n(puc\4-ta s^ 
IlepucAcd, K\4'ea =» ic\/d, 671-^0 = iyta] in the Ace PL 
Fern, of Adjectives in -eos, -/a, -€oy, e. g. xfipvi-as = XP*^'^ » 
finally, in the Fem. of Adjectives in -eoj, -ioj -wv, when 
these endings are preceded by a vowel or p, e. g. ip4^0Sf 
t-^ ^-cov = iptovSf iptUf ip€ow, iipyCp^oSf /a, for «» ovs, 


/ Digitized by 


^ ORASIS. [f 10 

• + « = i» in tlie Fern. Sing, of adjectives in -coj, not preceded by a 

Towel or p ; c. g. xpwrda = xP^ctj, xP^^ = Xp««^*. 

• + «==€» in Accusatives PI. in cas of third Dec, e. g. aoup^-as = <ra 

^€is ; so ir6\us, iHixfis, iyxf\fis, from xSKtas, etc. 
(c) o + o = d in Adjectives in 60s, in, 6ov, e. g. oir\<J-a = oir\a. 

• + 1 = »? in Adjectives in 60s, dij, iJoi', e. g. a»\<^ = air\^. 

+ « = w in Accusative PL of iSovt ; so also tui(oas =^ iui(ws, antf 
the like. 

Kem. 2. The contraction of oci into ov is found only in the Inf. Act. of 
ferbs in 6w, and is accounted for from the fact that the Inf. originally ended in 
t¥, not in ciy (consequently, not ixurbSuv = luabovv, but fuir^w =^ yuchovpV 
and in adjectives in 6^15, e. g. ^Orins = *Ono?y, in which the root ends in o€pt, 
and consequently the 1 does not belong to the root. On the accentuation of 
contract forms, see § 30. 

Bem. 3. The Tragic poets sometimes neglect the contractions on account 
of the measure, yet only in the lyric and anapestic passages, not written in the 
pure Attic dialect, e. g. koX^m, Aesch. Ag. 147 ; rpofi^wy. Prom. 542 ; yc(jcc<is, 
Sept. 936 J €»«o, Soph. OC. 182; ewp/r, Trach. 114. 

Rem. 4. Sometiffles the grammatical importance of the ending, or the form 
of the nominative, prevents the usual contraction, especially if the ending 
would thereby become doubtful. 

J 10. B. Crasts. 

1. Crasis {Kpcurt<;) is the coalescence of the final and 
initial vowels of two successive words into one long sylla- 
ble, .e. g. TO 6vo/ia=TOvvofjLa, to hro<;=roJnro^, 

Remauk 1. The mark of Crasis is the same as that of the Spiritus 
Lenis ( ' ), and is named Corunis. It is placed over the vowel or diphthong 
formed by Crasis, but is omitted when the word begins with a vowel or diph- 
thong so formed, because it would then coincide with the Spiritus Lenis, e. g. 
rh, iya^ = rinyal^d ; tiy = &y\ 2 &vdyMnre = Av^ptntt, On the accentuation, 
see § 31, n ; on the change of the smootli Mute into the rough before the 
Spiritus Asper, as rh IfBup — ^ofSboap, see 4 below, and § 17, Rem. 3. 

2. Crasis is found only with closely connected word^, the first 
of which is unimportant; hence it most frequently occurs, (a) 
with the article, e. g. 6 ayrip = anjo, tov dvSp6<: = ravSpoq ; — (b) 
frequently with Kat and the interjection a>, e. g. koI apen^ = Koper^ 
S) av^pWTTC = eSv-^pftwrc, w dycu^c = ur/cu^i, w avaf = <ovaf ; — (c) some- 
what often in eyd> with olSa and oXfi at, e. g. tywSoL, cyu/uu; — 
(d) less often with the neuter relative 6 and a, as o cyw, a cyw=3 
ovyw, dyw; with roi, filvroi, ovtoi, particularly in connection 

Digitized by 



with Sy, apa, e. g. ray (seldom in prose), ficvrav; rSpa and oMlfia 
( j)oetic) ; but seldom with vp6, e. g. irpovpyov for irpo tpyou ; fre- 
quently in composition with the augment c, as TrpouSwKo. 

3. As the second word is the most important, it has properly 
a greater influence on the form of the Crasis, than the first ; on 
.this prmciple it is to be explained, that the Iota subscript is 
used only when the t belongs to the last of the two vowels, 
e. g. kclL ctra = K^TOy eyo) o28a = cy^Sa ; on the contrary, icat hrw 
ra ^ KaTTCira ; at ayaSaC = aya^ai, t$ oxXa^ = TU);(\a». 

4. When Crasis occurs with the article, and an a follows, the 
vowels of the article — even ow and co — are combined with the 
following a into a long a, and, if the article is aspirated, the 
aspirate is transferred to the long a, e. g. o dbo^p ^amqp, oi ay^cs 
= SvSp€^, TO dA,i;«^cs = ToXiy^cs, ra aXXa = r^AAo, rov avSpoi = rdv^po^, 
Ty avSpt ^ Tayfijpi ; also, rov airrov = ravroS, t^ axm^ = ravrf. 

Kem. 2. Also the fonns of the article ending in a, o, ov, «, y, m, at, among 
the Attic poets, combine with the first vowel of trtpos (Doric Ircfof), and 
form long a ; when the second word has the aspirate, as here, the preceding 
smooth mute mnst be changed into the cognate rough; see also § 17, Rem. 3 

rit ercpa = S^rtpa 6 ertpos = Srtpos rov kripov = dMpou 

r^ ir4ptp =3 ditriptp ol irtpoi = Sr^poi td crepcu =» Sr^pai 

6. In Crasis, at of the particle koC coalesces with the follow- 
ing vowel, the a being sometimes retained and sometimes 
absorbed, e. g. koX ckciVos = icdxcivosj koI ay = Kay, koX iv = Kay, kcu 
iy<o = #cdyw [#cai ct = Kct, icat cfe = iccfe, poetic], iceu IjA^ov = Jc^A^ov 
[ircu ou = icou, #cat ciiSaifJuov = K€vSaifjujjv, poetic]. 

Hi. Summary of the most common instances of 

(a) The following cases conform to the rules of contractiof 
given in ♦ 9 : — 

• + «— ow; + 1= o«; i? + « = i?; fl» + aa»ii. 

(b) The following instances belong to Crasis only: — 

c +v ^^u as : rh fid»p » 3o(^p (§ 17, Bern. 3.) 

• + ov =■ aw " rh atn6 = To^rf 

• ^ a« S3 f ■* \ dtriov =s rfrunf 

Digitized by 


28 8TNIZESI8. — BLisioa [H 12, 13 

-f* M SB y as : 4 oIko; = fyos 

« + 1? = If " Tb iifiirtpop = b^^rtpov (^ 17, Bem. 3.) 

« + e = « " T^ ^/x^ = r(tf/i^ 

« + = « " T^ 6<l>daXfui = Tio^aA/i(£ 

ox + o = « ** fUvToi iy =a iuyri» 

01 -f- c =s ov *^ «ro( ^ariy = o'oSoTiv, /toi ^3^icci =» itMinn (both poetic ■ 
ow + f = ow ** iro5 IfoTiv = ToSmriy 

ov -f> =3 ov " ToO 6i^6futTOS = To&y^ftarot 

•u + w = ow " ToC SSaros = bodaros (f 17, Rem. 3.) 

!?+«»="? " ry {iiJi4p<f =^ ^fi^fxf (§ 17, Rem. 3.) 

« + o« = ^ " iyii oT5a = l^jSa . 

ow + ij » i| " TOW ^furdpou =» dii/itT^pov, poetic (^17, Rem. 8.) 

ov 4" ov = ev '* Tov olpavov =■ rohpayov 

<u -{- €1 = ^ ** jcoi clra =» ic^ra 

(c) Here belong the examples given under k 10, 4 and 5. 

4 12. C. Synizesis, 

1. Synizesis is the contraction in pronunciation of two 
vowels into one syllable, e. g. when ^^ ov is pronounced as 
a monosyllable. It can occur only among the poets, but 
may have been used in the common coUoquisd language. 

Remabk. The difference between Contraction and Synizesis is, that in the 
ordinary Contraction and also in Crasis, the contraction is made in writing, 
c. g. ^(\£ from ^iA./«, rovpajfov from tov obpa»ov \ but in Synizesis, it is made 
only in the pronunciation, both Towels or diphthongs being written out in fulL 

2. In the Attic poets, Synizesis occurs almost exclusively 
between two words, viz., with hru^ % ^, /ai}, followed by ex, ov, a, 
OL, e. g. CT-cl ov, rj ovBek (dissyllable), /irj ol (monosyllable), firi 
aXXoi, ryd) ov (dissyllable), and cyw cifu S. Ph. 577; also, in a 
few single words and forms, e.g. ScoC {=Soiy monosyllable), 
Iwfxuca (=wjpaxa, trissyllable), drccoy/icyos (= avwy/io'os, four sylla- 
bles), particularly in the Ionic-Attic Genitive -co)?, as Qh^iua 
(dissyllable). On Synizesis in Homer, see ♦ 236. 

i 13. D. Elision, 

' 1. Elision is the omission of a short final vowel before 
the initial vowel of the following word. It occurs also in 
compounds, but the apostrophe is then omitted. 

Digitized by 



HaifAftir 1. The mark of Elision is tne same as tnat of the Spiritiu Lenlt, 
■ad is called apostrophe, as tovt* tarty, y4votT &y. 

RisM. 2. Elision differs from Crasis in that the former elides the vowel, 
•rhile the latter lengthens it, e. g. AAA* &yt (Elision), tA &XXa = t3aa« (Cnisis). 
This distinction, however, does not hold, when the second word begins with a 
long vowel or diphthong, e. g. rh atn6 « Taitn6* 

2. In the prose writers. Elision is confined mainly to the 
following cases, where it often occurs : — 

(a) In prepositions which end in a vowel, except w^pl and «-p^; also m^XP* 
and ixp^t ^^ ^ prepositions, but rarely in cMica, e. g. di olkoir, hf Acovy bnr 
rcpl olKoy, vp^ oUw, Elision is rcgnlar in composition, except with «-cp(, «p^, 
and sometimes Afi^(, e. g. AycAi^cIv, but wtpiop^\ 

(b) In conjunctions and adverbs, &\Ai, tfpa, 2pa, i/ta^ fTret, frcira, fidXa, 
ItAkuna, rdxBij and in many other adverbs ending in a before Am ; also in the 
following adverbs and conjunctions, tra, 7^, W, ^4, o&8^, M^S^> fivrt, Ire (not 
9ri), wor4 (with the compounds, as othrort), rSrw^ ^t, ovic^rt, /ii^icM ; e. g. iXX* 
vbr6s, Jf>' oZvy /liXitfV Sv; 

(c) In forms of pronouns in a, o, c, as radra, roiaOro, iXXa^ rttm ; ir<{rcpa 
more rare ; rotrra, a^^, ^/i^, 0*^ o-cC (never in r^, tc() ; also in nouns and acyectives 
of the second and third declensions, ending in 0, as Afiapr^/tara, etc. ; Ikpurra, 
etc. ; tffyoj e. g. rov/ o^ri, w&m^ aya^d, jcjnifutr^ tit ^pc< ; 

(d) In ^/i/, o79a, dttr^ and generally in verbal forms in /u, o*!, f,'&, t, 0, e. g. 
^/x* ^(6, oTS* &y8f)a, Myn^ itf, ir^Trroin^ &», y^yovr* Ay ; of the forms which 
admit the v Paragogic (f 15), in prose, only ivrt often suffers elision ; 

(e) In certain familiar phrases, aavii AC f<p^. 

Rem. 3. The above elisions arc most frequent in the orators, particularly 
Isocrates, much more seldom in the historians. 

Rem. 4. A smooth mute before an aspirate is changed into the correspond- 
ing rough, as wdyy tea. 

Rem. 5. A vowel, followed by a punctuation-mark, cannot be elided. Hence, 
in words closely connected, as 1^ Af t^, the comma is omitted, for in such cases, 
without doubt, the ancients pronounced the words an quick succession. On 
accent in Elisiotf, see § 31, III. 

♦ 14. Use of Elision in the Poets* 

1. The use of Elision in poetry is very frequent, and much more extended 
than in prose ; yet the following points are to be noted : A word ending in v is 
never elided ; nor a, 1, • in a monosyUable ; hence the article r^, and the pro- 
nouns r\ and W, are not elided ; and w^pi in no case, — at least among the Attic 
poets, — nor 8t«, /t^xp<> '^X^* ^^^ substantive adverbs of place ending in di 
(Z^i excepted), and very rarely the Optative ending in cw. 

2. The Elision of the i in the Dat. of the third Dec, particularly in the 
Bing., is very rare in the Attic poets, and is even doubted by many. 

3. The verbal endings, pm, roi, o-doi, which are short in respect to tly 


Digitized by 


30 N Fakaoogio. [i 1& 

accent, aio rarely elided In the Attic poets \ the Datives /to/ and trot are nevet 

4. In the verbal forms which may take tlic v Paragogic (^^^cAKuorrix^y), the 
poets use Elision or the y, according to the necessities of the verse. 

5. Sometimes in Attic poetry, a weak and grammatically unimportant sylUi- 
ble is 4ixcludcd by a preceding long vowel ; this is specially the case with the 
augment c, e. g. raxct 'v^pctMrov, Soph. OC. 1602, iw€l 'ZdKpvtrOf FhiL 360. This 
omission of the vowel is called aphacrcsis {&4>cdp€ffis). It can also occur after 
a punctuation-mark, e. g. ^pdcrv * 'ir«8^ 4}{» * VI roirot^. 

♦ 15. N Paragogic (€</»€Xkvo-tikov). — OvTa)(s). — *Ef and 
Ik, — Ov(k). 

1. Another means of avoiding the concurrence of two vowels 
in two successive words is by appending a v, (v i<j>€XxvcmK6v, or 
Paragogic t) to certain final syllables, viz. : — 

(a) to the Dat PL in o-c, to the adverbs irlpvai, iravrairaatj and 

all adverbs of place in o-c, as ^rcuriv ^Xcjiot; 17 nAxtrauunr 

()5) to the third Pers. Sing, and PI. in o-c, as TLnrrcrvcw i/iig 

TiSrffTiy iv TQ T/xiTT^j/ ; so also with iarC; 
(y) to the third Pers. Sing, in c, e. g. Ihwrrey ifil; 
(8) to the numeral cixoo-i, though even before vowels the 9 

is often omitted, e. g. cocoo-cv av8/oc9 and €uco<n orS/oc?; 
(c) to the Demonstrative t ({ 95, e) but rarely, and then 

always after a-, e.g. o^oo-iv, Ikcwoo-Cv, toutovo-lv, ovroxriv ; 
({) to the Epic particles, vv and kI, and to the Epic suffix ^; 

hence also to voo^t. 

BESfARK. The poets place the y Paragogic before a consonant, so as to make 
a short syllable long by position. In Attic prose, it stands regularly at the end 
of a book or section ; it is, also, sometimes found before the longer punctuation- 
marks, and sometimes elsewhere for the sake of a more emphatic pronun 

2. The adverb ovnoi always retains its full form before a 
vowel, but drops the final s before a consonant, e. g. ovra>9 ciroa^ 
a-ev, but ovna troua ; still, ovrcos may stand even before consonants, 
when it is to be made emphatic, e. g. ovtcd? yc, Xen. C. 3. G, 9. 

3. So the Prep, l^ retains its fidl form before vowels and at 
the end of a sentence, but before consonants becomes U^ e. g. 
li tlfrffinp^ but Ik rQf t\{nprri^ \ so also in composition, e. g. ^£cXav- 

Digitized by 



MVy but Urtkuy. It also has its full form when it stands aflei 
the word it governs, and is then accented, c^n^nTs 2f. 

4. So ovK has its full form before a vowel, e. g. ovk alcrxpoi\ 
before a vowel with the rough breathing it becomes ov^i e. g. 
cvx ^Sv^ ; but before a consonant, ov» e. g. ov koXos ; so also ^i^Kcn 
(instead of fi^ Ibn) afler the analogy of ovKcrt. 

Rem. 2. When ob stands at the end of a discoorse, or of a sentence, and is 
to bo pronounced with emphasis, the form oH with the acute accent is used 
even before a Towel ; in this case there must be an actual brcaJk in the discourse, 
as when 06 stands at the end of an answer expressed interrogatively, without 
connection with what follows, as U&s ykp oC] '*Ap' oiy rrX. Xen. C. 4. 2, 37 ; 
or when it is found in the answer only, and corresponds to our No ; it is found 
especially iu antithetical sentences, e. g. T&Tod^, rh l\ Koxk oC: *Zh» U ktK 
Xen. C. 1. 2, 42 ; Albovs cts rhv irorafihr iffivrouv^ i^uanvyn U off, otrt I'/SXoir- 
Toif oMnu An. 4. 8, 3. If, on the contrary, the following sentence is closely 
connected with the preceding, then it is written o^jc, e. g. o^ic, kfOsh ktK, Xen. 
C. 2. 6, 11. and 13 ; 4. 6, 2 ; oK ^l or ^y ktA. HelL 1. 7, 19. 

t 16. Strengthening, Weakenings Prolongation^ Shortening, Liter- 
change, and Variation of Vowels, — Influence of a Vowel or 
a Consonant on another Vowel, — Syncope, — Omissibn of a 
Vowel — Euphonic Prothesis. 

The changes, which further take place in yowels, are : — 

1. Strengthening of vowels ; this consists in changing a weaker vowel into a 
stronger (see § 4, Rem. 1). There are different degrees of strength in the 
Toweb -, the weakest is c. The strengthening takes place, e. g. in words of the 
third Dec. in of, Gen. -tor; the pure stem of these words ends in cf ; in the 
Nom., however, which prefers fuller forms, the weaker c is changed into the 
stronger (in Latin into «), e. g. yirotj gentis^ Gen. y4vws (instead of y^yco'-or), 
genMr-is. lu y6vt and Z6fv (Gen. yi^ar-os, 8^pcrr-or), a, the final vowel of the 
stem, is changed into the stronger u. 

2. The weakening ot attenuation of vowels ; this is the opposite of the 
change just described ; it occurs, e. g. in substantives of the third Dec. in -Xs, -7, 
-0f , -C ; in these, the stronger stem- vowels 1 and v are changed into the weaker c, 
e. g. ir6\is, ir6\toos \ 11^x^1 ^X<" i (rdwri, fftvdwws ] &OTv, Hortos. So with 
adjectives in -vs, -S, e. g. y\vit^, yKuxCf Gen. -cor. 

3. Prolongation of vowels ; tliis changes a short vowel into a long vowel or 
diphthong, viz. a into ri or ai\ t into r or t » ; v into or fv *, c into n or €i ; o into m 
or ov. This prolongation takes place either for the sake of euphony, or from 
grammatical reasons, or from both together ; in the poets often on account of thtf 
metre. The prolongation of vowels is very prevalent in the Greek langnaga 
One instance only is here mentioned, namely, the strengthening of the Freaeiil 
tanee m Mute and Liquid verbs, 0. g. Kfihwt irAdvw, \^^, ^aitfm, Xc(irw» ft^ yw^ 

Digitized by 



instead of Kpftw, wXtrv, X&^, ^Jtyw, Atiroi, ^^.— The reaaon of the prolon- 
gation 18 very often found in the omission of a y with a Tan-mute, more rarely 
of a mere y, or in the omission of a o* after a Liquid, or of a final Sigma, e. g. 
i9o6s instead of 6^6vTSf ^iMs instead of StS^rrf , fiov\t{mv instead of i3oi;\c^ 
wrs ; itiKus instead of ii,4\atys \ tv^Xa instead of te^oXxroy l/yy^iKa instead of 
^jfy/cAo-a, t<p^€ipa instead of t^t^paa] p^rrtap instead of f^rrops^ wotfi'fyf instead 
of woipJvsy haliMv instead of Zaifwrs, oMs instead of ai96as, iXi^s instead of 

4. Shortening of yowels. See the remarks on the Dialect« ( 207. 

5. Interchange of vowels ; this consists in softening a long vowel into a 
short one, and as a compensation, in lengthening the short vowel immediately 
following. Thus, in the Ionic and Attic dialects, c« instead of do, e. g. IXctff, 
•miff instead of t\aof, -w, \€^s instead of Ka6s, vt^s instead of vd6s, MwtKtma 
instead of W€y4\aos \ further, in the Attic dialect, 0curt\4vs, ^curixia instead of 
the Ionic iSoo-cX^os, -^a \ so also, ir6\^(0Sy Trfix^aSt Attic, instead of T^Aiof» 
Hixvos ; c is weaker than i and v, see No. 2. 

6. Variation, i. e. the change of the radical vowel c into o and a, for the 
formation of the tenses (§ 140) and derivatives (§ 231, 6)i when ci in tba 
Present is lengthened from the radical i, it becomes oi in the second Ferf., hot 
when from the radical c, it becomes o; e. g. rp4^j rirpo^ irpi/pip^; Ktimm 
(root Xnr), \4Xottra] <p^tlpof (root ^cp), t^t^pOy i^tdfyni^i ^^^> <P^i Tp4c^ 
rpoxis ; rp4ip», rpop^f rpo^t^s, Tpa/p€p6s. Comp. Germ, stehle, gestohlen, stahL 
English, ring, rang, rung. The ii is changed into «, e. g. &pfyyoi, iipwyfi, 

K£MARK 1. Whether the a is to be regarded as a variation, or rather as a 
euphonic change of c, introduced by a preceding or following Liquid, partis 
nlarly p and \, sometimes even fi and y, may be doubted. Comp. irpmrm^ 
irpd^niy, iarpd^fiVf ifipdxny, i^dpnv, i^dipny^ icriXiiv, h-afiovt ttirww with 
i\^iyriv, trtKOV. 

7. Change of a vowel by the influence of another vowel or of a coDSonaat 
Here belong two special cases: — 

(a) The Attic writers change the Ionic ii into a after the vowels c and i and 
the diphthongs ending with i, sometimes even after other vowels, and 
after the Liquid />, e. g. \Z4a (Ion. 18^), ao^la^ XP^^ W/ms Vy*A 
ivUyst, Mpaya ; 

(b) The union-vowel f in verbs in «», is changed into o before the terminations 
beginning with fi and y, e. g. iSovAc^/Acv, /iovAc^rrcu, ifiovX^iofjuy, ifiot^ 

8. Syncope {avyKovti), i. e. the omission of « in the middle of a word between 
a Mute and a Liquid, or between two Liquids, or between m- *, the same, also, 
occurs in the declension of certain substantives of the third Dec, e. g. warp6s 
instead of iraripos ; in the forming of the Present tense of certain verbs, e. g. 
yiypoiiai instead of yiy(yo/mi, trimu instead of irir/rv, pdiufn instead of imiiyVf 
and in the formation of the tenses of some verbs, e. g. iryp^M^ from iytipotf 
Bynoope rarely occurs after <r, e. g. taxo^t i<rr6fi'nyt Icrrcu, instead of ^crcxw. 
iewv6tiiiry l^crou. A striking example of Syncope is found in ^A^p instead 
of likObw, from *£AETea. Comp. § 155 

Digitized by 


f 17.) MUTE8. 33 

9. Apocope. See on the Dialects, 4 207. 

10. One of the Vowels a, c, o is prefixed to several words, for the sake of 
euphony. This is called euphonic prothesis, e. g. iarepoiHi and orcpor^, iurrmpis 
and araplSf ijc^^s and X'^^'* i^^^vos and icttyosy i^tKu and ^tKu, 6Kpv6tts and 
KpvoSf Mpofuu and iCpofjLoif 6K4K\at and WaXm, etc. 

Rem. 2. From these euphonic letters care must be taken to distinguish 
^1) a when it stands for &ir({, c. g. h-iiMvuif^ to avert, or when used instetul of 
M, e. g. i^i6ffcrfip, to tear up, or instead of the a or & copulative with the 
meanine of iftoj from which also a intensive has been formed ; (2) c, when it 
is used instead of i^ or ir, e. g. iyttptiy, to wake up, ipt^ry^iy^ emctare, ipd^tty^ 
initare } (3) o with the meaning of 6fwv, e. g. dfilxKii. 

II. Changes of the Consonants* 
♦ 17. a. Mutes. 

1. The changes of the consonants arise, in a great degree, 
bom the tendency of language to assimilate different sounds. 
This assimilation is either a mere resemblance in sounds, as 
when XcXcy-Toris changed into X AcKrac, the smooth r chang- 
ing the medial y into the smooth k; or it is a complete identity 
in sounds, as when avy-parru) is changed into a-yppCtrrta, — 
Sometimes, however, the language shuns a sameness in sound, 
and seeks to remove jt by changing similar sounds into dissim- 
ilar, e. g. -jrc-^iXi^Ka for ^c-^iXt/ko, 'XairtJHa for Sa^^w. 

2. A Pi-mute (tt /3 ^) or a Kappa-mute (f y x) before a Ibu- 
mute (t 8 S) must be coordinate with the Tau-mute, i. e. only 
a smooth Mute {v k) can stand before the smooth r ; only a 
medial (/3 y) before the medial 8; only an aspirate (^ x) before 
the aspirate &; consequently, tt and kt; pS and yS; <^^ an 
X^, e. g.. 

$ before r into w as : 

: (from rplfiet) 


= rirparrm 

4> " T " ir " 

I *^ 



= ytyparrm 

y « T « « " 

/ K 



» \4ktKT0U 

X " T " K « 

/ il 

fip^XO^) . 


- /9^^pclrr«l 

« M 8 « 3 « 

/ (( 




^ « a •• /5 " 

/ (( 



« « 8 « 7 " 

/ i: 



■■ irX^y8i7y 

X " 8 « 7 " 

/ a 



= ^P^t?K 

jr " ;^ ** ^ *" 

/ u 



= ^T^/*4^,r 

/I ** ;^ ** ^ " 

I " 



= ^Tpf^^F 

« « * « X " 

/ C( 


s=s iT\4x^* 

> •* * " X" 

/ tt 



« rfX^X^r. 

Digitized by V^OO 

34 MUTES. [f 11 

Hbxask 1. The preposition ix remains unchanged, probably by yirtue of an 
original movable o*, thos ixs, e. g. iKiowm, iit^taWf etc!, not iyiovim, ix^tsyau 

3. The smooth Mutes {ir k t) before a rough breathing, are 
changed into the cognate aspirates (^ x '^)» ^^^ only, in inflec- 
tion and derivation, but also in two separate words, the rough 
breathing being transferred from the vowel to the smooth Mute ; 
but the medials {p y 8) are thus changed only in the inflection 
of the verb ; elsewhere there is no change, hence : — 

iw' oS »5 ji^* ol, MifKpos (from M, rjfi4pa) = i<fyfifjLepos 
iirwpaiycf (from iwl, i^Kdyca) =» ipvpalvu, rirvir'a = r4rwpa 
oifK helms = ovx dalust Bfiefifitpos (from 94x0^ ^fi^pa) = df^Af^^fios 
kmiKKv » k^^iXxn = from iunl, cX«ra>), bat ovBtls (not ov^tls, from ovV and «& ) 
€t\oy^ » elXoxa, but \/y ir^pay (not X/^* ^cpov) 
r4Tpifi-a s=5 rirpupoj but rpiff oSrws (not rpTp* othus). 

Keh. 2. The negative obx {ov) thus becomes o&x> ®* S- ^^X V^^^'i Jct this 
change does not occur before the aspirate />, e. g. ob phrrw. In some com- 
pounds, the smooth Mute is retained even in the Attic dialect, according to 
Ionic usage, e. g. &in}XutfTt}r {east mW, from ix6 and fjXios), Xe^icnnros {one whe 
rides a white horse^ from \wk65 and Tnros), Kpiranroiy etc. 

Hem. 3. This change of the smooth Mute before the rough breathing takes 
place also in Crasis (§§ 10 and 11}, e. g. rk trepa =■ b&rtpOy rh IfAdriw » ^fiA- 
rioVf Kol cTcpof s=: x^'^'^P^^* ''^ ^^^ toTis, 8va»s s X^^A* X^^'^^i X^^*^^* ^^^ 
this Crosis is only poetic. When the smooth Mutes in- or rr precede the rough 
nreathing, both must be changed into Aspirates (No. 2), e. g. i^)^fi€po5 instead 
of iirr'fjfjLfpos (from hrrd, rifx^pa), v^x^* ^^'"1^ instead of vvict^ thtiv, Attic prose 
ascs also the full forms, e. g, v^kto, BKriy. 

Rem. 4. In some compounds, the aspirated liquid p changes the preceding 
fiinooth Mute into Uie Aspirate, e. g. ^poi/xioyf formed by Crasis from vpootfuoy 
(from irp6 and dtfios) ; rl^pimroy (from rdrpa and Tmros), ^pda-aco from Tapdffir»\ 
io ^povSos from irp6 and 696s, 

4. On the contrary, a rough Mute camot stand before the 
same rough Mute, but is changed into the corresponding smooth, 
e. g. %air<f>ti>, Boicxos, TtT-^iy, 'Ati^is; not Sa^^w, Bdxxos, tC^^ 
A^&k: on the same principle, when p is doubled, the first 
Aspirate disappears, e. g. Uvppos, not Hvppo^. 

5. A Tau-mute (t 8 &) before another Tau-mute is changed 
if :.o o- (comp. clau5trum from claudo) ; but it disappears before 
K (in Perf. and Plup. Act.), e. g. 

iw€(^-dTiy (from iretow) becomes iir€l<r^y 
V€id^4os ( " vtldtt) " wturr4os 

iiptiB-^y { " iptlSw) *' hp^iv^v 

Digitized by 


$ 18.] Lit^uiDS. 36 

6. The T, which in the Attic dialect very oflen. become 3 cr, is 
fVequeutly changed into o- by the influence of a following i, e. g. 
vXowruK (instead of 'frXovno^, from ^rXovros), ^Afia^owruK (instead 
of *A/*a5ovn-io?), M<Xi^co9 (from MtXiyros), *A;(c/Dov(ru>s (instead 
cf 'A;(cpovr-ios), ovcrot (instead of ow-tia), ytpowria (instead of 
yepoFr-ia)^ cvtavo-ios (from tviovros). The t sometimes changes 
by assimilation the other Tau-mutes, and the Palatals, into <r ; 
thus in the forms of the Comparative in -otTwv and -{uiv, where 
there is a double change, first of the Tau-mute or Palatal to <r 
by means of the i, and then the assimilation of the t to o-, e. g. 
^paj8v^ (fipaZitav, ppajoruav), j3pdo-<riov, poux., traxjk (7ra;(ta»i', iroa- 
Utfv), ird<r&(ov, poet, fteya?, fielCoiV (instead of fjueyltav), raxy^ 
Sda-a-oiv (instead of rax-W). 

i 18. b. Liquids, 

1. The Liquid v is sometimes changed into a. This takes 
place, e. g. in the Ace. Sing, third Dec. of substantives, whose 
stem ends with a consonant, e. g. Kopai, Kopax-a (not KopoK-w), 
Xaiivd^, XafivdB-a, The same change, also, sometimes takes 
place in the third Pers. PI. Perf. and Phip. Mid. and Pass, of 
mute and Uquid verbs, which properly should end in -vrai, and 
'VTo (as in pure verbs, e. g. /?e/3ovXcv-in-at, ^)9c)3ovXcv-vro), e. g. 
T€Tpi<t)aTai, lT€TpC<f>aTo, ir€7rX€\dT(u, Teraxaroi, co-KCvaSarai, KexcupSaTOU, 
€<l>3dpdTai (instead of Terpt^Sirai, herpifivTOy etc., from rpip-ia^ 
vXcK-cii, rdtrcr^iOf <rK€vdi-tt}, xdopif^-w, ^e(Jo-(u). See } 116, 15. 

2. N before a Liquid is changed into the same Liquid, e. g. 

a'w-\oyl(ca becomes (n/\Xoyt(t0 ffxrv-fitrpia becomes avfji^trfUa 

Kemabk. Comp. U^no, immineo, instead of in/ino, inmineo. Assimilation 
takes place \ntK\vit,i^ instead of iJAw/u. — *Ek before p is not assimilated, e.g. 
Mmtw ; yet fji^y^fios is more frequent than typv^pos \ on the contraiy, ^riUut 
iDi^ stands instead of ^AAokkc^. - 

8. M iniUal before a Liquid is changed into /3, e. g 

' fiKlrr^iy (from /a/X:) becomes fiKirrtty 

uporSs ( ** /A<(pos, mors) ** fipvrSt, 

Digitized by 




♦ 19 c. Mutes and Liquids. — Liquids and Mutt $ 

1. A Pi-mute ('^ P i>) 

before fi is changed into /x, 

a Kappa-mute (k y 


" ^ 

a Tau-mute (r 8 


cc ^ 

" <r, e.g. 

(a) Pi-muto: rh-pifi-fuu 


becomes rirpififuu 


( '* \€iwm) 

"* X^Xct/</iai 


( " 7P^) 

" yiypofifuu 

(fi) Kappa-mate: ir^Xcic-fuu 

( " irX^ic*) 

" WirX€7/uu 


( " A^) 


( " i3p^X«) 

becomes fi4fip€y/iM 

(y) Taa-mate: llyvr-nM 

( " iv*T«) 

" ^yiMT/tOI 


( " ^pcfSo;) 

" ^p«p««r/xai 


( " rr(l^) 

" rmuTfuu 


( " tOM/C«) 

" KCK6fJLtfffJlM. 

Rkxark 1. In some words, the Kappa and Tau-mutes are not changed 
before ft, e. g. ixfi'fij ir^rftos, Xaxti6s, Ktv^fu^v^ etc. In some words, even x 
stands before /i, instead of the original k or 7, e. g. IwxM^s from {c^icw, irKoxjiSt 
from irX^K». The preposition ix, in composition, is not changed, e. g. ^jc^mv^ 

2. The medial )5 before v is changed into /li, e. g. 


(from a4fiofjtM) 

becomes (rtfiyir 
" ip€fiy6s. 

<. N before a Pi-mute (n- P ^ ij/) is changed into /t*, 
N before a Kappa-mute (k y x ^^ changed into y, 
N before a Tau-mute (t 8 ^) is not changed, e. g. 

ip-^Mipla becomes iftveipla 

iy^pvy " l^fuppuy 
iiM^vxos " IfHf'Oxoj 
but (TvyrelyWf avvZico, ovy^4u. 

rw-KoX4w becomes trvyKtiXim 
cvv^vyvdtCKu " ffvyytyw&vum 
(Hn^xP^vos " triyxpoyos 

ovy-^4» " tfvylctv; . 

Comp. i/;i6uo, i»i/)rimo. 

Rem. 2. The enclitics are not changed, e. g. {fvirep, rJryf, not o^ircp, etc. 
Rem. 3. Also at the end of a word, y before a Pi-mute, as well as before ^ 
iras, without doubt, pronounced like /*, and before a Kappa-mute, like y ; and 
10 it is found in ancient inscriptions, c. g. TOMriATEPAKAITHMMHTEPA, 
rOrXPHMAtnSMON (i. c. rhy vartpa koI r^y firrrtpa, rhy XF''ll^'ri(ru6y). So also 
X and <r are used instead of y before \ and a, c g. 'EAAHMNOI, 'E22AMOI 

Digitized by 



♦ 20. A Use of the Sibilant c, with Mutes and 

1. A Pi-mute (ir P <^) with cr is changed into ^, 
a Kappa-mute (k y x) wi^^ *^ i^ changed into & 
a Tau-mute (t 8 ^) disappears before or, e. g. 

(a) Pi-mute: Xcfxerw (from Xcfxo?) becomes Xcr^rw 

Tpr/5ir» ( " TpfiBw) " rpl^ 

ypd^» ( " 7p<i^) " ypS^ 

O) Kappa-mute: 7r\4K<ru ( " irA^icw) ," irX/£» 

\4y<rw ( " X^) " X^lci 

{y) Tau-mute: AmJrcrw ( " aytrw) " dj^«» 

iptltav ( *« ^pcrSw) " ip€iffct 

W€f^» { " vefi^) ** Vfiffct 

iXxiitrw ( " iXxiCw) « ^Xxftr.*. 

Reuark 1. Comp. duxi| rcxi, coxi ; from duco, rc^, co^uo. The Prep. 4k 
before o- is an exception, e. g. iKa^Cu^ not i^^&aw, — In iroisy Gen. -ro8-^s, and 
in the Perf. active Part, in -i5j, Gen. -^-oj, after the Tau-mute disappears, the 
preceding vowel is lengthened. 

2. N disappears before <t ; but when v is joined with a Tau- 
mute, both' disappear before cr, but the short vowel before cr, is 
lengthened : c into «, o into ov, a, T, v into a, I, v, Comp. Rem. 3, 

rv^/yr-o-i becomes rv^Cidri X^oyr-o-i becomes \4ovci 

ZaifJLoy-O'i ** Zaifioci Ecyo^£Kr-<ri " Ecyro^cMri. 

Rem. 2. Exceptions : 'Ev, e. g. ivtnrtl^ ; ttok- before <r with another conso- 
nantf e. g. xdviriearost in some words is assimilated ; e. g. trdriro^s is used as 
well as irdyiroipoSf etc. (in ird\iy the usage varies) ; also in some inflective and 
derivative forms in -cat and •o'ls from verbs in -atyw, e. g. W^euvai (from 
foTyw), xixaanris (from «-ffira(v»), and in the substantives, ri thfuvs^ earth-uxnm, ^ 
wttptvs, wafpn-basket, f) Tlpvvs, v is retained before (t. — In composition, the 9 in 
wi¥ is changed into <r before a followed by a vowel, e. g. frwr<r&(u (from iriv and 
v^ot] ; but before a followed by a consonant, or before f, it disappears, e. g. v^ 
arrifjia becomes o^imj/ui, <rvr-(vyia becomes avCvyta. — In x^^*^** *^ ^® dropped; 
on the contrary, in rd\ds, /i/Xdi (Gen. -dofos)^ irrcfj, tXs (Gen. -lydr), ccr, and io 
the third Pcrs. PI. of the principal tenses (see § 103), e. g. fiovXtiowri (instead 
of i3ovXf^0F<ri), the onission of the simple v is compensated by lengthening 
the TOWCl. 

3. On the contrary, in the Aorist of Liquid verbs, <r is omitted 


Digitized by 



afler the Liquid, but the omission is compensated, by lengthen 
ing the stem-vowel, e. g. 

liyytK-tro becomes IjyyftKa tytfi-ffa iMJcoinos tvui»a 

Rem. 3. Sigina is likewise omitted before u in the future of Liquid verbs, « 
being inserted before a for the sake of an easier pronunciation, and ctv being con* 
tracted into w, e. g. iLyytX-i-ceo, &77CA.W. So too in the Nom. of the third Dec. 
the final Sigma is omitted, when y or p precedes, and the short vowel if 
lengthened, e. g. cMy instead of tucSy-s, woifiiir instead of wotfidy-s, ^mp 
instead of ^op-Sy oidiip instead of a£^^p-f . — T and o- are omitted in the Nom. 
of substantives and participles in -uy. Gen. -oyr-os ; but, as a compensation, if 
lengthened into », e. g. \4oyT-s becomes A/a>y, fiovKcvoyr-s becomes fiovKs^y, 

Rbm. 4. In tyyu/u (instead of tc-yvfu, ves-tio) the a is assimilatec* to tha 
following y, and in cj/j (instead of 4a'/jd) <r is omitted, but e is len|;thened 
into ci. 

{ 21. e. Change of separated Consonants, 

1. Sometimes a consonant affects another consonant, though 
they do not immediately follow one another, but are separated 
by a vowel or- even by two syllables. Thus, one X changes 
another X into p, e. g. Kc^oXopyta (instead of Kccj^oAaXyta from 
^yciv), yXdxrorapyia (instead of yXoxrcraXyui), apyaXlo^ (instead of 
IXyoXcos from oXyctv) ; tlie suffix wXiJ becomes upi}, when a X pre- 
cedes, e. g. ^aXiroypi^, 

2. In the reduplication of verbs whose stem begins with a 
rough mute, instead of repeating tliis mute, which would be 
the regular formation, the first rough mute is changed into' the 
corresponding smooth, thus : — 

p9-4>(KflKa (from ^iX^) is changed into wt^tKiiKa 

bi-drifu (stem BE) " ** rtoijAu- 

Likewise in the verbs, d^iy, to sacrifice, and ri^iym (stem BE), to jUact, b of 
the root is changed into t, in the passive forms which begin with 3 : — 

/rfr-dnr, rv^^o/uu, M-^p^ Te-»^<ro^«a«, instead of ld^-di|K, i^i-^y. 

So also, for the sake of euphony, the p is not reduplicated, and instead of it 
ipp is used, e. g. i^^Kcu 

3. In words whose stem begins with t nnd ends with an 
Aspirate mute, the aspiration is transferred to the preceding 

Digitized by 



smooth n when the Aspirate before the formative syllable be- 
ginnin g with cr, r, and fi, must, according to the laws of euphony 
(W 17, 2; 19, 1; 20, 1), be changed into a smooth consonant; 
by this transposition, t is changed into the Aspirate &> Such a 
change is called the MctcU/iecis of tJie aspiration. 

Thus, rpi^-^ {rdrpwpa Fcrf.) is changed into (^p4ir-o'u) l^p^, bper-^p, (hpht- 

raup^, TA«-«, rcuprjwu (second Aor. Pass.), into ^^», dt(ir^», (r^dw 
Moi) r4^a/jLtieu (but third Pe'^. PL rcreE^arai, e. g. Her. 6, 103, with one 
of the better MSS. is to be icad instead of rt^d^partu) ; 
rpiipos, TPT*-» into ^p^w^ ^p(nc-r» (T^pinr-/iai), ri^pvpL/uu] 
Tpdx^ into (dp4K-<ropuu) ^p4^opm] — rpix-^s into ^pl^, ^p^&'^'i 
rax^s, in the comparative, becomes ^dffaeoy. For the same reason, the 
fatore l^w, from fx^> ^ ^<^? ^ ^^ proper form, the aspiration of 
the X being transferred to the smooth breathing and making it 

Rexabk 1. Tc^^w from rc^», and rp6^» from rp^xu, remain unchanged. 

^EM. 2. Where the passive endings of the above verbs, rp4<pv, TA^fl 
(^dirroo)y TPT^n (3f>virra>), begin with ^^ the aspiration of tlic two final conso- 
nants <p^f changes r, the initial consonant of Uio stem, into ^j e. g. 

4^p4<p-^Vf 3pc^-d^vai, ^pt^^iffta^atf 

Bem. 3. In the imperative ending of the first Aor. Pass., where both syllar 
hies should begin with ;^, namely, drj^h not the first, but the hiU aspirate mute 
18 changed into the corresponding smooth ; thus 3irri, e. g. fiovKf^r^TiTi, 

i 22. Metathesis of the Liquids. 

The Liquids, and also the Lingual t when w precedes, often 
change place with a preceding vowel, for the sake of euphony. 
The vowel then usually becomes long. This lengthening of 
the vowel distinguishes Metathesis from Syncope (the latter 
being the mere omission of c), e. g. fLi-fim^Kta (from the root /x€v, 
comp. mens), •hn/ja-Kta (from S^aviiv), rirfi-qKa (from tc/a-civ), 
pipkriKa (from pak'€ly)t irrqcroftjai (from ^ero^iot). 

k 23. Doubling of Consonants, 

1. Consonants are doubled, in the first place, for the sake of 
euphony, e. g. Pa^vppotys from ficM and pew ; ipptov instead of 
ipfov; in the second place, in consequence of the conciurrence 

Digitized by 



of like or similar sounds, in the inflection and derivation, e. g 
fr-vofio9 (from iv and vo/Jtos), cX-Xcwro) (instead of cvX.), avfi-fiaxoi 
(instead of crvv/ji.), \€X€ifjL'fieu (instead of Ae\ci?rjLi.), XrjfjL'fjua (in- 
stead of Xrjirfjia), KOfi-fia (instead of KoirfiAi), rdxr-a-u} or TaT-rei 
(instead of ray-oxo), ^croxov or ^ttcdv (instead of t7k-io)v), fiaXXow 
(instead of fiaX-iov), oAXos (instead of aXio^, alius), 

2. In the Common language, only the Liquids, X, ft, v, p, the 
Sibilant o-, and the Mute t, can be doubled ; yet tt and k are 
also doubled in single words, e. g. tTnros, aJiarse; kokko^, a berry. 
The Medial y is often doubled, but this letter thus doubled is 
softened in the pronunciation ({ 2). Two Aspirates are not 
doubled ({ 17, 4). 

3. p is doubled when the augment is prefixed, e. g. ^/dcok, 
and in composition, when it is preceded by a short vowel, e. g. 
apj^KTost fioMppoo^ ; but cu-puxTros (from cv and pwwvpLL^ 

Hemark. In imitation of Homer, the Tragic writers also double the «•, jrot 
much less frequently than Homer, e. g. rt^o-o-ov, Soph. Aj. 185; oX/criraf, 390; 
ia<r^, 294; fi^<rtnjf Ant. 1223 ; f(r<rcTcu, ^sch. Pers. 122 ; so also in the Dat 
PL of the third Dec. co-<n. 

i 24. Strengthening And Addition of Consonants, 

1. Consonants are frequently strengthened, in the inflection, by the addition 
of a corresponding consonant, namely : — 

(a) The Labials {$ ir <p) by t, c. g. fi\dv-r-w (instead of fi\Afi-<o)^ rinc-r-^ 
(instead of t^-o>), plv-T'ca (instead of ^'^-«) ; sometimes also by ir, which 
assimilates the preceding Labial (thus <rir, Attic rT)^ c. g. rriairw (root 
ircir), Att. ir^TTw, Put. irc^ev, the poetic Saaofuu, Put. Sr^ofuu; in Ho^v 
(instead of Sc^), ^ and a are changed into ^ ; 

(b) The Palatals (7 k x) ai^ strengthened by <r, which assimilates the pre 
ceding Palatal (thus ccr, Att. tt), or, though more seldom, the Palatal 
unites with the ir and is changed into f, e. g. rdtr-ir'W, Att. TdT-r-i- 
(instead of rcfy-c*), ^pifr-a-eo, Att. ^plr-r-u (instead of ^pk-eo), ^a-ir-p^ 
Att. fi-fir-r-w (instead of /3^X"») J fp^f» (instead of Kpdyeo)^rpl(w (instCdA 
of rplya) ; a Kappa-mute with <r is seldom changed into |, e. g. a(>|*^ 
(aug-eo), &A.e|a), &$<£|w and oS^^w ; the strengthening t w found only i^^ 
t4ktco and ritcrw, 

(c) The Linguals (8 t;^) are strengthened by <r, which with the precedin© 
Lingual is changed into f, e. g. ^/x^^c^ (instead of <ppdBw), or, though 
more seldom, <r assimilates the preceding Tau-mutc, e. g. xiaaofuu and 
\lTOfjuu, ip4(r(rWf Iperrw (instead of ipdrof)^ xopiaau (instead of Kop{fbt»Y 

2. The unpleasant concurrence of {xp and vp in the middle of some wordfl» 
occasioned by the omission of a vowel, is softened by iusertriig /3 between fip 

Digitized by 



and 9 betntien yp, thos, in fiMwifi-fi'pia (formed from ftcinyfiepra, fuaiinpia)^ yoftr 
firp6s (from yafjL't-p6sf ya/tp6s), &y-9-p^5 (from iiv4poSy iivp6s). 

3. N also is used to strengthen the Labials, especially in poetry, so as to maka 
a syllable long by position, e. g. rliaraofov (from t^-t-«), ffrp6/i0os (from orprf- 
^); dJifAfios {rdpos)'f Kopi/Afiri {icopv^)] ^p6fJLfios {rp4^ty)'f 6fMpii (clirciy); 
y6f*i^ (nubere) ; bfiptfws and tfjifiptfios, v^wfuts and y^wfufos* In the present 
tense of many verbs, this strengthening v is found, e. g. wv^dyofiot, dtyydtm^ 
ka/ifidtm instead of v^o/icu, dlyw, \dfica. On the change of y, see § 19, 3. On 
the y Paragogic, see 4 15, 1. 

4. S also is prefixed to some words, but mostly to such as begin with /*, e. g 
ftwBi^ and (rfxu9t^, fwcp6s and fffiucpSs] a strengthening 0- is also inserted before fi 
and T in the Perf. Mid. or Pass., and before ^ in the first Aor. Pass., e. g. rrr^Ae- 
e-ftaiy rcT^AcHr-rcu, ir9\4-ff-^y (§ 131); also in the derivation and composition 
of words, ff is frequently inserted for the sake of euphony, e. g. cu-c-iUs^ tnf 
tr-^cftos, itayo-a-rSKos, etc. ; instead of ir, ^ also is inserted before ^, e. g. 
/ivjny-^/t^s, hpxif^'H^ii fTKo^-^puii from irntdpWf irop^/i6s from wtipv. 

i 25. Expulsion and Omission of Consonants. 

1. In inflection, v is very often omitted between two vowels, c. g. r^irrir, 
^r^vrov, rdvroio instead of rhm-fr-oi or TlJm^o'eu, irhrrt-a-Of r^wroi-ff-o\ 
y^pt-oSf 7 CI' /-ay instead of yiy^-e-QSy y*yi^-my (comp. gcne-r-is, gene-r>um). 
At the end of a word, and after Pi and Kappa-mutes, it is retained, e. g. 7^yos, 
r^^ (s^sr^o-w), irX^{» (= irA^ic-«w), but after the Liquids, in inflection, aa 
well as commonly at the end of a word, it is omitted, e. g. ^7711X0 (instead 
of fhrycX-^-a), &77€Xw (instead of &77cX-^*0--», &77fA-^-»), pirvp (instead 
of j^Top-f ). Comp. i 20, Rem. 3. 

2. The Digamma softened into the vowel v (§ 200) is omitted : (a) in tho 
middle of the word between two vowels, e.g. &6y {wF6y)j ovum, 6is (I^Fiir), ovis, 
My (alF^y), aevum, y4os {y4Fos)t novus, axai^s {ffKaiF6s), scaevus, 0o6s (jBo/Vft), 
bovis ; ^4»j ir\4w, wy4u, ixdu instead of &4Fwf etc. ; (b) at the beginning of 
the word before vowels and p, c. g. oJyos {Fotyos), vinum, fop {F4ap)y ver, U 
(Fls) vis, oUos {Fo7Kot)i vicus, i^tiy (FiSeiV), videre, 4<r^s (Fc<r^s), vestis, 
p^rp^f^ {^pkyyvfu)^ frango. On the contrary, tlie Digamma (this softened v) 
is retained in connection with a preceding a, e, 0, with which it then coalesces 
and forms a diphthong : (a) at the end of a word, e. g. fiov (instead of fi6F)^ 
fiwriXevt etc.; (jS) before a consonant, e. g. fiovs {06Fsf bovs, bos), 1^5 (vi/s), 
navis, fiovy, $owri, /Bao'iAc^r, /Soo-iAcviri, ^ciaofuu, irAci/iro/uu, wtiffOfuUf ^Aavrap. 
But when an i or u precedes it, then it disappears before a consonant, but 
^jcngthens the 1 or w, e, g. kis (instead of ie//V), trvs (instead of a^Fs) ix^ds 
(instead of ix^Fs)^ Ace. xTy, vvvy Ix^^'i but it disappears also, in this case, 
in the middle of a word between vowels, e. g. At-ds, Ki-6sf oD-^r, ix^^t (instead 
rf AiF-6s, KlF'6s, ciiF-6s, Ix^tF-os. 


Digitized by 



3. Since tho Greek language admits an accumnlation of three conionanti, 
onlv in composition, not in simple words, unless the first or tlic last is a 
Liquid^ then, if in the inflection of the verb, a termination beginning with trb 
is appended to the consonant of the root, the cr is dropped:— 

X<Xc(ir-flr;^if (from Xc(ir-«) becomes XcXcf^idwy (§17,2.) 
XtXiya^ai ( " \4y») " XcX^x^^ (§17,2.) 

icrdK-ir&tu ( " «rr^XX-«) " iardx^au 

KfiMARK. On the omission of a Tau-mute, and a y and i^. before <r, and a o 
after a Liquid, see § 20. On reKc/i/uUi tff^vyiua^ etc instead of irdw^fififiau, 
l^(r<ptyyfjuut scQ § 144, R. 2. In composition, y is often omitted, e g. XIia^o/ct^ 
w$, *AiroXX^8»pos, instead of IIu^oyicT., ^AtoXX^vS. 

4. Some words may drop their final consonant, either to avoid an accumnla- 
tion of consonants, or, in verse, to prevent a syllable becoming .^ng by position. 
In addition to the words mentioned*under § 15, namely, oinc (o6), i^ (^k), oCr^n 
{oStu), which usually retain their final consonant before a vowel to prevent 
Hiatus, but drop it before consonants, here belong, 

(a) adverbs of place in ;^ev, e. g. TpSa^ey, Swurdtyf thcfp^cy, etc., which never 
drop the y before a consonant, in prose, but very often in Epic poetry, 
more seldom in the Attic poets ; 

(h) fi4xp^s ond ixp^^y which, however, in the best classical writers, drop 
their ir, not only before consonants, but cdmmonly even before vowels, 
e. g. fi^xpi 'Aya^aySpoVf PI. Hipp. Maj. 281, c ] fUj(pi iyrad^ Id. Symp. 
210, e ; fi^xP^ 8tov, X. C. 4. 7, 2 ; ft^XP* 4pv^p«is ^aXdrrris, Id. Cy. & 

(c) the adverbs hrpiiua^ fftmSf ficeriyisf iurrucp^s, Aytws, A^yws, which in 
poetiy may drop their s, but never in prose ; in the Ionic dialect, numeral 
adverbs in -dxis also frequently drop tho or before consonants, e. g. 
itoMAki. Her. 2, 2. 

5. A genuine Greek word can end only in one of the three Liquids, y, a (^', 
(, i. e. ircr, Kff) and />. The two words, obK, not^ and ^k, out of^ form only on 
apparent exception, since, as Proclitics (§ 82), they incline to the following 
word, and, as it were, become a part of it This law of euphony occasions 
either the omission of all other consonants, or it changes them into one of the 
three Liquids just named; hence, crwfia (Gen. (rt^/uor-o;), instead of vmpa^^ 
7«xa (Gen. 7«(Xairr^f ), instead of tcCXokt, \if»y (Gen. X^orr-os), instead of 
Xmkt, ^iSovXcvoy instead of ^jSb^Xcvovr; — rtpas (Gen. r/par-os), instead of 
rdfOTf Kipas (Gen. Wpflrr-of), instead of fc^perr, ft^Xi (Gen. /t/Xir-os), instMd 
of fi^Air. 

Digitized by 




\ 26. Nature and Division of Syllables, 

1. Every vowel, pronounced by itself, or in connection with 
C/oe or more consonants, is called a syllable. 

2. A word consists of one or more syllables. When a word 
consists of several syllables, a distinction is made between the 
stem-syllables and the syllables of inflection or derivation. 
The stem-syllables express the essential idea of the word, the 
syllables o£ inflection or derivation, the relations of the idea. 
Thus, e. g. in yc-y/xw^-o, the middle syllable is the stem-syllable ; 
the two others, syllables of inflection : in wpay-fioy the first is 
the stem-syllable ; the last, the syllable of derivation. 

{27. Quantity of Syllables. 

1. A syllable is short or long, by nature, according as its 
vowel is short or long. 

2. Every syllable is long which contains a diphthong, or a 
simple long vowel, or two vowels contracted into one, e. g. 
fiovXiwo ; ^p<D9; *dic<i)v (from dcKcov), fiorpv^ (from porfwa^). 

3. A syllable with a short vowel becomes long by position, 
when two or three consonants, or a double consonant ({ ( if/), 
follow the short vowel, e. g. orcAAco, rwl/avre^, mopai (tcopoKOi) 

Bemabk 1. The pronunciation^ of a syllable long hj nature, and of one 
long by position, differs in this, that the former is pronounced long^ but tho 
latter not. When a syllable long by nature is also long by position, its pronun- 
ciation must be protracted. Hence a distmction is made in pronouncing such 
irords as rrpdrrut rrpa^n, rrpuyfia (d), and rdrrcaj rd^is^ rdyfjui (d). 

Rem. 2. But when a short vowel stands before a Mute and a Liquid (Positio 
debilis)^ it commonly remains short in tlie Attic dialect, because the sound of 
the Liquid.^ being less distinct than the Mutes, they are pronounced with mora 

* The method of pronunciation stated in this remark is adopted in many of 
tlie German gymnasia, and in some of the schools in England and Scotland. 
bat not to any extent in this country. — Tr. 

Digitized by 



ease, e. g. AtHkvos, &w9irXos, *dKfjt.ii, 0^pvsj Zldp^xM^^t 7^^ ^^ two cases the posi- 
tion of the Mate and Liquid lengthens the short vowel : — 

a) in compounds, c. g. *cffW/u« ; 

b) when one of the Mediois (/3 y 8) stands before one of the three Liquids 
(X /I y), e. g. fiifiKos, cfoSfios, wiwXiyfuu ; in tragic trimeter, ^K also lengthen 
the preceding short voweL 

It is obvious that a vowel ]fing by nature cannot be shortened by a Mute and 
Liquid, e. g. f/e^yvrpoy, 

4. A syllable, which contains one of the three doubtful 
vowels (a, c, v), cannot, in the same word, be pronounced long 
and short, but must be either long or short 

i 28. Quantity of the Penult. 

In order to a correct pronimciation, the quantity of the three 
doubtful vowels, a^ i, and v, in the penult of words of three of 
more syllables, must be determined. The following are the 
principal instances in which the penult is long. The quantity 
of the syllables of inflection is treated in connection with the 
Forms : — 

The penult is long, 

1. In substantives in -a»y (Gen. -aoros or -cwyos), in substantives of two or 
more syllables in -wy (Grcn. -loyoi ; but Afcy^ Gen. -io»yos), and in forms of the 
comparative in -wy, 'lay (Gen. -ixxyos)^ e. g. htcimv^ -owr, 4, ^, oom/xintori, Iloo-ffi- 
Umv^ -wof ; icfMy, -owj, ^, /wflar, $paxi^yt -oyos^ *i arm, 'Afufd^y, -oyos \ but 
AevKoKtwy, -nvos \ KoJOduy^ KisXXoyy more beautiful. 

Exceptions, The two Oxytones, ^ ^u&y (1), shore, and generally ^ x*<^»'» f"**^' 
In Homer, the comparatives in -Uk, toy, are always short, where the versificsr 
tion admits. 

2. In oxytoned proper names in -ay6s, and in the compounds in -dySs (from 
iyf, to lead, and IkyyvfUy to break), -oamp and -Kp&vos, e. g. ^A<rtdy6sy Xox&yiSf 
captain ; yovaySst naufrdgus ; Biijwp, ZUcpwos, having two horns. 

3. In adjectives in -«iji (Fem. -dJj> derived from verbs in -^, in proper 
names in -imns, in substantives in -frijj (Fem. 'trit), and in those in -drijf of the 
first Dec. (Fem. •vris), and in proper names in -frij, e. g. AxP«^»» untouched; 
EtKtMtArTis, Mtdpt^TTis^ xoXhris, -ow, citizen (Fem. toX«t«) ; xpco-^dnjj, -ow, M 
.nan ; 'AiftpoBhui, ^Afi^irphri. 

Exceptions: (a) to the proper names in -arris : TaxArns, AoA/iinjj, Sop/i^Tifj, 
all in -fidrns and -^rris, and compounds formed from verbal roots, c. g. Sw^pO* 
Tiyj; — (b) KpU 'tis, judge, from the short root Kpi, Krlr4\s, Imilder, and ^OTi|f, 
one who sacrifices. 

4. In Proparoxytones in -rxof, -rxoy, -Ivos, -lyoy, in words in -Ivn, -rr^i 
••rij, -wro, in those in -vvos, when # docs not precede the ending ; m Pto- 

Digitized by 



ftoparoxytones in -vpa, and in adjectiyes in -vpot with a preceding long 
syllabic, c. g. 

•O 5/uXot^ multitude ; Jorr&nj, gift ; 6 nii^vwf, danger; 

iritDiOVt shoe ; Afyfvo, yt^vpct, bridge ; 

il icdti^yos, oven / otirx^i^} s/wotc .• I<rxvp6sj strong ; 

ffiXIyoPf parsley; &/u/ya, defence; (but 6x^p6s and ^x^p^^), ^rm. 

Remabk 1. The following may be added to tlie Proparoxytones in -Iros 
and -Op Of namely, i x"^^^^* rein; 6 ipZy6s, mid Jig-tree; and ^ KoWifpa, coarse 

Exceptions. E i \ avf ri}, feast^ and compooiids in-yfjyos (from 7^1^, tcoman) 
e. g. &i'8f>^7Cyos, and icopi^i'i}, club. 

5. In substantives in -vrosj whose antepenult is long, and in compound 
adjectives in -Safcpvros and -rpvros (fram 8aicf>6w, r/>6»), and also in sub 
Btantives in -u/io, -vyin ai^d -i)7wi', and in adverbs in 'vl6vt e. g. 

6 ito9Kvr6si wailing; ftrpGrof, indestructible; i\o\vy^^ ululatus; 

Mjcpirost wUhout tears; 75p0/ia, -dros, seat; hKoXOy^Vy ululatus, 

BorpMw^ in dusters. 
Exception. Mapfupf^f splendor. 

6. In dissyllabic Oxytones in -iKSs, -IfiSs, -lyds, -16$, -vKSsf -v/iSs, 
€y6sf and in Paroxytones in -6^i|, -drif, e. g. 

i^VJs, bare; ^ flAsy skin; 6 fv/i6s, pale; ^Op6s, oomMon; 

6 "xP^s^ fodder ; S^Usydart; h ^fUsy mind ; kb/irif injury ; 

6 AT/x^s, hunger; 6 'xy\6s^ juice ; so, &^/ios, etc.; tdhrti^ exaua. 

Exceptions. Bi6s (A), bow; wMy6s (4), washing-trough. 

7. In dissyllables in -do i, -ay ^f (oxytoncd), and in dissyllables in -lo, which 
!y»gin with two consonants, e. g. 

'6 rouJs, temple ; ^taySs, brilliant; ffrta, pebble; ^A«{, door-post. 

Keu. 2. The following mny be added to dissyllables in -10: xaXid, sited, 
iadu, trouble; Koyia^ dust; and to those in -do5, the variable f\ao5, and the proper 
names in -do s, e. g. ^Apipidpaos \ OMfdias is an exception. 

Exceptions. T&6s or r&^s (6), peacock; erxtd (1). shadow, 

8. The following single words should also be noted: — 

L d. 
'AKp&roSy unmixed; ynuns, young girl ; riipm turban ; 

iLyiapSsj troublesome ; i/woJiSsf attendant ; ^dxapost dear ; 

aibbitftlSj sdf -sufficient ; elytari^ mustard; 6 pKuapos, tattle. 

Also the proper names, "A/xcurts, "Aydiros, "Aparos, ArifidparoSf Bt&y^, *lAtron 
npiaros, ^Upttwts (Serflpis), Sr^/x^dAor, ^dp<ra\os. 

II. r. 
'AxplfiffiSf exact ; iyiirfi, rebuke ; vap^tyorhniSf gaOanL 

t^TfMOs, strong ; fp&ost day-laborer ; 

^ rdflxot, piddedjish ; I ^ x«^<*'» swallow ; 

Digitized by 


46 ACCENTS. [i 29. 

Aluo the proper names, •A'yx*»^J» TpdviKos, El/phros, KJXkos («), "Oir^r, SoAotpia. 
The following dissyllables should be noted for the soke of the compounds: 
rififi, honor; yhcrij victory; ^uX^, tnbe; "uXr;, forest; \lr6s, little; ^tUKp6st smaU; 
*». ij. &rifios, 

III. V. 
'Afjitfiay, blameless ; iptKco, to hold back ; Ki^v^v^ booty ; 

&av\oy, asylum ; 6 i\v6sf den ri wd'wvpos, papyrus; 

ivrfl (u), toar-cry; lyvihif the ham; rtrvpoy, bran. 

Also the proper names, "AfivSos, ^Afx^os, Bt^w6s, Ai6vO<ros, VianfitariSy K^p- 
KvpOy K»Kvr6s. And the dissyllables, ^x^, soul; 6 rvpSs^ cheese; 6 Tvp6st icheati 
6 xpwr6st gold; X^n;, grie/; \^XP^^* ^^* 

i 29. Accents 

1. The written accent designates the tone -syllable, according 
to the original Greek pronunciation. The accented syllable 
was pronounced with a particular stress as well as elevation of 
voice. The same is true of the modem Greek. In English, 
too, while the stress of the accented syllable is more particu- 
larly prominent, there is oflen also an accompanying elevcOion 
of the voice, but not so much as in the modem Greek. 

2. In the pronunciation of Greek prose, the accent and quan- 
tify were both regarded ; thus, in SySpunro^, while the accentual 
stress was laid on the a, the proper quantity of the penult a> was. 
preserved. Compare analogous EngHsh words, as sunrising, 
oufpSQring, in which both the accent on the antepenult and the 
length of the penult are observed. 

3. How the Greeks observed both the accent and quantity in 
poetry, cannot now be determined. But as it was generally 
sung or recited in the style of chanting, the. accent was probably 
disregarded, as is constantiy done in singing at present 

4. The Greek has the following marks for the tone or accent 
(vpo^toBuu) : — 

(a) The aonte (- ) to denote the sharp or clear tone, e. g. 

(b) Tlie circumflex (-) to denote the protracted or unnding 
tone, e. g. o-aj/ia. Tliis accent consists in uniting the rising 
and falling tone in pronouncing a long syllable, since, e. g 
the word <rS>p.a was probably pronounced as aoo/m ; 

(c) The grave (-) to denote the falling or heavy tone- 

Digitized by 


f 29.] At3CBNT8. 47 

Rkxabk 1. The mark of the falling tone was not nsed. Hence not iy^pi^ 
«is, K6ybst but Sv^fwroSf K6yos, The mark of the graye was used only to 
distinguish certain words, e. g. rls, some otie, and ris^ who f and, as will be seen 
in f 31, 1, instead of the acute on the final syllable of words in connected 

Rex. 2. The accent stands upon the second vowel of diphthongs ; at the 
beginning of words commencing with a vowel the acute and grave stand 
after the breathing, but the circumflex over it, e. g. £ira^, aif.\c(Of, &y cfv^y, 
ff2po5, aT/uu But in capital letters, in connection with the diphthongs f, p, y, 
the accent and the breathing stand upon the first vowel, e. g. *Ai8ijs. On the 
diaeresis, see § 4, Rem. 6. 

Rex. 3. The grave accent differed from the acute as the w^ker from the 
stronger accent in dUrimintal^ or in the Latin y^nenx/dnim, th? penultimate accent 
in both words being much stronger than the preceding one. The circumflex 
accent denoted a tone like the circumflex inflection in English. 

Rex. 4. In the United States and Great Britain, Greek is not generally 
pronounced by the accents, no regard being had to these so far as the pronun- 
ciation is concerned. In a few institutions, however, the pronurciation la 
regulated by the accent ; but where this is the case, the grave and circumflex 
accents are pronounced in the same manner as the acute. No difference is 
therefore made in the pronunciation of ti/*^ and n/i^, nor between yv&fuu and 
yy^fjiMs. In these and all similar cases, the Greeks must have made distino- 

5. The accent can stand only on one of the last three sylla- 
bles of a word ; it was not any natural difficulty but merely 
Greek usage which prevented the accent from being placed 
further back than the antepenult. 

6. The acute stands on one of the last three syllables, whether 
tliis is long or short, e. g. icoAoy, dySpil^ov, wilXc/xos; but upon the 
antepenult, only when the last syllable is short, and is also not 
long by position, e. g. ay^/xiwros, but avSpwrov. 

7. The circumflex stands only on one of the last two sylla- 
bles, and the syllable on which it stands must always be long 
by nature, e. g. rov, o^^ia; but it stands upon the penult only 
when the ultimate is short, or long only by position, e. g. rci;^, 
X^/AO, Trpo^ts, o^Aof, Gen. -cucos, icaXavpo^, icar^Xu/r, Aiy/Aoivof . 

Rex. 5. Also in substantives in -*| and -i/| (Gen. -tKosy -Okos), i and v long 
by nature, are considered as short in respect to accentuation, c. g. ^«W|, Gen. 
•flcoj, «r^pi>(, Gen. -vieot, 

8. If, therefore, the antepenult is accented, it can have only 
the acute ; but if the penult is accented, and is long by nature. 

Digitized by 


*8 ACCENTS. U 29. 

it must have the circumflex, when the ultimate is short, e. g. 
rctxo9, Trparrc, but the acute, when the ultimate > is long, e. g. 
'■««Xov9, Trparrw; if the penult is short it has only the acute, e. g. 
Tarro), TaTTc. On the ultimate, either the acute or the circumflex 
stands, e. g. va-njp, irarpiov; nominatives accented on the ulti- 
mate usually have the acute, e. g. iinrcvs iroTafu>4 ^p. 

RxM. 6. In the inflection-endjiigs, -ai and -oi, and in the adverbs, vp6vaXBu 
and iieroXm^ the diphthongs, in respect to the accent, are considered short, e. g. 
T/>^cfoi, r^rT€Taij yXwaacu, ii>&pmKiu, x^poi* The optotive endings, -o i and 
^ «, e. g. Tiiiiimut UKti-Koi, \€ixoiy and the adverb ofie p i, domi, at home, are long ; 
on the contrary, pTfroi, houses^ from oUot, 

Rkh. 7. In the old Ionic and Attic declension, » is considered as short 
Ui respect to accent, having only half its nsual length, as it takes the place of o, 
e.g. McWXcwf, hniywy',^7r6\9ws, rSKfuy—-; t\eft»j, i-yiypwj, Gen. IXw, iynpmi 
bnt if adjectives like TXcMf are declined according to the third Dcc^ they are 
accented regularly, e. cf. ^tj^ix^s, <ptKoy4Karros \ so also in the Dat Sing, and 
PL, as well as in the. Gen. and Dat. Dual, where the penult is long, e. g. iynpmst 
Mw» h^PVSf Mw« 

Rem. 8. In the words, cJS^t, that, vaijCh certainly, the penult has the acute, 
apparently contrary to the rule j but these must be treated as separate words. 
The accentuation of the words efre, oCr«, &«r€^, <Jt«, T<rtJf8*, etc., is to be 
explained on the ground, that they are compounded with Enclitics (M3). 

Rem. 9. According to the condition of the lost syllable with respect to 
accent, words have the following names:-— 

(a) Oxytones, when the ultimate has the acute, c. g. rtrv^&s, kiuc6s^ d^ \ 

(b) Paroxy tones, when the penult has the acute, e. g. t^ittw ; 

(c) Proparoxytones, when the antepenult has the acute, e. g. jSafbpwwo^^ rvw- 
T6fi€yos, iy^pwoi, Tvtrr6fifvot j 

(d) Perispomfina, when the ultimate has the circumflex, e. g. kok&s] 

(e) Properispomfina, when the penult has the circumflex, e. g. irpSy/uLf fi- 

(f ) Barytones, when the ultimate is unaccented, e. g. irpdyfiara^ vpuyfia. 

' Hence the accent often enables us to determine the quarititjr of syllables, 
e. g. from the acute on the antepenult of iroi^pw, /iod^rpia, we mfer that the 
ultimate is short, otherwise the accent could not stand further back than the 
penult. No. 6, above; — from the circumflex on &tTos and irpa^is, that those 
syllables are long by nature, 7; — from the circumflex on funpa and orcuw, 
that the ultimate is short, 7; — from the acute on x^pa, &pa, and'Hpa, thai 
the ultimate is long, otherwise the penult of these wordjj must l>e circuraflcxcd, 
8; — from the acute on <f>l\os and wotxiKos, that the penult of these Words if 
short, otherwise tliey must have been circumflexcd, 8. — T«. 

Digitized by 



♦ 30. Change and Removal of the Accent by Inflec 
tion, Composition, and Contraction. 

1. Wlien a word is changed by inflection, either in the quan- 
tity of its final syllable or in the number of its syllables, there 
is generally a change or removal of the accent 

(a) By lengthening the final syllable, 

(a) a Proparoxytone becomes a Paroxytone, e. g. 7roXc/Aof» 

'iroXc/Aov ; 
{P) a Properispomenon, a Paroxytone, e. g. rdxfys, rtixpvq ; 
(y) an Oxytone, a Perispomehon, e. g. ^^cos, ^oG. Yet this 

change is limited to particular cases. See M5, 7, a. 

(b) By shortening the final syllable, 

(a) a dissyllabic Paroxytone with a penult long by nature 

becomes a Properispomenon, e. g. <l>€vy<o, ^cvyc, wparrc 

(but Tarre) ; 
(P) a polysyllabic Paroxytone, whether the penult is long 

or short, becomes a Proparoxytone, e. g. /JovAcuo), j3ou- 


(c) By prefixing a syllable or syllables to a word, the accent 
is commonly removed towards the beginning of the word, e. g. 
il>€vyio, €<l>€vyov] SO also in compounds, always in verbs, com- 
monly in substantives and adjectives, e. g. 65os crvvoBo^, Stoq 
^iXo^co9> Tifi-q arlfio^, <f>£vy€ dirocj^cvye. But when syllables 
are appended to a word, the accent is removed towards the 
end of the word, e. g. Twrw, rwrroyxe^a, TV<l>Srfa-6fJL€3a. 

Remabk 1. The particnlar cnsea of the change of accent bj inflection, and 
the exceptions to the general rules here stated, will be seen below, under the 
»xentnation of the several parts of speech. 

2. The following principles apply in contraction : — 

(1) When neither of the two syllables to be contracted is 
accented, the contracted syllable also is unaccented ; and the 
syllable wliich had the accent previous to contraction, still 
retains it, e. g. 4>Du€ = </>tX€i (but ^fuXiti = </»tA.c4), ycVci* = yo^ci (but 
y€V€<av = y€vwv). 


Digitized by 



(2) But when one of the two syllables to be contracted is 
accented, the contracted syllable also is accented, 

(a) when the contracted syllable is the antepenult or penult, 
it takes the accent which the general rules require, e. g. 

ayoxdofuu = i,yarufiai ^t\c6fitvoi = ^iXovfityos 

^trraSros = ior&rof 6p^6ovcri = 6p^ovai 

Mi^affa = 6\rjcira niM&vrwv = ny^inwv j 

(b) when the contracted syllable is the ultimate, it takes the 

acute, when the last of the syllables to be contracted had 

the acute ; the circumflex, when the first of the syllables 

was accented, e. g. carows = trrrcos, yi\6i = ^x**^- 

Bbk. 2. The exceptions to the principles stated, will be seen below, under 
the contract Declensions and Conjugations. 


J 31. L Grave instead of the Acute. — 11. Crasis, — 
III Elision. — IV. Anastrophe. 

L In connected discourse, the Oxytones receive the mark of 
the grave, i. e. by the close connection of the words with each 
other the sharp tone is weakened or depressed, e. g. Et /x^ 
furp-pviri irepucaXXrii *H€pCPouL ^v. But the acute must stand before 
every punctuation-mark by which an actual division is made 
in the thought, as well as at the end of the verse, e. g. *0 fthf 
Kvpo^ cir^ocurc rov irorofiov, oi ^ voXc/uoi an-c^vyov. 

Exceptions. The InterrogatiTW r(t, r/, quis? who? quid? what? always 
remain oxjtoned. 

Remabk 1. 'When an Oxjtone is not closely connected with the other 
words, i. e. when it is treated grammatically, the acute remains, e. g. tlrh /i^ 
Xiytts-^rh kylip Byofitu 

II Words united by Crasis (i 10), have. only the accent ot 
the second word, that being the more important, e*. g. rayaJ^o^ 
from TO ayaJ^ov. When the second word is a dissyllabic Paroxy- 
tone with a short final syllable, the accent, according to i 30, 2, 
(2) (a), is changed into the circumflex, e. g. to en-o? = tovjtos, 
rk oAAa = t^XAo, to tpyov = rovpyov ; ra oirXa = SunrXa, eyw otpMi =a 

Digitized by 




III. When an unaccented vowel is elided (} 13), the accent 
of the word is not changed, e. g. roxrr «mv. But if the elided 
vowel is accented, its accent is thrown back upon the preceding 
syllable, as an acute ; yet, when the elided word is a preposi- 
tion or one of the particles, dXXo, ovSc, /ii^Bc (and the poetic 
v54 t3e), the accent wholly disappears, and also when tha 
accented vowel of monosyllabic words is elided, e. g. 

IV. Anastrophe. When a preposition follows the word which 
it should precede, the tone of the preposition naturally inclines 
back to its word, and hence the accent is removed from the 
ultimate to the penult; this drawing back of the accent is 
called Anastrophe {^vcurrpixfyii), e. g. 

fJLdxfli ^> l>ttt iwl fuixfl* ^^^^ ^'^^ ^^^ ^'^ **^ 

Rem. 2. The prepositions, hn/pl^ hrrl^ iufd^ Hid, and the poetic hrvd, ^flp, 
8m/, Topal, do not admit Anastrophe. If the preposition stands between an 
adjective and a substantive, according to Aristarchus the Anastrophe is foand 
only when the sabstantive stands first, e. g. Udy^^ Hi Huf^tyri (but Su^cvri M 
UJiv^). Other Grammarians reject the Anastrophe in both cases. — In poetry, 
Ttpl is subject to Anastrophe only when it governs the (Jen., but then very 
often, and even when the Gen. and Tepi are separated by other words. See 
4 300, (c.) 

Hem. 3. Prepositions, moreover, admit Anastrophe, when they are used 
instead of abridged forms of the verb, e. g. &ya instead of iiydurdJiTi ; f^a, vdpoy 
Iri, 1^0, ir/pi, iyi, instead of the indicative present of cTku, compounded with 
these prepositions, e. g. iyit irdpa instead of TdptifUf vipi instead of vfpUffri ; 
also, when the preposition is separated from the verb and placed after it, which 
is often the case in the Epic dialect, e. g. i\4<rea (Saro wdrras kraipovs. But the 
accent of htrS is drawn back without any reason, in such phrases as iarh ^a^Aff' 
VT/li oiVeiy, krrh (TKOfwov^ ia^ i\Ti9os, and the like ; in such cases it is properly on 
the ultimate. 

♦ 32. V. Atonies or Proclitics, 

Atonies or Proclitics, are certain monosyllables which, in 
connected discourse, are so closely united to the following 

Digitized by 


62 ENCLITICS. [i 33. 

word, that they coalesce with it, and lose their accent Thet 
Bxe : — 

(a) the forms of the article, 6, 17, oi, at ; 

(b) the prepositions, iv, cis (cs), ix (cf), W9, acl; but if cf ia 
after the word which it goveras, and at the end of a verse, 
or before a punctuation-mark, it retains the accent, e. g. 
KOKtov t(, n. i, 472 ; in prose, i$ does not stand after its 

(c) the conjunctions, &>$ (as), €t; but if wc follows the word 
which it should precede, it has the accent ; this position, 
however, is found only among the poets, e. g. kokoL &S9 
for OK icaxoi; 

(d) ov (ovic, ovx), not; but at the end of a sentence and with 
the meaning No, it has the accent, ov (ovk). Comp. 
♦ 15, Rem. 2. 

}33. VL Enclitics. 

Enclitics are certain words of one. or two syllables, wliich, m 
connected discourse, are so closely joined, in particular cases, 
to the preceding word, that they either lose their tone or throw 
it back upon the preceding word, e. g. ^t\os ns, iroAc/jufc ns. 
They are : — 

(a) the verbs tlfd, to be, and ^/J, to soy, in the Pres. Indie, except the second 
Pen. Sing., c7, thou aft, and ^s, th^ sayest ; 

(b) the following forms of the three personal prdnouns in the Attic dia- 

L P. S. fJLOV 


II. P. S. <roO 

IIL P. S. oZ Dual, aptoiv PI. a^pUri (v) 


(c) the indefinite pronouns, rU^ rl, through all the cases and numbers, 
together with the abridged forms tov and r^, and the indefinite adverbs ir^f , 
vdS, irfi, To6f wodt, wod4vf Tolf word ; but the corresponding interrogative pro- 
nouns are always accented, e. g. rlsf rf, «-«; , etc. ; 

(d) the following particles in the Attic dit Icct, t^, to/, 7/, v6y, -nip (and in 
the Epic, if/, ic/k, i^, pi), and the inseparable particle »€, § 34, Rem. 3. 

Hehark. Several small words are combined with these enclitics, forming 
^th them one word, with a meaning of its own, e. g. ctre, oi^rc, M^«f &stc, 
•ftp, tvrts, etc. 

Digitized by 



^34. Inclination of the Accent. 

1. Ail Qxytone so unites with the following enclitic, that the 
accent, which is commonly grave in the middle of a sentence 
(^ 31, 1), again becomes acute, e. g. 

hii9 Ttf for ^p tU Kokis iirruf for KoXhf icrUf 

Kol runs " jvat tw4s TorofiSs y§ " vorofibf y4 

kqX6s re " icaX^f ri irorafiot rivcf . ** voratuli riw4s» 

2. A Perispomenon unites with tue following enclitic without 
further change of the accent, e. g. 

^ff ri for ^s r\ ^i\u ru for ^iXti rb 

^f ioriy " ^s itrrly Kokov runs *' xaXod roriu 

Remabk 1. A Perispomenon followed bj a difisjllabic enclitic, is regarded 
as an Oxytone. For as ^s iaru^^ for example, are considered as one word in 
respect to accent, and as the circomflex cannot go further back than the penult 
(^ 29, 7), the Perispomenon most be regarded as an Oxytone. Long syllables 
in enclitics are treated as short in respect to the accent ; hence oTwraww^ ifrrir 
rm^f are viewed as separate words, & g. koX&f rawy. 

3. A Paroxytone unites with the following monosyllabic 
enclitic without further change of the accent ; but there is no 
inclination when the enclitic is a dissyllable, e. g. 

^l\os /wv for ^l\os /iov bat ^(\of iffrhf, ^(\m ^affip 
iXXos mts " &AXoff tAs '* &?J<os wr4, &^Xotp tiiwv. 

Hem. 2. It is evident that if there was an inclination of the accent when a 
Paroxytone was followed by a dissyllabic enclitic, the accent would stand on 
the fourth syllable, e. g. ^'koi-^wru^, which is contrary to the usa^c of the 

4. A Proparoxytone and a Properispomenon unite with tlie 
following enclitic, and take an acute accent on the last sylla- 
ble; this syllable forms the tone-syllable for the following 
enclitic, as aK<^p<ii*709 ri9« e. g. 

}i»^pwr6s ris for Ay^pwros r\s ff&fid ri for ff&iAa r\ 

Ay^pwroi riyts " Hiy^ponroi rty4s a&ftd i<my " ff&fta irriy. 

Exception. A Properispomenon, ending in | or ^, does not' admit the incli- 
nation .of a dissyllabic enclitic, e. g. a^Ka^ rty6s, aika^ icriy, ^&i| iarly, it^pv| 
iwrly, Xm\w^ imiy. 


Digitized by 



Rem. 3. The local suffix 8e (^c), which expresses the relation to a plaee, 
whither^ coalesces with sabstantives according to the rules of inclination, e. g. 

"OKvfjLxStfde "X^vrrrSy^t ov/iav^vSc Uv^wSt (from IIi^cS) 

So 'A^a(€ (i. e. *Ad^yas8e), nxaroia^c (nXoraia/), xcv^^^e (xoft^ Ace.) The 
suffix 8« when appended to the Demon, pronoun draws the accent of this pro- 
noun to the sjllable before 8c. In the oblique cases, these strengthened 
pronouns are accented according to the rules for Oxytones, 4 45, 7 (a), e. g. 

rArof — To<riJf8«, rocroi/de, roa^He^ roo^ySc, TOcrfiySe, 
rotos — toi(^j8c, i^A/kos — ri/AurdsSe, rouri — rouTiSc, 

Hy^a — iy^dZ*, 

6. Wlien several enclitics occur together, each throws back 
its accent on the preceding, e. g. ci irip rk a-i fioC ^rfo-l irore. 

i 25. Enclitics accented. 

Some enclitics, whose signification allows them to be in a measure indepen* 
dent, are accented in the following cases : — 

1. 'Zorl {p) is accented on the penult, when it stands in connection with an 
Inf, for t^tcri (v), and after the particles &AA*, c^ olfK, fiiij &s, ico/, fi4y, Srt, vov, 
and the pronoun rovr*, and also at the beginning of a sentence, e. g. <Se<y I^otip 
(licet viderc), tl Hffrip, o6k fffriy, roW tcrw^ tcri ^f6s, etc ; the other forms of 
tlfd which are capable of inclination, retain the usual accent on the ultimate, 
when they stand at the beginning of a sentence, e. g. cM ^toL 

2. The forms of ^fd which are capable of inclination, retain the accent, 
when they stand at the beginning of a sentence, and also when they are sep- 
arated from the preceding word by a punctuation-mark, e. g. ^/U iyi&. — "Ecrtp 
iufiip iiy€A6sf ^id. 

8. The cncVtic Fers. pronouns, o-oO, coi^ <r4, of, 0-^(0'! (v), retain their accent: 

(a) when an accented Prep, preceddis, e. g. irapii ffov, firr& fft, vpibs coL But 

the enclitic forms of ^he first Pers. pronoun are not used with accented 

prepositions, but, histead of them, the longer and regularly accented 

forms, e. g. 

irop* ifiov not wttpd funf irphs i/iot not irp4s fju>i 

jvar* ifjJ " Kwd fu Ttp\ ifjLov " irtpi fu>v. 

Rbmabk 1. There are, however, a few instances of enclitics of the firet Tors, 
pronoun standing with accented prepositions, e. g. irpSs fi€. PL Symp. 218, c 

Rem. 2. When t!io emphasis is on the preposition, there is an inclination 
of the accent, c. g. M crt 1i a6y a-oi, X. An. 7. 7, 32 {against you^ rather than with 
you). — The enclitic forms are used with the unaccented prepositions, e. g. & 
ItoUf Kv ftot^ Iff 0'c, h /i€, Dc ffou, iy aoi. But when the emphasis is on the pro- 
noan, there is no inclination, and instead of /xoO, jiio(, fie, — ifiod, ifiotf i/jJ, are 
nsed, e. g. 4y 4fiol, oAX* o&«c iy aoL 

Digitized by 



(b) The enclitic pronouns generoUj retain their accent when thej are em- 
phatic, as in antitheses, e. g. ifik jval <r4] ifjAll ff4\ hence the forms ov, of, 
2, are accented onlj when they are nsed as reflexive pronouns. 

4. The prononn rls is accented when it stands at the beginning of a sentence, 
e. g. Tivh \4yowrw, 

5. There is no inclination, when the accent of the word on which the enclitic 
rests disappears by Elision, e. g. icoX^t 9 ^orfy, bat xaXhs U icriy — toAXoI 9 
uffty^ bat ToAAol 94 wlfir. 

♦ 36. Division of Syllables. 

Preliminabt Remarks. The division of syllables, according to oar mode 
of pronoancing Greek, depends in part upon the place of the accent. The 
term accent and accented^ throoghout these rules, is used with reference to onr 
pronunciation of the Greek, and not to the written accent on the Greek words. 

The accent (stress) is on the penult in dissyllables, and on the antepenult in 
polysyllables, when the penult is short. T4e accent on the penult or antepenalft 
18 called the primary accent. If two syllables precede the primary accent, there 
is a secondary- accent on the first syllable of the word. 

The following rules exhibit the more general method of dividing syllablei, 
except where the pronunciation is regulated by the Greek accent : — 

1. A single consonant between the vowels of the penult and ultimate ii 
joined to the latter, e. g. &-yot, ira-pdf yui-Ka^ T-va, l-rrfj, hx&p^ TS^s-fios, irrpdrw' 
liOy x^C"^^*! ^X<'*7^'» inro7M-^v, 

Exception, In dissyllables, a single consonant following c or o is joined to 
the first syllable, e. g. ^j&y-os^ t/a-oj, xef>-(, 5t-i, iroX-^, fX"**» <rT(jA-o». 

2. The double consonants | and ^ are joined to the vowel preceding them ; 
e. g. Tc{|-«, 9i^'0S^ «'pa{-(f 1 ianiral-iiiwos. But f is joined to the vowel following 
it, except when it stands after c or o, or after an accented vowel in the ante- 
penult, — in which case it is joined with these vowels; e. g. yof/d'(a, ySfu-Ci^ 
apird-(» ; but rfxiirr^-o, 6C'0S, yofii(-ofit¥f afnrd(-ofiw, 

3. A single consonant (except in the penult) before or after the vowels a and 
t having the accent, and also a single consonant before or after c and o having 
the accent, is joined to these vowels ; e. g. ity-a^6sy xor-ofiosj fia-<rt\'4a, 6-iroA- 
afi^pf t-^6rr'%foSy rt^^fuyf it-^op-la, cu-Suc-^, ivi-rifi-iay for a single consonant 
after a long r'>wel, etc., see 4. 

Exception, A single consonant preceded by a, and followed by two vowels, 
the first of which*is e or i, is joined to the vowel after it ; e.'g. arpa-^tdy ^yeurrdr 
rctft, ffrpa-ri^hnis (not or par-id, etc.). 

4. A single consonant after a long vowel, a diphthong or w, is joined to the 
vowel following; e. g.<yrn-\6^h ^<^-M«po*» 4>»A<5-T«f»«s, ixoXov-Ma, iicow-<raT« 
fiv-^ias, h^v-fiia, ^O-y^KTCf , <l>t-yofJity, 

Exception, A single consonant following long a or i in the antepenult, and 
hBYing the accent, is joined with the vowel preceding; e. g. iaroKph^tcro^ ien^ 

Digitized by 



5. Two single consonants coming together in the middle of a word, on 
separated ; e. g. iroX-Ai, la-rdyeuy r4^tnjKaj ^a^paX^ws, K\vror4x-yiS' 

Exception, A mute and liquid are sometimes joined to the following vowel j 
e. g. M-rpMTxoy. 

6. When three consonants come together in the middle of a word, the lut 
two, if a mute and liquid, are joined to the following vowel ; if not, the last 
only, e. g. itv-^ponros, iut-Hpia^ but irift^-briv, 

7. Compounds arc divided into their constituent parts, when the first part 
ends with a consonant ; but if the first part ends with a vowel followed hj a 
■hort syllable, the compound is divided, like a simple word ; e. g. iicfiaiim^ 
€W€K-^vri<riSi vpS^effis, iafdfi-afftSf but ivo-^yfirris, not 6ro^-i^5; so vapor 

^ 37. Punctuatton-marks — Diastole, 

• • The colon and semicolon are indicated bj the same mark, a point above 
the line, e. g. ES ^A.«(ar • irirrcs ykp &fio\6yriiray. The interrogation-mark is 
our semicolon, e. g. Tls ravra hrolijtrty; who did this f The period^ comma, and 
mark of exclamation have the same characters as in English ; the mark of 
exclamation is rarely used. 

2. The Diastole (or Hypodiastule), which has the same character as the 
comma, is used to distinguish certain compound words from others of like 
sound, but of dissimilar meaning, e. g. S, n, whatever, and trij that, since ; 5, re, 
whatever, and Src, when. More recently, such words are generally separated in 
writing icarel^, e. g. 8 ri, 8 re. 



♦ 38. Division of the Parts of Speech, — Inflection 

1. Etymology relates to tlie form and meaning of the Parts 
of Speech. 

2. Tlie Parts of Speech are : — 

( 1 ) Substantives, which denote anything which exists, any 
object (person or thing) ; as man, rose, house, virtue; 

(2) Adjectives, wliich denote a property or quality; as^eai; 
small^ red, beautiful, hateful; 

Digitized by 



(3) Pronouns, which denote the relation of the object spoken 
of to the speaker {i 86) ; as J, thou, he, tJtis, ViaZ, mine, tJdth% 

(4) Numerals, which denote the number or quantity of an 
object; as (me, two^ three, many, few; 

(5) Verbs, which denote an action or state; as to bloom, to 
icake, to sleep, to love, to censure ; 

(6) Adverbs, which denote the way and manner in which an 
action takes place, or the relations of place, time, manner, qual- 
ity, and number; as here, yesterday, beautifully (=in a beautiful 
manner), perhaps, often, rarely; 

(7) Prepositions, which denote the relation of space, time, 
etc. of an object to an action or thing ; as (to stand) before the 
house, after sunset, before sleep ; 

(8) Conjunctions, which connect words and. sentences, or 
determine the relation between sentences ; as and, but, because. 

3. "Words are either essential words, i. e. such as express a 
notion, or idea, viz. the substantive, adjective, verb, and the 
adverbs derived from them ; or formal words, i. e. such as 
express merely the relations of the idea to the speaker or some 
one else, viz. the pronoun, numeral, preposition, conjunction, the 
adverbs derived from them, and the verb cTvai, to be, when it is 
used as a copula, with an adjective or substantive for its predi- 
cate ; as 6 avSptairoi &vrp-6s ccrriv. 

Remabk. Besides the parts of speech above mentioned, there are certain 
organic sounds, called interjections ; as aUu I oh I ah t They express Neither 
an idea nor the relation of an idea, and hence are not to be considered as proper 
words. — Prepositions, conjunctions, and adverbs not derived from adjectives 
and sabstantives, are included under the common name of Particles. 

4. Inflection is the variation or modification of a word in 
order to indicate its different relations. The inflection of the 
substantive, adjective, pronoun, and numeral, is termed Declen* 
si<m; the inflection of the verb, Conjugation. The other partt 
of speech do not admit inflection. 

Digitized by 




The Substantive. 

♦ 39. Different kinds of Substantives. 

1. When a substantive 38) indicates an object, which has 
an actual, independent existence, it is termed a Concrete substan* 
tive, e. g. man^ womany Hon, earth, fower, host; but when the 
substantive indicates an action or quality, wliich is only conceived 
of as being something actual or independent, it is called an 
Abstract substantive, e. g. virtue, wisdom. 

2. The Concretes are, 

(a) Proper nouns, when they denote only single persons or 
things, and not a class ; as Cyrus, Flato, Hellas, AUiens; 

(b) Appellatives, when they denote an entire class or an 
individual of a class ; as mortal, tree, man, woman, flower. 

Rbmark. Appellatives are called material nouns, when they indicate the 
simple material, e. g. milk, dust, rooter, gold, coin, grain ; collective nouns, when 
they designate many single persons or things as one whole, e. g. mankind, 
cavalry^ fleet; nouns of quantity, when they denote measure or weight, c. g. a 
buthd, a pound. 

MO. Gender of Substantives. 

Substantives have three genders, as in Latin ; the gender is 
determined partly by the meaning of the substantives, and 
partly by their endings. The last mode will be more fully 
treated under the several declensions. The following general 
rules determine the gender of substantives by their mean- 

1. The names of males, of nations, winds, months, and most 
rivers, are masculine, e. g. 6 Pao-tXevs, the king; ol "EAAiyvcs, 6 
TofirjXuav (January, nearly) ; 6 'AA^ioj, tlie Alpheus ; 6 «vpos, t/ie 
$out/ieMt wind. 

Remark 1. Exceptions: Diminutives in -ov, which are not proper names 
f these are conceived of as things and are neuter) ; e. g. rh fuipdxioy, the lad 
jbut proper names of females in -oy are feminine, e. g. ij Ac^yriov) ; also rh 
Mpdvo^oy, a slave, maucipium; rh irai8iic(£, a favorite; and some rivers, e.g; 
1^ 5t^{, and also some according to the ending, e. g. ^ A.^;^. 

2. Tlie names of females are feminine, e. g. ■§ fii^rrip, mother. 

Digitized by 



3. The names of the letters, infinitives, all indeclinable 
words, and every word used as a mere symbol, are neuter, e. g. 
TO XafjiPBoy TO TWTTciv, tJu Striking; to fJLfjrrjp, the word mother. 

Rem. 2. The geoder of the names of monntains is determined by their 
endings ; hence (a) mascuUne^ 'EAiM^r, -wpos, etc. -, those in -of, Gen. -ov, e. g. 
napyaffSs] in -ms^ -w, e. g.'Adwf {6"^^^^, derived from the name of a person, 
is particularlj to be observed) ; (b) feminine, those in -t} (a), Gen. lyr, e. g. 
Afrn}, "lUrit Ofnj ; those in -ij and -vj, e. g. "AAiriy, Gen. -eaj, "AAirew, -*»»', 
KdpofifiiSj -tSos, "Od^pt/f, -vot (masculine in Lat.), ndpnjs, -tjdoy ; (c) neuter^ those 
in -oy, e. g. A^muoF, n^^Aior. 

Rem. 3. The gender of the names of places also is determined ahnost entirely 
by the endings ; only a few of these are feminine, properly agreeing with the fem- 
inine appellatives 7^, x^f^ 1^0*05 (i. e. v4owra x^P^)t "'^^'^ to be supplied with 
them ; (a) names of cities and islands in -09, -ov, e. g. ^ lUpuf^s [tJais], ^ 'P^os 
[i^<To$], yi A^\05 [r^oj] (except 6 *Oyxri<rr6st 6 *Clpwr6s^ 6 Alyudi6sj 6 Kdytnrosi 
usually 6 *Opxofur6s, 6 AA/oprof ; but generally ^ n<;A.of and i ^Errtliavpos) ; and 
the following names of countries : ^ Atyvrros, ii Xf^p6yri<T0Sy ^ "HvttpoSt ii ITcAo- 
ir6yyri<ros ; (b) names of cities in -wv, e. g. ri Bafiv\^yt -wyosy ^ Aax(8aifu»y, -ows, 
if *Ay^^6yt -iiyos, rj Xa\Krfi<&v, -6yoSf ii Kapxifi^y, '^i^os (except 6 OiVce&y and 6 
Bpavp^y^ -liyosy usually 6 VLapa^^yy -wras; but commonly^ iucvt^y, -Ayos)-^ (c) 
il Tpoi(tiyt -qras. The gender of the others is determined by the endings. 

(a) All names of countries in -os. Gen. %v (except those named above), are 
masculine, e. g. 6 B6<rwopost *l<r^fi6st Tl6yroSf 'EAA^nroKrot, Ai^MiA^ff ; all plural 
names of cities in -ot, Gen. -^y, e. g. ^iKanroi ; names of cities in -oDf ,^ Gen. 
-ovyroi, e. g. 6 T^ovs (some of these are used both as masculine and feminine, 
e. g. ^ikovf ; *AfiaJ^ov9, KepcuroSr, 'PofiyoSs, ^il^vsy and TporcCoOs, are feminine * 
only) ; those in -05, Gen. -aanosy e. g. 6 Tdpaa j those m -ei/>. Gen. -e«s, e. g. 

4 ^eofOTtis ; finally, 6 Mitnjs, Gen. -Yrrot ; 

(b) All names of countries of the first Dec. and those of the third, which 
have feminine endings, are feminine (see 4 66, II), e. g. ^ '£Acuo-b, -lyos, ^ 
SoAo/Js, -7yoSj etc. ; j , . ,, 

(c) All in -OK, Gen. -ov ; plurals in. -a, Gen. -wv, and those m -or, Gen. -our, 
are neuter, e.Q.rh "IAiok, tA AcDirrpo, t> 'ApTor, Gen. -ow5. 

4. The names of persons which have only one form for the 
Masc. and Fem. are of common gender, e'. g. 6^ ^cos, god and 
goddess; 6 17 ttoIs, hoy nndgirL 

Rem. 4. Movable substantives are such as change their ending so as to 
indicate the natural gender, e. g. 6 /SoriAfwj, king; ^ /ScurUcio, queen. See For- 
mation of Words. , *.,.,.,, 

Rem. 5. Substantives (mostly names of animals) which have but one gram- 
matical* gender, either Masc. or Fcra., to denote both genders, are called 
Epieene» (^ir/xm^a), e. g. ^ &Ad^{, the fox, whether the male or female fox ; 1^ 
iptcTJs^ the bear; rj' Kdfiri\oSj the camel; 6 fivs, the mouse; ^ x^^*^'^^ ^ swallow; 
4 oJs, the sheep ; rj fiovs (collectively), al fiStSy cattle; 6 tmros, horse (indefinitely), 
but in PI., al iinroi ; but when the natural gender is to be distinguished, &^^y, 
male J or ^\vs, female^ is added, e. g. \ayi>s & di}Avf, the female hare ; i\^ri^ ^ 
i^^y, the male fox ; or the gender may Ik5 indicated by prefixing the article, or 
by another adjective, e. g. 4 Apierosy the male bear. Some masculine names of 
animals have also tlio corrospondiiig feminine forms, e. g. & Kiwy a lion : \ 
Xtaiva, a lioness. ScC Rem. 4. — Here belong, in the second place, the Masc 
names of persons in the PL, whieh include the Fern., c. g. ot yoyw, t^tepartnia 
0l roiScT, liberi, the children (sons and daughters). 

Digitized by 




J 41. dumber. Case, and Dcclensioft 

1. The Greek has three Numbers ; the Suigiilar, denoting one 
person or thing ; the Plural more than one ; and the Dual, two. 

Hemabk 1. The dual is not often used; it is found nio^^t frequently in the 
Attic dialect ; it docs not occur in tho JEolic, nor in the Uellenistic Greek 

2. Tlie Greek has five Cases,i Nominative, Genitive, Dative, 
Accusative, and Vocative. 

Rem. 2. The Nom. and Voc., as they represent an object as independent of 
any other, are called independent cases (cagtu recti) ; the others, as they rep- 
resent an object as dependent on or related to some other, ore called dependent 
cases {casus ofHiqui). 

Rem. 3. Neuter substantives and adjectives have the same form in the Nom., 
Ace, and Voc. of all numbers. The dual has only two case-endings ; one for 
the Nom., Ace, and Voc, the other for the Gen. and Dat. 

3. Tliere are in the Greek ^hree different ways of inflecting 
substantives; distinguished as the First, Second, and Third 

Rem. 4. The three declensions may be reduced to two principal declensions, 
viz. the stratiff and the weak. The case-endings of the strong arc prominent and 
dearly distinguishable, while those of the weak ar« less distinctly marked. 
Words of the third Dec. belong to the strong, those of the first and second to 
the weak. In the third Dec. the case-endings uniformly appear pure; in the 
first and second this is less so, because in these declensions the stems end in a 
Towel, and hence combine with ^e ciuvr^ndings which l)egin with a vowel. 
The inflexion of both the principal declensions, in the Masc. and f'em^ is aa 
follows : — 


PluraL I 

DoaL 1 











V and a 

I— n * 











} 42. First Declension, 

The first declension has four endings, a and 17 feminine ; a« 
®^d lys masculine. 

See a fuller statement under the Cases in the Syntax, S 268, seq. 

Digitized by 











i a or fi 
vs as us 
V f V 

a a 17. 

as or IIS 

f V 
ay ijK 





Rebiark 1. It will be seen from the above terminations, that the plural as 
well as the daal endings are the same, whatever may be the form of the singn- 

BsM. 2. The original ending of the Dat. Fl. was aitri (1/), as in the second 
Dec. oi(ri(v), e.g. S^KOMri, tcuo'i, Kofivou&i^ i^coTtri, aixiKpolai^ ayv&oieri. This 
form is also found in the Attic poets, and is not foreign even to prose, at least 
to that of Plato, especially in the second Dec. Even tbe Ionic form -^ai (y) 
is sometimes used by the Attic poets. 

M3. Nouns of the Feminine Gender, 

1. (a) The Nom. ends in d or a, which remains in all the 
Cases, if it is preceded by p, c, or i {a pure), e. g. xapa^ land; 
tSiOf/orm; <ro<f>iaytinsdom; xp^Coytitility ; €uyoui, benevolence ; here 
also belong the contracts in a (see No. 2), e. g. /im; some sub- 
stantives in d, e. g. dAoAo, war-'cry, and some proper names, e. g. 
'Ai^/xc^a, ArfBa, FeXo, OcAo/a^Xo, Gen. -ag, Dat -9, Ace. -w. 

Beuabk 1. Th; following words whose stem ends in p, take the ending i| 
instead of a: K^pq, maiden; K6p^^ cheek; B4prif neck; ii^dpri, water-grud; and 
some proper names introduced from the Ionic dialect, e. g. 'E^^pij ; the 1} then 
remains throogh all the cases of the Sing. — If any other vowel than e or *, 
precedes, the Nom. and all the cases of the Sing, have 17, e. g. iuco4i, ^v^, trKtvii, 
{00^ \ except %6ci, grass; XP^ color; or 60, porch; y^ Jidd; (ruc^o, gourd; 
tcaff^ iDcdniU-tree ; ^A^ olive-tree; AXamC, threshing-floor; Nawrutda^ all Gen. -as. 

(b) The Nom. ends in a, which remains only in the Ace. and 
Voc. ; but in the Gen. and Dat, it is changed into ly, if the a ia 
preceded by A, AA, cr, <rcr (tt)^ {, f, ^. . 

Rbm. 2. The ending is commonly in a when y precedes, e. g. ^x*'"^ (*® ©»" 
pecially in words in -atya) ; but ij is often found, as is always the case in the 
suffix aiyri, e. g. tv^^pwr^yji, also ^o^vq, vp^fumi and irffd/Ayoj w«M »»<l »«««. 
Aiaira is the only word ending in a preceded by a hiiv^Iq t. 

(c) In other cases, the Nom. ends in 17, which remains 
throughout the singular. 

Digitized by 





2. If a is preceded by c or a, -©a is contracted in most worda 
into §, and -da into a in all the Cases (comp. fioppas, ♦ 44, 3). 
The final syllable remains circimiflexed in all the Cases. 

Rem. 3. The first Dec. is called the a declension, as its uninfected forms 
Qod in a, e. g. yy^ym from the uninflected yytifua (comp. <rvic^a), yecofias from 
the uninflected ytatda, voXlrris from iroA^rea; the second, the o declension, as 
its uninflected forms end in o, c. g. A^y, uninflected form Xiyo ; the third, the 
consonant declension, as its uninflected forms end in a consonant, and the vowels 
and V, which originated from consonants. 


S. N. 

a) 1} through all the cases. 

Opinion. Fig-tree. 

il yyiifin <rvK'(^a)ri 
rris yyd/JLiis a-vK-ris 
rn yy<&fiv <rvc-^ 
rify yy^firiy cvK^y 
2 yy^im avK-rj 

bJ d through 


ffKl-i I 

all Hie cases. 


c) &, Gen. i|t. 

Hammer. Lioness. 

v^v^ XdoiyA 
<r^f>ds Xeaiyris 
tr1>ip9 Xealyp 
e^vp&y Xiaiv6^ 
ir<pvp& X4cuv& 


ad yywfuu ovk-cu 
Tuv yvwfiwy auK'Say 
rats yv^fjuati cvK-tus 
T^f yyt&fAOs irvK'OS 
& yv&ftcu avK-cu 













T^ yy^fUL aVK-a 
raty yydtfuuy avK-cuy 





Remark 1. On the form of the article ri& instead of rd, see 4 241, Rem. 10. 
On the declension of the article ^, see § 91. The i standing before the singn- 
lar and plural Voc. is a mere exclamation. 

Rem. 2. On the contraction of -ca into -i}, see § 9, 11. (a) ; in the plural and 
dual of the first and second declensions, however, -ea is contracted into a. 
Comp. § 9, II. (b). Nouns in -aa are contracted as follows: N. fudety /tpm 
(mina)t G. fiydas, fiyas, D. fivcif, fiy^, A. ^ydm , uvay; PI. N. /xyai, etc 

i 44. II. Nouns of the Masculine Gender, 

1. The Gen. of masculine nouns ends in -ov; nouns in -a? 
retriin the a in the Dat., Ace, and Voc, and those in -lys retain 
the 1/ in the Ace. and Dat. Sing. 

2. The Voc. of substantives in -179 ends in a: — 

(1) All in -TT/s, e. g. ro^oTrjs, Voc. to^oto, Trpo^ijn;?, Voc. irpo^^ 

HL; (2) all in -179 composed of a substantive and a verb, e. g. 
y€0)//-€Tpi79, Voc. yc<i)/Aer/)a, fxvpoTrwXrys, O SolvC'Selierf Voc. fivpo 

Digitized by 


♦ 44.] 



irtoXa; (3) national names in 179, e. g. II^ot/?, a Persian^ Voc 
n^a. — All other nouns in -t^s have the Voc. in rj, e. g. Hip^nj^ 
Perses (the name of a man), Voc. IlifHnj. 

3. Tlie remarks on contract feminine nouns (i 43, 2), ap- 
ply to Masc. nouns contracted from -€as, e. g. 'EpfiTJs, )3oppas. 
In fiopia^, the ca is contracted into a, Eind not into 97, since p 
precedes, } 43; 1 (a). The doubling of the p in poppas is merely 

Remabk 1. Contrary to § 43, I, compounds of iuTp4<» (to measure)^ m 
yfcefi4rp7is,end in -lyj instead of -«; on the contrary, several proper names, etc, 
as UtkoviBai and ytyyiiXias^ a noble^ end in -as instead of -ris. 

Rem. 2. Several masculine nouns in -as have the Doric Gen. in d, namely, 
rrarpaXoias, firirpa\olasy patricide^ matricide; hpvt^o^past foider; also several 
proper names, particularly those which are Doric or foreign, c. g.*TAa», Gen. 
*TAa, ^xSwaSt -d, *Ayv()3as, -d, 2<;AAa5, -d ; (the pure Greek, and also several 
of the celebrated Doric names, e. g. *Apx^aSf Afuy(9as, llaMraaftca (also the 
Boeotian 'Eira^iyc^i^Sar), commonly have ov;) finally, contracts in ast e. g. 
Bofi^as, Gen. fio^a. 


Sing. N. 





'EpfjL {4as) rii 














Plnr. N. 

















Rem. 3. The Ionic Genitive^nding -e» of Masc. nouns in -^s (§ 211), is 
retained even in the Attic dialect in some proper najnes, e. g. Bd\tu from 
eoAijs, T^p«« from T^pi?*. — The contract fio^^as is also found in the Attic 
writers in the uncontractcd form ; thus, $op4aSf X. An. 5. 7, 7. PI. Phaedr. 229, 
b. fiop4ov, Th. 3, 23. fiop4ctv, 3, 4. 

Rem. 4. The ending ns occurs, also, in the third Dec. To the first Dec. 
belong: (a) proper names in -iHris and -eteriy, e.g. &ovKiilhis,*Ajp*lBTts (from 
*Arp€ and (8ijf), MiAri^Si^s, as well as gentile nouns, e. g. SiropricCrT}; ; (b) nouns 
in -TTjs derived from verbs, e. g. voi'frnis from iroicw ; (c) compounds consisting 
of a substantive and verb, or of a substantive compounded with another of thfl 
ftrst Dec, e. g. vaiBorpt^s, fii$\toir<&\riSf iLpx^ftKnis, 

Digitized by 



4 45. Quantity and Accentuation of the First 

a. Quantity. 

1. The Nom. ending a is short in all words, which have the Gen. in -nis [f 43, 
1 (b)] ; but long in those which have the Gen, in -af , e. g. m-cA/d, (ricii, oo^itL, 
roiSefd, xP^toy xpotd, v^a, Wp^? Ai}5A, iXoAd, etc. ; the same is true of«^e FenL 
ending of adjectives in os, c. g. i\€v^4pd, ^ikoIou 

The following classes of words have a short in the Nom. : — 

(a) Dissyllables, and some Polysyllabic names of places in -ai A, e. g. "Urrlaaa^ 

(b) Trisyllables and Polysyllables in -ei&, e. g. oA^dcia, M^Scta, /3a(r(Aeia, 
queeny ykvKfta, except abstracts from verbs in -c^«, e. g. Paai\tia, Jdng- 
dom ; SovK^lof servitude (from /ScuriActJo), SovAc^w) } 

(c) the names and designation of females, etc. in -rp to, e. g. t^^rpio, afetnaU 
musician^ words in -v<&, e. g. fu/tdy rrrv^via, the numeral /Jd, and, finally, 
some poetic words ; 

(d) Trisyllables and Polysyllables in -oi&, e. g. ci^voia, &yota] 

(e) words in -pd whose penult is long by a diphthong (except ov), by, v, or 
by fi^, e. g. irtipot /*^X«*P« i y^<P^P^f a<pvpa ; Ui^fi^ 'Erolpd, vaXalarpd^ 
At^pat *ai^pa, KoWtpa, are exceptions. 

2. The Voc. ending a is always short in nouns in -^s \ but always long in 
noons in -as, e. g. iroA.rA from roKtrtis^ ytayla from veayias. The quantity of 
Fcm. nouns in -a and -d, is the same in the Voc. as in tlie Nom. 

3. The Dual ending a is always long, e. g. Moi/o-d from Movacu 

4. The Ace. ending ay is like the Nom., e. g. Movaay, x^P^ from Movtrd, 

6 The ending as is always long, e. g. rhs rpair^Cds from r/kbrcfa, 6 ifcoWor, 
Tohs ytaylds, r^s oIkicls, rks otx/ds. 

b. Accentuation. 
6. The accont remains on the tone-syllable of the Nom., as long as tlie laws 
of accentuation permit. (4 30). 


(a) The Voc. Uffvora ttom Zt<nr6Tris, lord; 

(b) The Gen. PI. of the first Dec. always has the final syllable wy circom- 
flexed, which is caused by the contraction of the old ending d»y, e. g 
\«aty&y from A^cura, ytayt&y from ytcwUa, — But the substantives, XP^' 
rris, creditor; &^^, anchovy; irtitricUf monsoons; and x^o^^'i wild-hoar^ 
are exceptions ; in the Gen. PI. they remain Paroxytoncs, thus xp^trrwv, 
&^^y, irriffiwy (but et^vwy, xpfttaTwy from o^u^s, unoiii ; x/»T7<rr<Js, usfijul). 

Digitized by 





Rbmabk. On the accentnation of Adjectives, see § 75. 

7 The accent of the Nom. is changed, according to the quantity of the final 
ijrllable, thus: — 

(a) Oxytones become Ferispomcna in the Gen. and Dat of the three num- 
bers, e. g. (Nom. rifi'/i) rifiiist -p, -£y, -cup, -w] this holds, also, in the 
second Dec; e. g. ^e^s, -ov, -^ •wv, -ou^f 

(b) Paroxytones with a short penult remain so through all the Cases, except 
the Gen. PL, which is always drcumflezed on the last syllable; but 
Paroxytones with a long penult become Properispomena, if the last syl- 
lable is short, as in the Nom. PI., and in the Yoc. Smg. in a of Masc. 
nouns in -i|s (§ 44), e. g. yvf&firif ytrnftm, but ypm/MP] iroA/n|ff, voXTra, 
voArrctt, but iroArrSy ; on the contrary, Sfici}, SAcoi, but Hikw ; 

(c) Properispomena become Paroxytones, if the last syllable is. long, e. g. 
Movo'A, Mo^o^s ; 

(d) Proparoxytones become Paroxytones, if the lost syllable is long, e. g. 
X^cuKB, Xsaiyris, 

J 46. Second Declension, 

The Second Declensipn has two endings, 05 and ov ; nouns 
in -OS are mostly masculine, but often feminine (i 50) ; those 
in 'OV are neuter ; except Fern, diminutive proper names in -ov, 
e. g. ij VkvKipiov H 40). 



























and c OP, 




Remabk r. The Gen. and Dat. endings of the different genders are the 
same in all numbers; neuters have the Nom., Ace, and Voc alike in a1] 
Climbers, and in tlie plural they end in cu 

Bbm. 2. On th3 form of the Dat. PI. ouri (p), see S 42, Rem. 1. 


Digitized by 








6 K6y-os 
rov \6y-ov 
rv ArfrV 

£ A($7-« 


1^ KiiCOS 

rris yi\aov 
rn yiiv<ip 
riiy yrjcroy 


rov ^tov 

X ^y 
i Ms 


6 iyytKos 
* &77^Aou 



T^ <ri/Jcor 

Ty (T^iey 


ol \6y-ot 

rois A^7-oi* 
£ A<Jr«i 

al yncroi 
r&y y^t»y 
reus yifirois 
ris yiiaovs 
d^ yr^troi 

ol ^ol 
r&y b€&y 
rots ^wis 
rohs ^€ois 




rk trvKu 
r&y citumy 
rots iHtKots 
rk irvica 


roty xiy-oty 

rk y4icrw 
raiy yfioroty 

ri» »€ii 
ro*y ^foiy 



roty avKoty. 

Rem. 3. The Voc. of words in -os commonly ends in c, though ftftcn in -os, 
c. g. & iplxt, and & ^ikot \ always A dt6s in classic Greek. 

M7. Contraction of the Second Declension. 

1. A small number of substantives, with o or c before the 
case-ending, are contracted in the Attic dialect (I 9). 




6 irXAos itKovs 
irK&ov vAov 
ir\6» irAy 
ir\6oy irKovy 
irArfc irAow 


6 ircpiirAoof rwplirXovs 
wtptw\6ou wtpiirXov 
ir€ptw\6<p TFtpivXw 
irtplirXooy irtplicKovy 
irtplwKoc irc^/irAou 


T^ hor4oy iorovy 
iariw harw 
6<rr4i^ iar^ 
iardoy 6arovy 
iffrtoy wrrow 












ircf)iirAooc irtpivKoi 
wtptvkSwy ireplir\my 
irtptirX6ots irtplirKoiS 
irfpiw\6ovs ftpiirKovs 
rtplwXooi wtpiwXoi 

haria htrra 
64rr4e»y &<rr&y 
6ar4ots 6<rTois 
6<rr4a iora 
larU iara 




ircpnrA^ vcpfirAw 
irfp{v\6oty wtplwXoty 

oor4oty iaroty 

Only the following nouns hcsidcs the above arc contracted in this manner : o 
y6os^ yovs^ ffif wind ; A ii<<ov, ^ovx, n xirfam ; S dpoSf, noise ; 6 X^^* datm ; S a8«A 
^SoSf, a nephew; 6 ^vyarpiiovs^ grandson ; 6 kyt^taiovsy ton of a sister's child. 

Rrmark. Uncontrnctcd forms sometimes occur even in the Attic dialect 
though seldom in substantives, e. g. y6^, Plato, Prot 344, a; much oftcner in 
M^ectives, particularly neuters in -oo, as ra iyoa, ir^pAxXoa. On the oontne- 
tion of ca into a in the PL see { 9, XL (b) 

Digitized by 


» 48, 49.J 



M8. The Attic Second Declension. 

Several substantives and adjectives have tlie endings oh 
(Masc. and Fem.) and mv (Neut), instead of o^ and ov\ they 
retain the co through all the Cases instead of Jhe common 
vowels and diphthongs of the second Dec. and subscribe c 
under w where the regular form has ta or 04 ; thus, ov and a 
become id ; o9> ov, and ovs become ci>9j toy, and cos ; oc, 019, and ow 
become (^, a»Sy and i^v\ — cd, <p, and oif remain unchanged. The 
Voc. is the same as the Nom 


Sing. N. 



1^ ici£A-«y 


6 Aor^f 



Pliir. N. 



D. N. A. V. 



Bemabk 1. Some words of the Masc and Fem. gender often reject the y 
in the Ace. Sing., namely, 6 Xarf^s^ the hare; (Aoc. rhv Xary^v and Aoyi^), and 
commonly ^ Iwy, the davon ; i ^lAitfs, a threshing-floor ; 17 K/«j, ^ Kw5, ^ "A^wj, j^ 
T/«r, and tlie adjectives &7i7p»s, not old; lirlir\€ws,/aU; {rwipxp^tos, ffttiky. 

Rem. 2. This Declension is termed Attic, because, if a word of this class 
has another form, e. g. Aei6s and Ao^j, vt^s and pa6s, MtyiXtcts and Mci'^Aooy, 
the Attic writers arc accustomed to select the form in -eow; though, in the 
best Attic writers, tlie non-Attic forms also may be found. On the interchange 
of the long vowel in this Declension, see § 16, 5. 

♦ 49. Accentuation of Second Declension, 

1. The accent remains on the tonc-syllable of the Nom. as long as the quan- 
tity of the final syllabic permits ; the Voc. «8eA^e from iStXf^Sy brodur, is 
an exception. 

2. The change of accent is the same as in the first Dec. (§ 45, 7); m tho 
Gen. PI., however, only oxytones, e.g. ^e^j, are perispomena ; tho rest are pro . 
paroxytones. See the Paradigms. 

Digitized by 



5. The followiDg exceptions to the rales given for the accentaation of con 
tracts in § 30, 2, should be observed : (a) the Dual in » of words in -oos^ "^oSf 
•cov, has the acute instead of the circumflex, e. g. ir\6c9 = irXc6, ^or^cv = icr^, 
instead of irXw, offruy — (b) compounds and polysyllabic proper names, which 
retain the accent even on the penult, when it would -regularly stand as a cir- 
cumflex on the contracted syllable, e. g.ircf>iir\^v = ircpfirXov (inistead of 
ircp(irXoG), from xtpiirXoos '=^ wtpiirXovs \ Ileipii^t^ov = Ilcipf^ov (instead of 
tlcipi^^oD), from Tletpi^oos = Iletpi^ovs ; also adjectives, e. g. €vv6^v — c Upov (not 
wyov)^ from tHiroos = tUvovs ; yet the accent is never removed to the antepenult ; 
thus, rrtplirXoiy t.ot WptirXoi; Kouc^yot, not Kdxoyoi'j — (c) th Kdy^ou^ basket^ takes 
the circumflex on the ultimate, in the contract forms; hence k6v€ov=^ Knrovw 
(instead of iccCi'ovf ) ; — (d) words in 'Ms = Zous denoting kindred, have the cir- 
cumflex instead of the acute on the ultimate, e. g. &8cX^i8c^5 = &8eX^i8ovsy 
nephew (instead of &8cX^t8oi(f ). It may be stated as the rule, that all dmpls 
inbstantives and adjectives in -cor and -ooi take the circumflex on the contracted 
syllable, hence Kovowy &8cX^(8ot;;, xp^^^^^ (from xp^^"^^)- 

4. In the Attic Dec, Propopoxytones retain the acute accent on the antepe- 
nult through all the cases and numbers. See § 29, Bem. 7. Oxytones in -^ 
retain the acute accent in the Gen. Sing., contrary to § 45, 7 (aj, e. g. Xcci. A 
here absorbs o, the inflection-vowel of the Gen. (e. g. \6-y&^ =: x^ov), which 
accounts for this unusual accentuation, thus Xec6 instead of Xccl)-o. 

i 50. Remarks on the Gender of the Ending os. 

Substantives in -os are regularly Masc ; yet many are Fem. In addition to 
the names of countries, cities, and islands, mentioned under the general mle 
in S 40, the following exceptions occur, which may be divided into general 
classes* — 

(a) Substantives which denote certain products of trees and plants, e. g. 
1^ AicCXos, acorn; ri fidK&i/oSy acorn; -^ ^IfTffos, fine linen; ^ ^ok6s, a beam; i) 
^<£/35o5, a staff; ^ j8f/3Xo5, bark of the papyrus; ^ ^la^s, rush mat; 

(b) Such as denote stones and earths, e, g. 3 ^ Xi^os, a stone; ^ xJ^os, partic- 
ularly a precious stone; ^ 4^^oj, a small stone; ^ r^dfjifios, sand; 17 airo^6s, ashes ; 
§ fiiKros, red earth; ri Kp<KrTdKKos^ crystal (A KpitcraXKos, ice) ; ^ fidff&yos, a touch" 
stone ; ^ ijXfKTpos, electrum ; ii aftdpor/^os, a smaragdus ; ri jSwXoi, a clod; ^ Tv^of , 
gypsum; ^ 0aXoy, glass; ^ rir&vos^ chalk; ri &pyt\os, day; ri irX/v^oy, brick; ^ 
&tr$oXos, soot ; ri KSfirpos, ordure ; fi Ao-^oXroy, bitumen ; 

(c) Such as denote a hollow or cavity^ e. g. ^ KdpioiroSi kneading-trough ; fi xifim- 
tis and ^ X'/^^** ^ ^^» ^ <rop6s, a coffin; fi \rip6st a wine-press; ^ X^kja^o^, an 
oU-flask ; ^ Kd/uyoi, an oven ; ^ ifwpiafiAs, a chest ; rj ih;cXo$, tub ; 

(d) Such as express the idea of a tvay, e. g. ij 68<Jy, a road; r) ofia^rSs (sc. 
Ms)i a carriage-road; ^ rplfios and ^ &rpdiro5, afoot-path; 71 rd^posj a ditch; 

(e) Many of the above substantives were originally adjectives, and hence 
appear as feminine nouns, because the substantives with which they properly 
igreo are feminine. There are also many others, e. g. 17 aUxttos (sc d^pa^ 

Digitized by 


fj 51, 52."' 



pDuse-door; ri ffvc^ws (&c. y7i)iihe mainland; ii &ySipos (sc. 7^), thirsty land, desert ; 
1^ v4os (sc. x^f^)) CLfaUowJidd; ii riiaos (firom vciv, sc. 7^), an island; r/ SmUcic 
Tor (sc. ^1^)} a dialect; ii a^KXrrros (sc. /SovX*^), senate i fi fidpfinos (sc. Xi^/w), 
^y^/ V ^i^rpos (sc. 7pa^4), diameter; ff (more seldom 6) Akotos (sc. vavs), 
loat ; 71 d6\os (sc. ohcla), round building, etc. ; 

(f ) Several feminine noons which stand alone, and hence specially to be 
noted, e. g. ^ y6€ros, sickness; ri yvdS^s^ jaw-bone; ^ 9p6oros, dew; fi fiiiptydos, 
twine ; 

(g) Some words which have a different meaning in different genders, e. g. 
ttrwosj horse; i^Tvxor, marei also cavalry ; 6 X^fcS^or, peorsoup; ri XiKi^os, the 
yolk of an egg, 

Remask. On the diminntiyes in -oy, see $ 40, Eem. I. 

§51. Third Declension. 
The third Declension has the following Case-endings : 





5 Neut.— 



IT and a Neut.— 
mostly as the Nom. ; Neut. — 

f»; Neut. a 


as; — a 

f J J — 0. 





Beuarks oir TUB Cabe-endinos. 
§ 52. A. Nominative, 

1. The Nom. of Masculine and Feminine nouns ends in s, 
e. g.'o Kopai (instead of xopoic-s), ^ AatAcu/r (instead of AaIAxi7r-s) 
Still, the laws of euphony do not always allow the s to be an 
nexed to the stem ; it is either rejected entirely, or, as a com 
pensation, the short vowel of the stem is lengthened (H6, 3). 
But when the stem allows s to be annexed, the usual euphonic 
(♦ 20) changes take place in the final consonant of the stem. 

2. In this way all Masc. and Fem. nouns may be divided into 
three classes : — 

(ay The first class includes words, which in the Nom. assume 
the gender-sign s, e. g. 







6 K6paK'S K6pai(^ 20, I) 

il \atiirdJS-s XofLTTtis {^ 20, I) 

6 .yiy&yr-s yiyds (§ 20. 2) 

6 S€\^t^s 9t\fpls (§ 20, 2) 

6 h fi6F-s {bdv-s) fiovf, bOs (§ 25, 2) 

6 AtFs Ais (§ 25, 2) 




Digitized by 




It 53 






6 {Kitavr) \4wy 



6 Mr«p 




(b) Tlie second class includes words, which in the Nora. 
reject the gender-sign s, but, as a compensation, lengthen the 
short final vowel of the stem, c into rj, o into w ($} 16, 3, and 
20, Rem. 3), e. g. 


^ {aiZia-os) al^o-os ; 

(c) The third class includes words, which in the Nom. have 
the stem pure, since the stem neither assumes the gender-sign 
$9 nor lengthens its final vowel, e. g. 

6 d^p (instead of d^ip-s) .. f ^p^s 

6 fip»s ( " " fipwr-s) ^ ' {luKMr-os) fipct-os 

3. Neuters exhibit the pure stem in the Nom. ; still, euphony 
does not permit a word to end in r (i 25^ 5). Hence, in this 
case, the r is either wholly rejected (as in the Masa Xcow^ Gen. 
Xcovroc), or is changed into the corresponding o- (} 25, 5), e« g. 





rh wiwtpi 

rh ffiXas 

rh ((Tw/ior) o-M/ua 

rh (ripar) ripas 

f W€ir4pi-os or t-os 
d ^ (<r4Xaa''0s) ciKa-os 

[ ripar-os* 

Hemark. The stem vCp is lengthened in the Nom., contrary to tho rnle : 
T^ wvpf Gren. vvp-6s. 

i 53. B. The remaining Cases. 

1. The remaining Cases (with a few exceptions, which will 
be specially treated), are formed by appending the endings to 
the stem, e. g 

Stem KopoK ^om. nSpa^ Gen. nSpaK^s PL Nom. ir^peuc-cs. 

2. In forming the Dat PL by appending the syllable m to 
stems ending in* a consonant, the same changes take place as 
have already been noticed in regard to the Nom. of similar 
words [i 52, 2 (a)], e. g. 

ylyayrirt = ylyaurt 

K6paK^t = K6pa!^i 

fioF-crl =» fiowL 

The following points also are to be noted : — 

iL (a) The Ace. Sing, has the form in -v with masculines and 

Digitized by 


$ 63.] THIRD DECLENSION. . 7l 

feminines in -is, -vf> -av$, and -ov^y whose stems end in -i, -v, -av, 
and 'OVy e. g. ^ 

Stem voKi Nom. ie6\ts Ace. itSktyf Stem j3oTf)v Nom. ^pvs Ace. fiSrpvp 

vaFyau ydFs yavs pdiFy ycaVt fioF fiov fi6Fs fiovs fi6Fy fiovy. 

But the Acc. has the form in -a,J when the stem ends in a con- 
sonant, e. g. ^Xc^y <k^^9 ^X^a — KOpoK, Kopaiy icopeuc-a — Ao^ira^ 
XotfATTOs, XofLiraB-a. 

(b) Yet barytoned substantives in -ts and -V9, of two or more 
syllables, whose stems end with a Tau-mute, in prose have only 
the form in v, e. g. 

Stem ipiJH Nom. fyts Acc. fyiy (poet. Ipi8-a; in the dramatists fyty) 

ipyi^ ipyit Spyty . (poet. 6pyi^^) 

Kopv^ K6pvs xSpvy (poet. nSpv^a) 

XapiT x<^»» X<^»»' (poet. x<^«T-o). 

In prose there are but few exceptions, e. g. rtpyAoj X. H. 3. 1, 15, and else 
where (instead of T4pyty) from i^ Tdpyw, x^""^ (instead of x4p''')) 1^* 3- ^i 1^ 
in constant use rphroiaj tripod. (X. An. 7. 3, 27, r air/ 8a is to be read instead 
of riwi9a.) The goddess x^tt has xc(p<Ta in the Acc. ; still, in Lnc. Deor. d. 
15, 1 and 2, t^v X^"^* 

Bemabk 1. Oxytones of one or more syllables have only the regular form 
in •«, e.g. (voJ) roh, Acc. ir<J5-a; {i\inS) iKjrls, Acc. ^Xir/S-a; (x^flV^vS) X^" 
fi6sf Acc x^^^S-a. The monosyllable kXc£i, Gen. icXci8-^f, contrary to the 
rule, usually has the Acc. KKtiy, instead of kXcIS-o. 

4. The Voc. is like the stem, e. g. Battfuay, Gen. &u/iov-o9« Voc. 

Soi/iov. Still, euphony does not always allow the stem-form to 

appear. Hence the following points should be noted : — 
(1) The Voc. is like the stem in the following cases : — 
(a) When the final vowels of the stem, c and o, in the Nom. 

axe lengthened into rj and w, the short stem-vowel reappears in 

the Voc, e. g. 

Saifuoy Gen. 9aifjLoy-o9 Voc. 9aifioy 

yip»y ytpoyr-os yipo/y (instead of yiporr) 

^UtKpdnis ^UoKpdTf-os (instead of c<r-o$) Sc&xparcf. 

' It is probable that the Acc. Sing, in the third declension as well as in the 
first and second, originally ended in y ; but where the stem ended in a conso- 
nant, the y could not be appended without a union-vowel ; a was used for this 
purpose ; hence, e. g. K^pauccw ; the termination y was at length omitted Thfl 
Aoc ending a, may therefore strictly be regarded as a union-yowel. 

Digitized by 



Exceptions: Oxjtoned substantives (not adjectiyes) retain the lengthened 
YOweF, e. g. 

roifiiiy. Gen. voi/ji4y-oSt Voc. rotfiiiy (not voc/tcy), 
except the three oxjtones : irar^p, &>^p> and (o^p* which, in the Voc^ take 
again the short stem-vowel f , but with the accent drawn back, thus : wdrep, 
<y«p, 8acp. According to this analogy, even *HpaK\i4ii)rjs (stem 'H/mUXccs) is 
shortened in the Voc. by the later writers, into^H/MucXcs. 

(b) Adjectives in -ds. Gen. -ofo?, and also adjectives (not 
participles, see Rem. 5), whose stems end in -vr, have in the 
Voc. a form like the neuter (or the stem) ; ttSs and its com- 
pounds are exceptions, e. g. 

fUXas, Gen. dr-of Neut. and Voc. fi4?JI» 

Xopitis, . wirr-os X^^^ (instead of x^^i^t i^S, 3). 

So substantives in -ds. Gen. -ovros, have the Voc in -w (instead 
of -avr), i 52, 3, e. g. 

7^701 Gen. can-OS Voc. t^t&it (instead of yiyayr) 

K<£\x^ o'^'os Kd\x^ 

AXas avT'Os Al&y. 

Kem . 2. Some substantives of this class, with the t reject also the y, but us 
a compensation lengthen the short a, e. g. "ArAds, Gen. -oir^s, Voc. 'ArXd, 
TloXjMftaSi Voc. UoKMiul. 

(c) Substantives in -ts, -vs, -avs, -cvs, and -ous, whose stems 
end in -t, -v, -av, -eu, and -ov, have the Voc. like the stem, the 
s of the Nom. being rejected, e. g. 

vJams Voc. ju^[ia-i ; irp4<rfius Voc. irpecfiu ; /ivs Voc /iw ; <ri;j Voc. av \ Xls Voc 
\rj y/wvy Voc. 7pow ; ficuriKth Voc. /3a<riAcG ; /3oDy Voc. /Sow. 

The word tcuj, Gen. ireuS'6s, has ircu in the Voc, since, by rejecting the gender- 
sign s, the stem would end in 8 (ircuS), a letter which cannot end a word, and 
must be dropped. 

Rem. 3. Substantives in -is, -vs, -ms, whose stems end in a consonant, have 
the Voc like the Nom., e. g. 2 Bpyis, Kipvs, iro6s. Still, some substantives in 
-IS, Gren. -syos, have the Voc. like the stem, e. g. 2 BtKply (also 9tKpls), from 
8(X^/sf» Gen. -7yos. 

(d) The Voc. is like the stem in all words, wliich in the 
Nom have their stem pure, e. g. Si^p, alu>v, etc.; but 'AiroXXwv 
(Gen. '<i>v(ys), noo-ct&i>i^ (-tuvo?) and a-wm^p (rVP^) ^® exceptions, 
tho Voc»tivo.s beinij ^ 'A^roAAov, UocrciSoi', o-a«-cp, with the accent 
draw^ onck 

Digitized by 




(2) The Voc. is not like tlie stem, but like the Nom., in most 
words whose stems end in one of the consonants which cannot 
euphonically stand as the final letter Q 25, 5), because after 
dropping the stem-consonant, frequently it could not be de- 
termined from the Voc. what the true stem was; e. g. from 
orap$. Gen. (rapK'6^, the Voc. would be aap (instead of <rapK) ; from 
6 ^€i)9y Gen. ^cor-dsj Voc. ffua (instead of ^(ur) ; from vt^. Gen. 
w^o?, Voc. vi (instead of w<^) ; from «5^, Gen. <&ir-os, Voc. & 
(instead of wir) ; from irovs, Gen. iro8-os, "^^oc. «■•. 

Rem. 4. The Voc. of &mi(, Icings in the Common langaage, is like the Nom. 
€ &ya{, or by Crasis 2ya{ ; bat in the Botemn language of prayer : Z Ay& (in 
(lorn, and the Attic poets, e. g. Soph. O. C. 1485 : Zw tvoy <roL ^y£), or £r& 
(instead of $»wr^ according to \ 25, 5). 

3. Substantives in -w and -ws, whose stems end in -09, have 
the Voc. neither like the stem, nor the Nom., but, contrary to 
all analogy, in -ot, e. g. 
Stem ^ixw N. ^<& G. ^^x^* (instead of ^x«^-«*) V. ^x»* (instead oi^x^h ^X^«) 

Rev. 5. The Voc. of all participles is like the Nom., e. g. t TOirruy, rvrv 
f^f , Tv^, r^^, Scuci^s. "ApxMf, Voc. ft^oif, when a substantive, is an 


$ 54. I. The Nom, adds <r to the stem 

(a) The stem ends in X ; thus : 6 17 aXs, Gen, dX-o^, Dat PL 
aX^L(yy See Rem. 1. 

(b) The stem ends in a Pi or Kappa-mute — p, w, ^; y, 77, 
X, pK (^a-dpi, o-opx-os), and x* See } 52, 2 (a). 

(c) The stem ends in a Tau-mute — 8, t, kt, ^, v*^. See 
♦ 52, 2 (a). On the Ace. see i 53, 3 (b). 

The stems of the Kcutcr, belonging to this class, end in r and kt {yaXMcr), 
bnt, according to § 25, 5, reject the t and kt ; thus : itu/m instead of trw/ior, and 
yd\a instead of ydXaicr ; or, according to ^ 52, 3, they change the r into «•; on 
the omission of the t before <n in the Dat. PI. see ^ 20, 1. 

(d) The stem ends in v or vt. See } 52, 2 (a). 


Digitized by 





Sing. N. 

Plur. N. 

^, Storm, rit Torch. ^, Helmet, rh. Body. ^, Nose, i, Tooth. 

Xo/Aair-i Xev4ird[8-i kSov^i ac&fMT-i piv-i oBomi 
Xa/A&ir-a \afiirdS-a k6ow au/na f>7¥-a diSvT-a 

AaiXdT-fff Aa^irc(5-cf K6pub-€S crtifuer-a p7if-€S Mpt-^s 

\ai}iilfflfi{y) Xafurd-ffiiy) K6pv-(n{y) ir<&fm'ffi{y) ^r-<r((K) iBov-<riiy) 
KadX&tr-as Xofiirdd-at kSov^-^es aAiuer-a fiip-as Mm-as 
Xai)Jkir-^s XtifiirdS-ts KOpv^ts a^ftar-a piyts Mtrr-^s 

G. and D. 

XtuXiT-ow KafiwdS^iy Kopvi^ 'iv irmfidr-oaf ^tv-ouf Mpt-ow, 

So: 6 Kdpik^j -djcoff, raven; 6 Kifvy^, 'vyyof, throat; 6, i^ 6pyISt -E^of, bird; 4 
Aya|, -wcTos, king; ii tKfuySf -tyhos^ tape-worm; 6 9§Xph, -ttfoSf dolphin; 6yiyds, 
-iwToSf giant^ etc 

RsMABK 1. The stem of noons in -\^ and -( commonly ends in the smooth 
w and K ; the stem of those in ^( ends in -77, except 6, ii X^|, Gen. Xiryjc-^y, 
Itfnx (but 1} X^(, Gen. Xvyy-^s, hiccough). Instead of ^dpvyyoi from 17 ^dpvy^, 
throaty the poets, according to the necessities of the verse, use ^dpvyos also. On 
i i^P^I. rpix6st hairj see i 21, 3. 

Bem. 2. The word ^ &Xf , Gen. axSst signifying sea, and in the Fem. gender, 
is only poetic, and the Sing. 6 ^s, signifying salt, is only Ionic and poetic ; 
elsewhere, only o2 Sxes, soft, occurs (PL Symp. 177, b. Lys. 209, e). 

Bem. 3. To class (c) belong also the contracts in -nls, Gen. -ii(ios » -^Sj 
'^Zos, e. g. ^ ^ttpjfs, cheekj woffBos. 

Bem. 4. The stem of rb o3s, ear, is orr, thus : Gen. &^6s, Dat url, PI. ih-o, 
Jftrwir, wo-((y). The word rh r4paSf according to the rule of the ancient gram- 
marians, nsnally admits j^ontnction in the plural, among the Attic writers, 
after the t is dropped: r4pa, rtp&w (but X. C. 1. 4, 15. PI. Phil. 14, e. Hipp 
300, e. WpoTo) ; — rb y^pas^ reward of honor; rh Tnpos, Mage; rh Kp4as, fleshy 
^ and rb Kipasj homy reject r in all the Numbers, and then sniFer contraction in the 
Gen. and Dat. Sing., and throughout the Dual and Plural (except the Dat PI.) ; 
yet K^pCLSy besides these forms, has the regular form with r ; Thucyd. uses the 
contracted forms ; the uncontracted Ktpara occurs only in 5, 71. K4pets is uni- 
formly employed in the phrase M xdpoosy in column. When the a, contracted 
from aa, is used by the poets as short, it must be considered a case of elision, 
not of contraction ; the same is true also of Neuters in -cu, -aos, -oy, -cof, e. g. 
I (fir. iTKhus) instead of trxiird, icXcd (fr. ic\ios) instead of kX^ 

Digitized by 


♦ 55.1 



Sing. N. 

rh r4paSf wonder. rh K4pas, horn. rh Kp4asy flesh. 

rrpoT-oj K4paT-o5 and K4pus {Kp4a-os) Kp4ces 

ripar-t K4paT't and K^p^ {Kp4a'J) Kp4^ 

Plur. N. 

T4paT-a and r4pa 
rtpdr-wy and rtpHy 

K4par-a and Kcpa 
K€p6.T't0V and KtpSsy 

{Kp4a-a) Kp4d 
[Kptd-wy) Kpf»y 



Kcpor-c and K4pd 
Ktpdr-oiy and Ktp^v 

(Kp4a-€) Kptd 

{lCp€d'Oty) Kp€^, 

Bem. 5. To class (d) belong also the contracts in -6€is, Gen. -Styros ~ ovs^ 
ovvros, c. g. 4 irXofcot/y, oa^ Gen. irXxucovyros j also in -4«y, Gen. -^cvrof = -Jj, 
-5i»T05, e. g. Ti/tp J, honorable^ rtfAriyros, 

Rem. 6. For the irregular lengthening of the vowel in icrtls, cTr, pJtms, and 
rdkSLs, see ^ 20, Rem. 2. 

^ 55. II TAe Nom. rejects 9, 6«i lengthens the short 
final vowel of the stem € or o into 7f or io-Ci 16, 3). 

1. The stem ends in -v, -vr, and -p. For the omission of v, 
and vr, before <r«, see } 20, 2, and for the omission of t, in the 
Nom. of stems ending in vr, e. g. X^wv, see { 25, 5. 

2. The following "Substantives in -rjp: 6 iraT^p, father ; ij fwy- 
nyp, mother ; ^ SvydTr)p, daughter; ^ yacniQp, belly; 17 Arffii^rrfp, 
Demeter (Ceres), and 6 dnyp, ?naw, differ from those in the above 
paradigms only in rejecting c in the Gen. and Dat. Sing, and 
Dat PL {h 16, 8), and in inserting an a in the Dat PL before 
the ending <n, to soften the pronunciation. 

The word ky(\p (stem &y^f>), rejects c in all Cases and Numhers, except the 
Voc. Sing., but inserts a 8*(§ 24, 2), thus: Gen. ftySptfy, Dat. ki^pU Ace. Jky^pa^ 
Yoc. &ycp, PI. Jky^ptSt kyBpwy^ kyipiLfft(y)^ MpaSf etc 

Sing. N. 

4, Shepherd. 6, Lion. 
*ot/i'fiy \4«y 
icatfUv-os \4oyr-os 
irotfi4y-i x4oyT-i 
•irotfji4y-a \4oyT-a 
troipJiy \4o» 

6, Orator. 


*, Father. 


il, Daughter. 






Plur. N. 

iroifi4y-ts \4oyT'(s 
iroifi4v'uy Ke^yT'wy 
irotii4'Ci ( V ) \4ovffi ( V ) 
voifi4v'as \4oyT'as 
irotfi4y'€S \4oyr-ts 











^vyver4p€S . 


iroifi4y-€ \4ovr'^ 
iroi/i4y'Oiy Ktdyr-oty 



Digitized by 





Bemjlbk 1. The substantive ^ x«^P> hand, belongs to nonns of class No. 9^ 
and differs from them only in not lengthening the c of the stem (xep) into % 
but into ex, e. g. x^^P instead of x^P* i ^^ i^ irregular in retaining the ci ia 
mflection, thus : x«^Pi X^v'*"* <^*^-> except in the Dat PI. and tlie Gen. and Dat. 
Dual xcp^^t")} X^P^^' ^^^ ^ poctiy, the short as well as the long form is used 
in all the Cases, as the necessities of the verse require, e. g. x^^P^^ ^nd x^P^^> 
X^pouf and x^H^^y X*P^ <"^^ x^^P*^^ 

Bem. 2. The following nouns in -«y, Gen. -ows, reject the y in particular 
Cases, and suffer contraction : q cuciir, image, fucSyost tixSyi, eucdya, €uc6ycu, etc., 
together with the Ionic and poetic forms: Gen. tUovs, Ace. tuc^, Ace. PL cocoas 
(the irregular accent is to be noted in thcd and tUovs) ] ri injS^y, nightingale^ 
Gren. hrfi6yos and &1780VS, Dat. hifio7\ ri x^^i-^^Vi swaUow, Gen. x'^^^^^^^i ^^^ 

Rem. 3. To class No. 2, belongs the obsolete Nom. 6, ^ 'APH'N, lamb; the 
Nom. of this is supplied by 4 ^ ktiy6s, Gen. kpy6s, Dat. &py(, Ace. Jkpvtk, PL 
Nom. &py€f, Gen. kpy&y, Dat. hpvixri{y). Ace. iLpyas\ farther, the word 6 iurrfip, 
-4pos, star, though not syncopated like varfip, etc belongs to this class oA account 
of the assumed a in the Dat PL iurrp&(ri{v). In substantives belonging to 
class No. 2, the accent of the Gen. and Dat. Sing, (and in the word ayfip, also 
that of the Gen. PL and Gen., and Dat Dual) is removed by s3mcope to the last 
syllable, and that of the Dat. PL to the penult, e. g. ircerpSs, wotrpl, iuf^pmr, 
iraTp&fft{y). The word Ariftfynip has a varying accent, viz. Aiifinrpos, A^/ii|- 
Tpt, Yoc. A-fifirir^p (but Ace. Aij/iirr^pa). So also- ^^yartp Voc. of ^vydrnp. 
On the Yoc. of vcrr^p and ay^p, see § 53, 4 (1) (a). .In poetry, according to the 
necessities of the verse, are found d^yarpfSy ^uyarp&y, A-fifjLrjrpa, and also, on 
the contrary, vartpos, dvyter^pos, firrrtpu 

} 56. Ill The Stem of the Nom, is pure. 
The s is omitted without changing the final vowel of the 
stem. The stem ends in v, vr, p, and (only in Sdfiop, tpi/e) in 
pT. The Case-endings are appended tb the Nom. without 
change. On the omission of t in stems ending in vr and pr, see 
i 25, 6; and on the omission of v, vr, before (r^ see } 20, 2. 

Sing. N, 

6y Paean. 


6. Age. 






6, Xenophon. 




6, Wild beast 




. rh, Nectar. 



Plur. N 
















y^KTop a 
y4KT<fp a 







Digitized by 





Semask I. The three words in -wy^ Gen. -ttyos: *Aw6?iXuy, noati9&tf, i| 
(iKo9¥f ihrething-floor^ drop v in the Ace. Sing., and suffer contraction; thus, 
('Av^AXwiu, *Air^XA»a) *Air^AAw, IlmrciSflf, BXu (on £a», comp. S 48, Rem. 1^ OD 
KUK€&y S 213, 11). Also the Ace. yX-hx^^ from ^ 7X4x<vi' oi" ^kiix^t P^f^f^S' 
royal, Gen. -onws, is found in Aristophanes. 

Kbm. 2. All the Neuters belonging to this doss end in -p (op, op, «p, vp)^ 
c. g. T& y^KTapi ^Top, w4Xmpf vup (Gen. «i/p<(y). The word rb lap, springy ma/ 
also be contracted, e. g. lip. Gen. ^pos. 

B. Words which hatb a yowel beyorb the sndiho -os in thb'Gbn. 
} 57. I. Words in -€vs, -aSs, -ovs- 

1. The stem of substantives in -€vs, -au?, -ovs, ends in v (from 
the Digamma F); s is the gender-sign. On the omission of v 
between vowels, see i 25, 2. 

2. Substantives in -cw have -cd in the Ace. Sing., and •^d$ in 
the Ace. PL, from c Pa, iFas ; the omission of the F lengthens 
the a and as. These nouns have the Attic form in the Gen. 
Sing., viz. -«i)s instead of -cos, and in the Dat. Sing, and Nom. 
PL admit contraction, which is not usual in the Ace. PL When 
a vowel precedes the ending -cvs, as, e. g. x^w, Ev^ocvs, the end- 
ings -cox, -cuiVj -cd, -cds are also contracted into -a>9> -Siv, -a, -as. 
Npuns in -aSs and -ovs are contracted only in the Ace. PL, which 
is then like the Nom. PL, as in all contracts of. Dec. IIL 

Sing. N. 


6, King. 


6, A measure. 




6, ^, Ox. 

fiovs, bds for boTS 

0o^s, bSv-is 

fio'f, bov-i 



4» Old woman. 



Plur. N. 

fia4rik4-ds (and 

cij) xo(4a)as 


/Bo^if, WJ-am 










Kemark 1. Among the Attic poets, the Gen. Sing, of nouns in -€^f some* 
times ends in -40$ instead of '4us ; thus Btitrios, iLpt<Fr4otf and the Ace. Sing^ 
not only in the Attic, but in all the poets, sometimes ends in -ir> instead of -^ 
«. g. l^P^f ^vyypwpTj. The Nom. and Voc. PI. in the older Attic writem, 

* Commonly written x^*» contract x^^* 

Digitized by 


78 THIRD DECLENSION. [H 58, 59. 

especially in Thacjdides, end also in -tjs (formed from the Ionic -^cr), e. ^. 
Qcurtkiist Iinrijs, IIAaTcu^s instead of IXAaTcucts. The uncontracted Norn. Sria^^s 
occijrs in PI. Theaet. 169, 6. The Ace. ending -cZr instead of -dds is veiy 
common in Xen., e. g. rohs Ivmis, C. d. 5, 19. robs yovw, 2. 2, 14. ypoup^U^ 
OKvruSi xa^c^^> 3. 7, 6. rohs ficuri\us, 3. 9, 10. and elsewhere, but more seldom 
among the other Attic prose writers. The Ace. vitts is regular in all the Attic 

Rem. 2. The following are declined like x^^' ' ncipaie^f , Gen. n€ipauis. 
Ace. IIcifNua, 6 iyvifisf aUar before the door, Gen. hyviSts, Ace. dyvm, Ace. PL 
&7VIM, and several proper names, e. g. *LpvrptAs, 2tc<p<S5, Mi^Aia, E&jSowf, 
E&jSoa, EhfioSs, IXAaraiof , A»ptas ; jet the uncontracted forms are often fonnd 
in proper names, e. g. Bfffin4»f, Bcffwidas, :Sr€ipUa, IIAarcu^«y, 'Eperpid^y, 
Aupidmy, Tl€tpaA4mf (in Tho, X., PL, Dem.). The uncontracted forms are 
regular in aMtis, fisherman, a\i4w5, a\Ua, aXiiai, 

Rem. 3. The Nom. PL of fiovs and ypavs are always uncontracted in good 
Attic writers : B^cs, ypats ; on the contrary, in the Ace. only the contract forms 
ypavs and veais occur ; the Ace. PL fiovs is the common form } fi6as occurs only 
very seldom. 

Rem. 4. Only 6 x^^f ^ measure, a mound, and ^ ^vs, vinegar-tree, are de- 
clined like fious ; but in the PL both without contraction ; only ^ vmis (viFs, 
navis), is declined like ypavs ] still, this noun is quite irregular; see \ 68. 

{ 58. II. Wor'ds in -lys, -cs {Gen, -cos); -ws {Gen. 
-(D09), -cos and -co {Gen» -oos^; -as {Gen, -aos), -o« 
{Gen, -cos). 

The stem of words of this class ends in s. On the omission 
of cr, see k 25, 1. In the Dat PL, a cr is omitted. 

♦ 59. ^1) Words in -lys and -cs. 

1. The endings -i^ and '€^ belong only to adjectives (the 
ending -17s is Masc. and Fem., the ending -cs neuter), and to 
propoT names, terminating like adjectives, in -^on^s, -ficn/s^ 
•ycn/s, 'Kpdnijs, ^fi'q&rjf;, •TreCSrf^, •o'Shrrj^, -rcXiys, -fo/Siys, -civ-^t^s, 'ipicrf^, 
'Pdfrr^i 'dfJTf^ ("i?f>'70> -opw/s, -vcuots, -XoftTn^s, -o-a#nys, -rwxv^, and 
(icXei/s) #cX^. The neuter exhibits the pure stem (} 52, 3) ; but 
in the Masc. and Fem., c, the short final vowel of the stem, is 
lengthened into 17 [§ 52, 2 (b)]. 

2. The words of this class, after dropping cr, sufier contraction 
in all the Cases, except the Nom. and Voc. Sing, and Dat PL ; 
and nouns in -icXoys, which are already contracted in the Nom- 
Sing. (into kX^), sufier a double contraction in the Dat Sing. 

Digitized by 



Singular. FlaraL 

aeupfis, dear. aa(p4s (capi-ts) ffopus (vap4-a) vcu^ 

{ffwpi-os) ' ffapcvs \ca!p4'^v) (rwp&p 

{vwpi'X) cwpu , caipi-ctiv) 

{vwpi-a) vwp^ aa^s (ao^^-of) ' trcupus {va^-a) aapfi 

cwpis aa^4s (caip4-€s) cw^Ts {cm^i^) vapri 

Dual N. A. V. I o-o^-c wpn 
G. and D. | vmp4-oiy» o-o^ur. 

Singular. FlaraL Daal. 

^ rpvfipns^ trireme, yrpvhp^^s) rpudptu rpt^pc^c 

(Tprf/p€-o$) rpt^povs {rpnip4-mv) rpvtipuw rptfiff4-9» rpsiipoip 



) rpt4tp>n {rpufyw-as) rpt^ptit 

rpaipts (rpi^pc-cr) rpiiiptts 


2«MEfM(Ti9S (IlffpaeA^s) TltpucXvf 

iMKpierws (U^pucXU-os) IltpucKiovs 

ItfKpdrti (ncf>tk\^c-<) {UtptK\4ti) IIcpixXcI 

IwKpdn^ (nep<icAce-a) UcpiitX^ (Foet. also IlcpiJcXi) 

Z^KfMtrcf (IlfpdcXccr) nep(itXc». 

Bemabk 1. On the contraction in the Pual of ec into 17 (not into ci), and in 
the Ace Fl. of -car into -c<s,' see \ 9, n. When a yowel precedes the endings 
•IIS, -€s, then -ca in proper names in -irX^r is always contracted into -d, and 
commonly also in adjectives (^ 9, IL), e. g. U€put\4t-a^ IlcpwX/d; iutXefis, 
without fame, hc\tw = dicAco, ^t^s, heaUhy, ^i4a » ^m, ^ySei^s, poor, M*fa » 
^ySco, iv€ppvfis, gupematuralf Iftt^ppvia = tvtppva (Ace. Sing. Masc, and Nom^ 
Ace, and Yoc. Fl. neater) ; but sometimes Uie contraction into -tj occurs, e. g. 
dyiq, 9(^1/^, A^v^, o^ro^tni, X B. Equ. 7, 11 (in all the MSS.). The Ace. FL 
Masc. and Fem. has -ctr, e. g. dyicTs, aJbropvus. 

Rem. 2. Froper names in 'Kpdrns, -a^dytisy -y^tmis, "pitnis, etc., also "Apris 
(Voc^Apci), fonn the Ace. Sing, both according, to the first and third Dee, 
and are hence called Heterodttes (L e. of different declensions), e. g. ItfKpdrri 
and Zmcpdrnv, according to Dec L, 'AKKOfiiyii and -fi^njv, *AvTur^4yri and 
-ff^iniv,' April and -ify, etc. ; Flato commonly uses the form in -n, Xenophon that 
in -lyr, other writers both, without distinction ; in words in -yqs, the form in -n^r 
is preferred to that in -nj. (The Gen. of "Apijj in good prose is "Apcws [often in 
Flato], yet in the poets "Apcos is also used according to the necessities of the 
verse.) But in words in -jcA^s, the Ace. in -itKyiv is first used in later writers. 
The FL is declined according to Dc«. I., e. g. 'Apurro^^Mu, rots A^wcpdrms^ rohi 
ApurropdyaSf rohs ATjfJuxr^iyas ; still, 'HpoucA^cf occurs in Fl. Theact. 169, 6. 

Rem. 3. The Gen. Fl. of rptiipris occurs, also, in the uncontracted form, viz. 
rptiip4w¥] but in all the other Cases it is uniformly contracted; the Dual 
also in words of this class occurs in an uncontracted form in Attio writers, 
®- S' 4t07^«*) Aiid the Tragedians use the uncontracted forms of proper names 

* ffwp4-os from o'ap^a-os, the a of the stem being dropped ; and so in tho 
other Cases, except Uie Nom. and Yoc. 

Digitized by 




[M 60, 61 

in -irx^f >= KKrjs, according to the necessities of the verse, e. g. *HfNuc\^f , DaL 
•irX^ci, Voc. -KKets. The contract Acci in -jcX^ is rare. The Voc ^'H/nwAcsv 
as an exclamation, belongs to the later prose. 

Hem. 4. The irregular accent of the Gen. PL and Dual is to be noted, tiz. 
rpi4\p»v (instead of rpnfip&y from, rpaipdwtf), rpi'lipoiv (X. H. 1. 5, 19. 5. 4,66). In 
addition to this word, adjectives in i)3i7s and the word aandpiaiSj have the like 
accent, e. g. avyri^itty = cwii^Vy airrapKtwt^ => aindpKwy. 

♦ 60. (2) Words in -ws, Gen. -wos, and in -w? and -ai^ 
Gen. '00^. 

(a) -wSf Gen. -otos. 
Thus, e. g. 6 ^ S(lt9,jackalf Gen. -^wos, etc. Polysyllables have 
the Ace. Sing, and PI. either contracted or uncontracted, e. g. 
6 i7p<i>9> ?iero, rov ^pcoa and Tjpta, tov^ ypwa^ and ypta^. 

(b)'<iis and -», Gen. 'oos. 
Substantives of these endings are always feminine. The 
stem ends in -os. Tlie short final vowel, according to i 52, 2 
(b), is lengthened into w. The ending -ws, however, is retained 
in the Attic and Common language only in the substantive 
n*8ak (stem cuSos), and in poetry in ^, morning (in Eurip.); 
but in all other words, it has been changed into a smoother 
form, so that the Nora, ends in -w, e. g. ^x*** (stem ^x^)- ^^ 
the Voc. in oi; see § 53, 4 (3). The Dual and PI. are formed 
like the ending -os of Dec. IL ; thus, ai8o4 vx^ ^^' • 

Smg. N. 

71 eu9<&s (stem al8bs), shame. 
(eu8<J-o$) alBovs 

71 ^x<* (stem lixos), echo. 


(*X<^oj) ^X^vs 


cdd6'T) ouSoi 

i^X^-^) *Xo* 


cdU-a) «8» 

(*X^) ^X* 


(ai8<^c) ai9oZ 

(*X^0 *Xo?. 

♦ 61. (3) Words in -as, G^cn. -ao9, and in -os, G^cti. -cos. 
(a) -oj, Gen. -aos. 
Only the Neuters to crcXas, light, and to hhra's, goblet, belong to 
tliis class : Gen. o-cXa-os, Dat. o-cXa-l, and (rtk-a ; PL o-cXa-a and 
frc\-d, Gen. acXa-wr, Dat. or€A.a-(rt(i') ; Dual o-cXa-c, o-cAa-oei^. 

KEMAnK 1. On the j>octic shortening of the contract a, see § 54, Bern. 4. 
In the following four Neuters in -«, tlie a in the Gen., Dat., and in the PL, if 
changed, according to Ionic usage, into the weaker c, viz. 

Digitized by 


♦ 62.] 



Bpiras (poet), imo^e, Gen. jSp^cos, Fi. $ph-§a and fipdrn, $p€T4»y 
jTMos (poet.), plouXj PL in Homer, ict^co, Kiic(rt(y). 
Mas (poet.), ground, Gen. o0$€Of, Dat o08ct and o(^8ei (Horn.) 
Kpi^ (poet, and prose), darknessj Gen. Kvi^s Epic, Kvi^ovs Attic, jcy^^ 
Epic, xyc^ Attic. 

(b) -Of, Gen. -eoj. 
All substantives of this class are also neuter. In the Nom., 
c, the stem-vowel of the last syllable, is changed into o (} 16, 1). 

Sg.N. A. rh ydyos (instead of 7^s), genns. rh k\4os (instead of irX^es), glory. 


Plur. N. 






{y4n^) y4yii 

ywi-wf and yw&v 










Rem. 2. On the contraction of <€ into rj (instead of ci), and of ca into a 
(instead of 17), when a Towel precedes, see § 9, II. On the poetic shortening 
of the contracted d in K\4a, see ^ 54, Rem. 4. 

Rem. 3. The oncontracted form of the Gen. PI. is not unusual, e. g. hp4wy9 
fi€K4mf, KcpS^jr, and almost without exception iiy^4c»y\ in PI. Polit. 260, a., the 
nncontracted Dual in cc occurs : ro6rc» rc^ y4ye€. In the Ijric portions of the 
Attic tragedians, vd^a, &x^<^ ^^c. occur. 

m. WOBDB IN 'U, -W», -I, -W. 

♦ 62. (1) Words in -15, -vs. 

The substantives in -I9, -vs originally ended in -tjPs, -vJPs. 
See i 25, 2. 

Sing. N. 

6 icTj, corn-worm. 

ri irvSf sow. 

6 tx^f, fish. 











avy . 






Plur. N. 












tx^as, Attic Ix^vf 



ffff-as, Attic (TVS 








(Ix^f) Ix^v 


• ff^-oiy 


Rema&k. The contracted Nom. PI. td ipKvs occurs in X Yen. 2, 9 ; 6, 2 
10. 2, 19. 

Digitized by 





♦ 63. (2) Words in -is, -I, -vs, -w. 

The stem of these substantives ends in t or v. The stem- 
vowels i and V remain only in the Ace. and Voc. Sing. ; in the 
other Cases they are changed into c (§ 16, 2). In the Gen. 
Sing, and PL, masculine and feminine substantives take the 
Attic form in *o»9 and -tay, in which the cj has no influence on 
the accent (comp. i 29, Rem. 7). In the Dat. Sing, and in the 
Nom. and Ace. PL, contraction occurs. 

Sing. N. 

fi t6Ms, city. 

6 rnxi^'t cabit. rhtrlyari, mustard. 

rh tuna, city. 





















Plur. N. 



Vtydmi . 

turm ' 






























Rbmabk 1. Here belong all substantives in -^is, -i^is, most in -tris and many 
others, e. g. ^ K6yu, dust; 6 liwyru^ prophet; ^ t^tSy serpent; ^ vlirrts^ faith; 4i 
tfipis^ abuse; & Wackvt, axe; 6 "^pdafivs, old man; rh trhr^pi^ pepper ; th rtyyi- 
fiaptf cinnabar; rh ira^O (poet), herd (without contraction). Adjectives in -ifts, 
-cus, 't are declined in the Masc. and Neut. like ir^x^s and ierrv, except that the 
Gen. Masc. takes the regular forms -dos, -i^y (not -ewt, •fo'y), e. g. ^Si^s, rfiios. 

Rem. 2. In the Attic poets, though probably only in the lyric passages, the 
Gen. in -eoj, from substantives in -*j, occurs, e. g. ir^Xcos. 

Rem. 3. In X. An. 4. 7, 16, the contracted Gen. injxwy is found. Instead 
of the Dual form in -€c, one in -ij is also used; likewise a form in -€i (instead 
of -€e), is quoted by the ancient grammarians from Aescbines. — The Ace. PI. 
of nouns in -vs sometimes occurs uncontractcd in the Attic poets, e. g. n^x^^- 

Rem. 4. Neuters in -i and -v have the Attic Gen. Sing, very seldom, e. g. 
<((rr(«f, Eur. Bacch. 838 (831). Or. 761 (751). 

Rem. 5. Adjectives in -r», -I, e. g. »/>**, WpT, sfaT/ii/, and some substantives 
in -Tj, which are partly poetic, have the regular inflection : i-os^ i-i, i-c*, etc., 
or both forms together, e. g. ri /i^yis, anger (also fi4iviZost etc.), 6 rj oht sheep ; rh 
v4irfpi (Gen. -4pu}s and -€0j), pejyier; 6 ^ ir6prts, calf; 6 ^ xSctSf spouse (Gen. 
»<J<rios, but always iroVci) ; ^ rp6viff keel (also rp^iriSos, etc.); r} ripciSf 
tower (G;n. rvpatoSfX. Au. 7. 8, 12. rvpciu, ib. 13, but Plural riptrfis, rvpotoi, 
etc.) ; 4i ftdyaiif (Gen. -lof, Dat. ftaydBif X. Au. 7. 3, 32) ; some proper names, 
e. g. T^v4yy^is, ''Ipts (Gen. -loj, etc.), X. An. 1. 2, 12; 6. 2, 1 (5. 10, 1), finaUy 
one noun in -i>f, ii Hyx^^^t hut only in the Sing. 

Digitized by 


a 64, 65.] 



Sing. N. 

6t Tj tSotis, calf. 4i l^cAv;, eel. 

irivTi-i and ir6frtl ^fX^Ku-t 

tr6pTt lh^(\v 

by 71 olSf sheep. 


Plur. N. 

Wfrri-ei and r6fnis • fyx^^*** 

irmiHu and iripm^ ^fx4Ktit 
iropTi'ts and Tdprls fyx^^"* 

olas and ots 




Beh. 6. Xenophon uses the Ionic forms of oTs : Sii^y SUs, ^W, SlaSf and tit, 

i 64. Quantity of the Third Declension, 

1. The inflection-endings -a, -i, -v, and -a;, are short 

Excepdon : The a in the Ace. Sing, and PI. of substantives in -c^s is long, 
e. g. T&K lep^d, Tc^ Up4as from d /cpc^s, priest. 

2. Words, whose Nom. ends in -o^, -i|, -v£, -o^, -i^', -v^, -if, and -vf, have the 
penult of the Cases which increase, either short or long, according as the 
Towel of the above endings is long or short bj nature ; a, i, v, are long in all 
Genitives in -ayof , -iKof , -vn>f , e. g. 6 ^pa^^ brecutpiate^ -awof ] 6 php, reed, pir6s ; 
j^ iuerht ray, -iKor, bat i^ i3»X&|, dod, -^ot, ^ iKirtsj hope, -fSos. See fuller 
explanations in Larger Grammar, Part I. § 291. 

♦ 65 Accentuation of the Third Declension. 

1. The accent remains on the tone-syllable of the Nom. as long as the laws 
of accentuation (§ 30) permit, e. g. t^ irpayfia, deedy Tpdyfueros (but vpaeYfjJrw), 
rh tvofAOy name, Mfuiros (but hyofjidrw), 6 ^ x^JuHt&yy swallow, xcA<8<{yof, Eci^o- 
^y, -wvToSy -mrrtsy '6vrtcy, Particular exceptions have been noticed in tha 

2. Monosyllables are accented in the Gen. and Dat. of all Numbers on the 
final syllable -, the long syllable vy and ow having the circumflex ; the others, 
the acute, c. g. b n'fiy, firif'6s, ftrivlt urivoly, firfy&y, fAriai{y). 

(a) The following ten substantives are Paroxytones in the Gen. PI. and Gen. 
and Dat. Dual: 4i 94$, torch; 6 5/«5y, slave; 6 ri »<&Sy jackal; rh KPA2, poet. 
(Gen. KparSs), head; rh ods (Gen. 6>T<Jy), ear; 6 fi tcus, child; 6 (rtis, moth; 6 ri 
Tfxis, Trojan, Trojan woman; v <^j (Gen. <t>tfZ65), a burning; rh ifws (Gen. 
ipwrSs), light ; e. g. 8^8«v, B^Boiy, h^vvy Kpdrwy, &rwvy &roiVy ralBvyy valiotyy 
winyy TpAttVy ^9tty, ^^wv (on the contrary, r&y Bfiu&y from al Huuai, r&y 
Tpto&y from ai Tpwd, rS»y ^>wtuv from 6 (fx&s, man; rHy ^ti&y from ^ »m4i, 

Digitized by 



(b) ITie following contracts, according to the nature of the final syllalile, are 
either Froperispomena or Paroxytones, in the Gen. and Dat. of all Nambcn, 
as ill the other Cases, c g. rh tap (Epic ^p), spring; tcrjp (Epic from Wop), heart; 
6 \a5 (from Aaar), stone; 6 vp<u^ (from Tpri^y)^ hill^ e. g. Ijpos (rarer fapos), i|p( 
(rarer (api)t KvpoSy tc^pif Aoos, Km, Kdav, vpAyos, irpwifi. 

Hem ARK. The following contracts, on the other hand, follow the principal 

rule (No. 2) : <rr^dp = <rrrip, tullnw; trriaros = <myT<Jj, ^p4dp, itvtf, ppidroi and 
^oTjrij, 1*1. (fiprrray, ©p^{, ®p^6 ^ph^i^os — %p^6sy and epT^ic^fs, oft, oi<{y, oA, 
oiWp otai{y). 

(c) Monosjllabic participles, as well as the pronoun ris ; quisf retain the 
accent, through all the Cof^cs, on the stem-syllable ; but the pronoun irat and 
6 ndy is an Oxytonc in the Gen. and Dat. Sing. } in the other Cases cither a 
Paroxytone or a Properispomenon, according to the nature of the final syllabic, 
C. g. ^^s, ^hrros. Ay, tyros, 6yri, 6yrwy, oZai{y)^ Syrotw, rls, rlyos, riyi, etc. ; vas, 
trayrSs, tovtI, trdrrwy, irdyroiy, »o<ri(K), 6 ndty, nay6s, rols noo'i(i'). 

3. The following are accented, in the Gen. and Dat. of all Numbers, like 
monosyllabic substantives : — 

(a) ^ ^vi'^, vyife {yuymK6s, yuyaiKi, yvyaucoTy, yvyauc&y, yvyut^l{y) } but ytmeS' 
Ko, yvytuKts, etc.) ; 6ii k^uv, dog {Kvyos, Kvyl, Kvyoty, itvy&y, Kwi{y) ; but 
K^ya, K^yts, etc.); 

(b) Syncopated substantives in -rip, on which sec ^ 55, 2 ; 

(c) Compounds of cI;, tinus, in Gen. and Dat. Sing., e. g. obUis, ob9«f6s, 
o^ScW; but QifUywy, o&8^o't(v), so fArfHtis, firidfy6s, etc.; 

(d) The Attic poetic forms, liop6s, Bopl^ from Mpv, 

4. For the accentuation of substantives in -ts, -vs, Gen. "tms, see ^ 63 ; of 
those in -li (§ 60), the irregular accentuation of the Ace. Sing, of lix^ = ^X^ 
(instead of ^x"). ^ho^ld be noted. 

5. (a) In the Voc. of 8ync^:»pat3d substantives (§ 55, 2) in -ijp, the accent, 
contrary to the principal rule, if drawn back as far as possible, e. g. £ xdrtp, 
bvyartp, A^wnrfp, ftvcp; so also (a) in the following substantives; 'Air^AA»y 
{wvos)y UoffftZ&y (wFOj), acor'fjp (^poy), *Afi<l>lwy (iovos), Zafip {4pos); tlius, i 
*AiroX\oy, U6au^y, auTfp,''Afi<pioy, 5o€p; — (b) in compound substantives in 
-vy, Gen. -ow$, in adjectives in -uy, Gen. -oyos, whether simple or compound ; 
also in comparatives in -toy, -uy (in adjectives and comparatives, also, in the 
neuter gender), e. g. 'Aydfitfiyoy from *Ayafi4fiyvy, ^ApitrrAytiToy from ^Apurro- 
yflrcap (but 'Iwroy, UaXaifioy, ^iX^juov, etc. as simple) : 2 and rh eUSufioy, & and 
rh i\t7\^xov, Z and T^ k6.\Xiov\ (the following are exceptions : (5 Acurf 8cu]iiOj' from 
Aowe5a/^«i^, compounds in '<pptav, c. g. & AvK6<ppov from AvK6<f>pvy, Ev^wppoy from 
Ej/^u^pwv, & and rh Bdtippov from Zaiippwf ;) — (c) in the compound Paroxytones in 
"Hs, mentioned in \ 59, c. g. 'idiKparts, £kiifi6<rb(yts ; & and rh a^^aSts from oMi- 
B?7s, (piKaXn^fi from <pi\aKii^s (but aXri^es from itXrj^s as a simple), alrrapices, 
^ajc6i)df$. — (Adjectives and substantives in -wns, -wSijs, -uKrii, '<apris, -upTif, are 
exceptions, e. g. «yu;57?s, €vw8cs, afi<f><arfs &fupwts, vaydKris veuf&Kes, yt^^s ycSpcs, 
i*^prii ^i^pts, 71 rpiiipris rptijpes, liiufnis & Awpfs. 

(b) The Voc. of nouns in -ws, -tvs, -ovs, -w, and -ws is Ferispomcnon, e. 9 
yp^t ficun\fv, &0V, Xaw^7, cu5oi. 

Digitized by 



i 66. Gender of the Third Declension. 

The natural gender — the mascnUne and feminine — is distinguished in the 
third Declension, not hy a special form, but partly by the signification, partly 
by the forms, and in part by usage alone. The following rules will aid in 
determining the gender : — 

L MaacuUnes: (A) all nouns whose Nom. and stem (which can be recognized 
by the Genitive) end in -ay. Gen. -ay-os ; •••', Gen. -owr-os and -wvt-os ; -w, 
Gen. 'W-os (only 6 fioaaiy, tower) \ -ets. Gen. -ck-oi (only 6 jctc/x, oo»i6) ; -aSf 
Gen. -ayr-os; -ovst Gen. -orr-oSf -ovyr-os, -o^s (6 wois) \ -«p, Gen. -cp-oSf -cvf, 
Gen. -€ws ; -i|f , Gen. (-f-oj) -ow ; -tts. Gen. -m-os •, 

(B) the following with exceptions : — 

(a) in -iji», Gen. -ijwj j but 6 ?; x^**! 9oose; — in -riy, Gen. -cr-ot ; jut 6 ii db^Wf 
glandf and ri ^frhyt diaphragm ; 

(b) in -tty. Gen. -wy-os j but ri &X»y, threshing-Jhor ; ^ MlX^^ or yKfixny^ 
pennyrogal; ii fu\§9^y (poet.), eare; ^ fi'^xmy, poppy; if vXaxay^y^ rattle 
(but 6 irA. petal 6f the poppy) j ^ rp^pvy, pigeon; if w?i4y (poet, but prose 
6)y ravine; jj 6 K^Uk»y bell; 

(c) in tip. Gen. i^of ; but ^ K^pffate (on account of ^ «c4p, goddess of fate) ; 

5 ^ ^tuffrfipf hammer; (those in ijp contracted from -f^, are neuter: rh 
Krjp (poet.), Gen. Krjpos, heart; rh tap. Gen. ^pot, spring;) — in inp. Gen. 
-pos\ but riyarr'fip, ywrrp6s, belly; — in -ijp, Gen. -tp-os] but 6 ii at^p^ 
ether; 6 ff &^p, air; 

(d) in 'tip. Gen. -eip-os; but ^ x*^P> hand (reg^arly, d hnix*^^ the thanb) \ 
(c)'in <«p, Gen. -wp-os \ but t6 cA»p (poet), booty; r^ WXofp (poet.), monster; 

(f ) in -ovs, Gen. -o-os, see f 57, Bem. 4 ; 

(g) in -Mt, Gen. -crr-otj but r^ ^r, %A/; 
(h) in -4>, Gen. -»of, -/5oj. 

H. jF^imiies; (A) ai!{ notins in -«b, Gen. -i(9^f ; -c», Gen. -fiS-of (only ^ 
uXmIs, key) 'j -wf, Gen. -«-otj -iv», Gen. -ly^osi -vys. Gen. -wj^s; -ijj, Gen. 
•lyr-o*; -ij, Gen.-*T-or (ot-ly ri x^*^) » "*'*» Oen. -v^s and -ui^x; -^ and -rf», 
Gen. -^-01 ; 

(B) the following nouns with exceptions : — 

(a) in -IS, Gen. -i-os ; but 6 x^h P^^^ ^^ * ^ ^d\Kis, a part of a ship ; 6 
ipris, carpenter^s tool; 6 iti«, corn-worm; 6 y\d»is, a kind offish; 6 Ai» 
(Epic), lion^ tmd 6 ii oh, slteep; — in -ij, Gen. -<»t, but 6 tpxis, testicle (^ 
((pX<5, a kind ofoUve) ; b 6^ts, serpent; 6 (later also ri) lx**i viper; 6 (later 
il) K6pis, bug ; ol and at xipfius, lato-tabies; — in -is. Gen. -iS^osj but 6 4)^6is, 
-i8oj, a kind of cake; ^ 6 rlypis. Gen. -los and -iHos, tiger; — in -is, Gen, 
-i^-os ; but 6 ri 6pyi5, bird ; — in -ts, Gen. -7y-os ; but 6 BtK^ts, dolphin ; 6 
hcrls, weasel; 6 rj ^Is, heap; 6 T€\/tify, marsh-tnud; 

(b) in -vs. Gen. -w-oj ; but 6 $^pvs, cluster; 6 ^prjyvs, footstool ; 6 Ix^s^fish', 

6 fits, mouse ; 6 viKvs, corpse ; 6 ffrdxvs, ear of corA ; 6 ok6Wvs, mode of 
ionswre ; 6 rtpvs^ the night-mare ; b hdy^vs, a Median garment f 6 ri Is or ovtf 


Digitized by 



e; 6 fiOJuSfmSf tan-fish; ^ (later also 6) ItxcXvi, ed; 6 xp^iufs, a w&ar 
fish ; — in -vs, G^n. -cws ; but 6 it^Acicvt, axe ; 6 r^X"** ^^'^ / 
(c) in -ctfi', Gen. -ov-os; bat 6 ixfuoy, anvil; 6 itploiVy saw; 6 Koof^v^ rule; A 
&^w, axle ; 6 trtitrmf^ earthen-vessel ; 6 iwttrtluyj fiag ; 6 ri niwyj pillar ; 4 
K\aB^v and hcpiiMv^ hough; 6 harf^w^ pV* ^ f^^ayy^r, doll; 6 pofpftufi^i^f 
anfs nest ; 6 jf kKfierpv^v^ cock and hen. 
Remark 1. Nouns in -£ are partly masculine, partly feminine, except those 
in -a| (Gen. -euros), which are masculine ; most of those in -( are feminine; the 
larger part of those in -^ are masculine, but many are feminine, e. g. 4i xaXav- 
po^, -inroT, shepherds crook; ii XoiXoif', tempest; ^ J^r (vox), hir6s^ voice; Ji (rarely 
6) ^, inrhs^fauce; ^ ^X^, ^Xc/3^s, vein; ^ x^P^^^i hoiy-water; ^ icottjX^, i^s, 
upper stonfy etc. 

IIL Neuters : (A) aU in -a. Gen. -ot-oj ; -ij, Gen. -ijT-of (only t^ k^) j -i, 
Gen. -tr-os (only r^ /t^ with its compounds) ; -vp, Gen. -vp-os (only t& viip, Gen. 
''vp-6sjfire) ; -op, Gen. -aer-os or -ijp, Gen. -ijt-oj; -op, Gen. -op-of ; -or, Gen. -cn'-oi; 
•Of, Gen. (-c-os) -ow» j -i. Gen. -eof ; -w, Gen. -w-os, and -cos, and -ot-os, ^68, 1 ; — 

(B) the following with exceptions: (a) -op, Gren. -^ip-os] but 6 ^id(p, star^ 
ling; (b) -as. Gen. -a-os] but ^ Xas, stone; (c) -wp, Gen. -or-os (except 6 &x^ 
ix«pi f<rrvp} ^X^icretfp, f 68, 15). 

Bev. 2. The following single words may be noted in addition : ^ Bals, Gen. 
8aiT-^s,yea8f ; t^ otcus or oro/i, otcut^j, dtwi/^A / t^ oJj, Gen. orr-^s, car. 

} 67. Anomalous Forms of the Third Declension, 

All substantives, whose inflection diflfers from the rales and 
analogies above given, are included under the irregular substan- 
tives of the third Dec. All the anomalous forms of the third 
Dec. may be divided into three classes : — 

(a) The first class includes those substantives whose Nom. cannot be derived, 
according to ^ncral analogy, from the Genitive-stem, e. g. '^ tvH^, wife. Gen. 

(b) The second class inc^ades those substantives, which, with one Nom. 
form, have in some or all of the Cases, two modes of formation ; both of these, 
however, may come, in accordance with the general rules, from one form of the 
Nom., e. g. j 71 SpviSf Gen. -S^s, bird^ PL Hpyi&es and 6pyfts, as if from j>pvis, 
Gen. -c«t. These substantives are called Heterodites (i. e. of different dcclcu- 
bions or irregularly declined). 

(c) The ttiird class includes substantives, which, with one Nom. form, admit, 
in some or all of the Cases, two modes of formation, one of which may be 
derived from the Nom. form in use, but the other supposes a different Nom. 
form, c. g. ^fpdvuy^ -ovtos, servant^ Ace. ^tpdvoyra and poet, i^cpaxo, as if from 
3cpaif'. This formation is called Metaplasm (transformation), and the substan- 
tives included under it, Metaplasts. The Nom. form, presupposed in this case, 
Is called the Theme, 

Digitized by 



i 68. Anomalous Forms of the Third Declenion. 

1. Tow (to, knee), and B6pv (to, spear), see } 54 (c). 

In the tragic poets, the Epic forms, yoivara and toSwo,* yoivcuri, occur ; 
also in the Attic poets, the Gen. 9op6s, Dat. Bopl, and even i6pti, and 
PL BSpri instead of B6pora, are formed from B6pv\ and in the phrase, Bopi 
iAcur, to take a prisoner of uxtr^ this Dat. form is retained even by the Attic 
prose writers. 

2. FuviJ (^, woman). Gen. ywcuic-os (as if from ywcuf), Dat 
ywaxK'iy Ace yuvawc-a, Voc.yvvcu; PI. yvKaiKc?, yuvaiK(ui',yi;vai^i (v), 
yvmucas; on the accentuation, see } 65, 3 (a). 

3. ^6pv, see yoKu, No. 1. 

4. Zcvs, Gen. Acos, Dat. Ai4 Ace. Ata (as if from ^4s), Voc. 

Poet, corresponding forms are Z7fy6st Zi}W, Z^m. 

5. 0c/)aw<iii' (o, servant), -ovros. In Eurip. Acd ^^ira, PI. 
Bipatr^j k 67 (c). 

6. Kapa (to, head), an Epic and poetic word, Gen. icpaT-05, 
Dat. fcpaTi and xop^ Ace. to xapo, to Kpara (tov Kpara, i 214); 
Ace. PL Tovs Kparas, i 67 (c). 

7. KAct's (4 key). Gen. icXciS-os, Dat icX€iB-l, Acc. icXcti/ ($ 53, 
Bern. 1), later xXciSa; PI. Nom. and Acc. icXcif, and icXciiSc^ 
kXcISos, i 67 (b). 

Old Attic, KKjfa, K\pB6s,»KXjtBl, icXpSa. 

8. Kv cor (6, 17, ^^), Gen. icw-os, Dat kwC, Acc. mW, Voc. icuov; 
PL icvKcs, Mwu)!', xvo-^ #aVas. 

9. AiVa (to, oil, fatness), in the Epic dialect always in the 
phrases, dXeti/roo'^ai AxTr' cXato), )(pL(rcu and ')(pifroj(r^ax Xlit iXauo, and 
so a}so in the Attic prose, dXcA^eo-i^ac, -xpUxrBai AiWa; AxTra is thus 
an abridged Dat. instead of X»rcu, XtW^ from to Xmto, Gen. -00s, 
but cXaiov must be considered as an adjective from IKdoy oUve, 
so that Xwra tXauov means olive-oil 

10. MapTvs (6, witness). Gen. fjMprupo^, Dat fuiprvpi, Acc. 
uudpTvpa, and in Simonides fidprw ; Dat. PL fidprviri (v). 

11. Navs (17, 5//?/?), Gen. v€<o?, Dat. vi;t, Acc. vaw, Voc. want- 
ing; Dual, Gen. and Dat vcoii^ (Nom. and Acc. wanting); PL 
v^€<s, veCov, vavfTL (v), vavq, Comp. ypavq, k 57. 

In Attic poets and later prose also, rq^s, viil, yqa, etc 

Digitized by 



'2. "Opvi^ (o, ^, fttr^), Gen. opvZ^-os, etc. The PL has a col- 
lateral form decUned like iroXi^, except the Dat. : opvlSt^ and 
opveis, opvL ^oiv and opvccDv, opvurt, opvl^as, o/iKct?, and opvls, i 67 (b). 
So 'Avaxofxrts, 'Avaxopo-iSos, and 'Avd^apo-cois. 

In the Attic writers^ the i is sometimes short, 2pm, ^vtv, Aristoph. Ay. 16. 
270, 335 (but tpvls, 2pM>, 70, 103, 73). 

13. Uvvi (^, place of meeting) ^ Gen. wvicv-os, Dat irvtwiy Ace 

14. 2ijs (o, motfi), Gen. o-c-ds; PL o-€€s. Gen. o-cW, etc.; in the 
later writers, Gen. anffroq, 

15. Sicwp (to, rfirt), Gen. o-Kards, etc., and vSwp {roywater)^ 
Gen. v&iTos, etc. To both of these belong : — 

16. ^piap {ro^a well), and crriap (to, tallow). Gen. -caros and 
"TTos (a long in Attic, short in Epic). 

17. *3dts, <f>%i^ (6, art of cooking), Gen. ^%t-ds and (from 
^ot9) <^oi8-os; PL <^det9 and <^oiS€9. 

18. Xov9 (6, a measure), xpo^, xot, xovy, x°*^> X^*^''* X^^^^ X^* 
like jSovs (^ 57) ; also Gen. x^> -A-cc. x^S, Ace. PL x^^9 *^ if 
from xocvs. The latter forms are preferred by the Attic writers ; 
X0V9, with the meaning of mound, is inflected only like fiw. 
The form xp^ is Ionic, Dat. xoci'- 

19. Xpcus (6, s/d2t), xp<i""-d9, XP**""^ XP***''*^* ' Collateral forms in 
the Ionic dialect and the Attic poets, are. Gen. xp^-o^, xpo^ XP^ 
like cu8a>s. The Dat xp^ is found in certain phrases with cy, 
e. g. cv xp^ K€Lp€(r3ai, Xcn. Hell. 1. 7, 8. ivp€iiy xp^y it sliaves close 
to thr skin, it cojncs home, Soph. Aj. 786. 

♦ 69. Defective Nouns of the Third Declension. 

Some nouns of the third Dec. are wanting in one or more of t]ie Cases, and 
are, consequentlj, called Defectives. Existing fbrms, howCTcr, of such substan- 
tives, are found, for the most part, only in certain phrases, e. g. 

Xpfus (t^, rfc^O J Ionic- Attic form for the Nom., Gen., and Ace; also rh 
Xp^oi, Gen. xp^ovs, n. rk xp^a, Gen. xp'w" ; the Dat. and Dual are wanting \ 
oycLp and fhrap (only as Nom. and Ace), in dreaming and waking; 6^€kos (only 
OS Nom. and in the construction of the Ace. with the Inf.), advantage; ft^fi 
only ill the phrase <nrh ucUijs, under the arm. 

Digitized by 




{70. I Redundant Nouns. 

Nouns are called Redundant, which have two modes of 
inflection in all or in most of the Cases : - 

A. They belong to the same declension, 

(a) of the same gender, e. g. 

6\t^s and ?m6s, people; d v^s and yo^t, temple; 6 \ay£s and Aoy^i, ham; 
6 icdXuSf rope, PI. also kcUoi; iiiXots, threahing-floor, PI. also a/ &koi\ ^ TofiyA 
and Tofiy^y. 

(b) of different genders (hence called heterogeneous), e. g. 
h vvTos and rh ywrov, back (tho last form was regarded bj the Auicuts as the 

only proper form, still rhy vSerov Xen. R. £qa..3, 3) ; d ivy6s and t& ivy6y, yoke. 
-^In the PL the neater form of these heterogeneous nouns is more frequently 
nsed, e. g. 6 ahos, t& vtra; ol Btafiot, and more commonly t& SccrfuC ; d <rra^/i6sf 
a station, balance, oi rra^fiol and t& trra^ftd, stations, and t& ora^fjid, sometimes 
also balances; ol (vyol does not probably occur. 

B. To different declensions, and commonly of different gen- 
ders (heterogeneous), e. g. 

6 ^^yyos and ri ^^oyyfi, voice; 6 x^P^f <^d n X^P^ space; ^ 6x^ <^d ' 
^dos, rising ground; ^ d(^ and r^ bi^os, thirst; ii ydwri (the older form) and rh 
vAros, valley, etc. It should be observed farther, that the word 6 irp4a$vs, dder^ 
has only Ace. vp4<r$vy, Voc. irpiafiv, these three forms are almost entirely 
poetic {irp€(rfi&r€pos and irp€<rfi6raros formed from this, are in frequent use) ; 
in the Common Iianguage, 6 irp€<rfi{njis, -ov, elder ; in the meaning of messenger, 
envoy, the Common Language uses in the Sing. & wptfrfi^vrfiSf -ou ; but in tho 
PI. ol and robs irpiafitu, irp4v^9uv, Tpiofitor, also, th Zdxpvop and rh Hdxpv 
tear. The latter and older form is retained in the poetic dialect ; still, the Dat. 
PL IdKpvffi is found eyen in the Attic prose-writers (Thu. 7, 75; Dem. c. Onet. 

{71. II. Heteroclites. 

Heteroclites [k 67 (b)] have two modes of formation; they 
are either of the third Dec, which have been already presented 
together (} 68), or of two different declensions. Those of dif- 
ferent declensions are, e. g. as follows : — 

A. Of the First and Third Declension. 
Several substantives in -17s are inflected, cither in whole or in 
part, according to the first and third declensions : — 
(a) Some in -17^, Gen. -ov and -irros^ through all the Cases according to both 

Digitized by 


90 THIBO DEC. METAFLA8T8. [^ 72. 

declensions : 6 fx^xr^Sf mushroom^ Gen. /jl^kov and fidKirros, and 3omo propei 
names, c. g. Xdfnii, The name OoXijx, m the old Attic, has th3 Ionic Gen. 
form ecUc«0, Dat. eoAp, Ace. BoX^y; in the later writers, BaXov and ecUirror, 
8(Uirri and 6({A.irra. Obserre that the accent is drawn back on Bdxtu. 

(b) The proper names mentioned, ^ 59, Bern. 2, have q as well as qy in the 
Ace. Sing. only. 

B. Of the Second and Third Declensions. 

(a) Of the Common second and third declensions: several 
substantives in -09, as masculine, are inflected according to the 
second Dec, but as neuter, according to the third Dec, e. g. 6 
and ro o;(09, cltariot, rov ox^v and oxms, riv 6xpv and to o;(0¥ ; 6 
and TO (TKOTo^, darkness, 

(b) Of the contract second and third declensions : -— 

irpSxoos {^f watering-pot) f Att Tp6xo»9f Gen. irpSxoVf etc, Dat. PL rfOxtuMn 
(like fiovSf fiowrlp). 

OiSiictfvst Gen. OiZlvoSos and (poet) OiZlvov, Dat OJShnOif Ace. OMroSa and 
Ot8(iroi;i', Voc. OiSfirov. 

(c) Of the Attic second and third declensions : — 

In the Ace. Sing., 6 y4?iws, laughter^ yiXwroSf yiXaori^ Ace yix^tra and 
yiKmVf and the three following: irArpms^ patruus^ , f^fyrpas, avunculus, and 
Mltms, which, in the Gen. and Ace. Sing., are inflected according to the third 
Dec. and the Attic second Dec. ; in the other Cases, according to the third 

wdrfuos. Gen. tcArpn and ir«ET/MM>s, Dat irdrpuif Ace. irdrpvp and irdrpcoa', 
Klrvsy Gen. Mlyfa and Mlyuos, Dat M(wi, Ace. Mdw (^ 4S, Bern. 1), M£i>«fr 
and M^KaMu 

♦ 72. Ill Metaplasts, 

Metaplasts [{ 67 (c)] like Heteroclites, have two modes of 
formation ; they are either of the third declension, which have 
been already presented together (68), or of two different declen- 
sions. Those of different declension^ are, e. g. as follows : — 

(a) Of the Common second and third declensions : — 

A^yBpop {rh, tree). Gen. BhJipov, etc.; bnt in the Dat PL among the Attic 
writers, ScVSpco-t (from the stem rh AENAP02) and 94y9poa\ the first form is 
regarded by the Atticists as the better. To this stem belong, also, the forms 
r^ Uv^pti and rit Uy^p/ri, which occnr in the Attic poets, and in later prose 

Koiy99y6s [6^ parUiker), Gen. «roar»yoS, etc.; Xenophon uses the forms 01 
•cMyidycf and rohs Kow^yca (from KOINON}. 

Digitized by 



Kpiyoy (rb, lily) 6cd. irp/i^ov, etc., with the sccondaiy fonn in the Dat PL 
upiywi in Aristoph. from the PI. Kpifta (in Herod.). Comp. 94y9pop, 

A as {6^ stone) J Gen. Xaos and in Soph. O. C. 196. A^t;. 

'O 6p€tpos [and poetic rh 6ytip6y]^ dream, Gen. hytipov and iv^lpceros, 

Hvp (rh^ftrt), irvp6s. But I'l., rh wpd, watch-fires^ according to the second 

*Tk6s (6^ wn), Gen. v/oS, etc. Together with- this formation, there is another 
according to the third Dec, much in use, particularly in the Attic writers, from 
the theme *nET2, Gen. vUos^ Dat. vic7 (Ace. vl4a is rejected) ; PI. uictT, Gen. 
viewy, Dat viVai, Ace. (viVor), Attic vUts (4 57, Bern. 1); Dual, vice, Gen. 

(b) Of the Attic second and third declensions : — 

The three substantives, ^ iKo»s, threshing-floor; 6 rcds^ peacock; and 6 rv^Sp 
vAiWin'mf, have, together with the common 'inflection according to the Attic 
second declension, another according to the third declension, in -wyo's, etc., e. g. 

BEiiABK. The words ^ &Ae»x and 6 ra^s are generally declined accord- 
ing to the Attic second Dec., Ace. Sing. &Kuyt roj&y \ still, the y is commonly 
rejected from &Kus in the Ace, 4 48, Bem. 1. But the forms ixmyos^ Vmy^ 
JUcMri(v), ra&yiy ra&yeSf ra&etyp etc, are used on account of their greater 

J 73. Indeclinable and Defective Nouns, 

1. Substantives which do not vary the termination, but retain in all the Cases 
the form of the Nom., are called indeclinable. Except foreign proper names, as 
4 *A/3po^, rov *Afipebdfi, and the indeclinable cardinal ntmibers, all indeclinablo 
nouns are of the neuter gender. Here belong especially: — 

(a) The names of the letters, e. g. rh, rod, r^, &\<pa ; 

(b) Most of the cardinal numbers, e. g. d^ica iofBp&y] 

(c) th, Tov, rff xP^t&yf necessity, destiny, and ^ifus with iirritf and efwu, and 
several foreign words, e. g. rh, rod, r^ ird(rxa ; 

(d) The substantive infinitives, e. g. rh, rod, r^ ypd/^ty, 

2. Some substantives are used only in the Sing., or only in the PL Such 
words may be termed defective in number. The reason of it is found, either 
in the meaning of the word, or simply in usage, e. g. 6 al^p, ether; ol irnoiat, 
the Etesian wind ; cd *AJ^mu, Athens ; t^ 'OK^fiTia, tlie Olympic games. Comp. 
fitrtlicr, Syntax, f 243. 

3. It has been already noted, § 69, that some substantives arc found only in 
■ingle Cases {Defediva oasa). 

Digitized by 




The Adjective and Participle. 

♦ 74. Gender and Declension of the Adjective 
and Participle, 

1. The Adjective and the Participle, like the Substantive, 
have three genders, being varied by inflection to agree with 
the gender of their substantive. But all adjectives have 
not separate forms for the three genders ; many have but 
two endings, one for the Masc. and Fem., the other for the 
jNeuter, e. g. 6 ad>^payv avrip, r} ady^poyv fwrfy to a&((>pov 
rifcvov. Several, indeed, have but one ending, commonly 
used only for the Masc. and Fem. See § 80, e. g. 6 ^vycts 
dvi^p, 17 <l>vjct<; ffwrj. 

2. In Adjectives and Participles of three endings, the 
Masc. and Neuter belong to the same declension (second or 
third), and the Neuter is like the Masc. in the Gren. and 
Dat ; the Fem. is always of the first Dec. 

Reuask 1. Hence, in an Adjective in -os of three endings, the Ma£C is 
declined like X&yos (§ 46), the Tcm. Jike tticn or VKi/i (§ 44), and the Neat, 
like avKOif (46). 

Bem. 2. The declension of Adjectives and Participles differs only in a few 
points from that of the Substantive ; these wiU be noted hereafter. ' Bat it may 
be remarked here, as an essential deviation, that Participles always have tho 
Voc. of the third Dec like the Norn., S 53, Bem. 5. 

}7d. Accentuation of Adjectives and Participles. 

The accentuation of Adjectives and Participles is like that 
of Substantives, with a few exceptions, which are now to be 
acted : — 

1. The Fem. is accented on tKe same syllable as the Masc. through all th^ 
Cases, where the nature of the fmal syllable permits, e. g. KoX^r, Ka\<6> KaX6v \ 
KoO^i, Koi^i fcoO^K", x^V^^^^f x*V^^^^°^ X^^^*^) fieXaSy /icAotvo, fUXcuf'^ '^^f^n^t 
rip^tva, r4p€v \ fiapis, fiapua, fiap^ y fiov\f6ffa5, /SovXcvo'curo, /SovXevcoi^* ri^tlt, 

Digitized by 



Remark 1. In adjectives in hv, -i|, -qv^ or -os, -d, -ov, the Fern., on accoant 
of the length of the final syllable (iy, a)\ must ha a Faroxytone, when tlio Masc. 
is a iProparoxytone, or a Froperispomenon, e. g. iuf^p^wos^ iuf^pvrlvrif ky^p^ 
invov\ iK^i^poSf i\€V^4pd, ^Ac^^poy; kov^s, ko^^, KOv<^y\ ovovScuos, <rrov- 
laia, ffwovSaioy', but, when the final. sprllable in the declension is short, it again 
takes the accentuation of the Masc, i. e. it becomes again a Proparoxytone, or 
a Propcrispomenon, e. g. iuf^p^uniy i\t6^(pat, kov^, (nrovSaZsu, like iiy^oini' 
roiy i\t6&€pdt, Kot^t, (nrovScubi. Hence the difference between '96liiai, AvKtai 
{ywcuKfs)t as adjectiTCs, and 'PoS/ai, Avxlah &s substantives, according to 
§ 45, 6. 

2. Participles accent the same syllable in the Neuter Nom. as in the Masc, 
when the nature of the syllable permits, e. g. 

veuBt^y, ira*9cSoy rtfi^ataVf rifiTftror 

^i\&y, <f>i\ovy AivtSy, \tiF6y. 

Rem. 2. Yet Adjectives sometimes deviate from this rule, see § 65, 5. 

3. Contracts in -om, -^, -ovyy from -eoj, -^d, -eov, 60s, '6r}, or 6a, -6oy (except 
the Kom. and Ace. Dual Masc. .and Neuter, which are Oxy tones, § 49, 3), are 
Perispomena through all the Cases and Numbers, though the uncontracted 
forms of those in -co* are Proparoxytones, c. g. iipyvpeos = apyvpovs, dpy^pcor 
Bs hpyvpovy. On contracted compounds in -oos, -ooy, c. g. tCvovs, tHyovVf see 
4 49, 3. 

4. Barytone feminines of adjectives and participles, whose IVfasc. is of the 
third declension, are Perispomena [§ 45, 6 (b)] in the Gen. PL, but all the 
.other Cases retain the accent of the Masc, e. g. 

fiap^f, 'tia, 'it Gen. PL fiap4a)y, papti&y 

XapUitf 'Itffva, -ity " x^^^^^^t X^P**^^^^ 

fUXas, fUhaiya, fUXcuf " fitXdytuy, tit\aiy&y 

iras, xeuroy way " irdyrwv, iraeruy 

rv^tis, -««ro, -^y " rv^dyr^y, rv<p^§i<rAy 

T^if^of, T{fi^eura, rir^av " rvn^dvrw, rv^atrSiy; but, 

ky^p^iyos, -(ny, -ivoy " ky^p^arriytav, slb Masc, F., and N. 

iX^dbtpos, ' ipa, '€poy " ik€vbip»y,aa Masc, F., and N. 

rvirr6fityoSf '4yri, -woy " rvs-ro/i^vwv, as Masc, F., and N. 

Rem. 3. On the accentuation of the monosyllable was, and of monosyllabic 
participles in the Gen. and Dat., see § 65, 2 (c). 

Rem. 4. On the accentuation of the Nommativo of compound adjectives, 
the following things are to be noted : — 

(a) Those in -os, when the last part is formed of a substantive or adjective, 
follow the general rule [§ 30, 1, (c)], and are Proparoxytones, e. g. <«A^ 
rtKyos (from r^Kyoy), iriyKOKos (from kiLkos). But if the last part if 
formed of a verb, then adjectives with a long penult, are Oxvtones, e. g. 
^X^oti'ir6s, ntX<nroi6s, Sccmm-^s, 6^6s ] but those with a short pcnidt, 
are commonly Paroxytones, if they have an active sense, but if a passive, 
Proparoxytones, e. g. 

\tbofi6Xos, one casting stones ; Kt^^\os, cast down hy stones; 

tirrrpoKT6yos, mcUndiie ; ,xnTp6KToyos, slain by a mother ; 

dripoTp6<^s, nourisJung tvUd heists : ihip6rpo<f>os, no trished by wild be ists. 

Words compounded with prepositions, a privative and intensive, td and 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


9vsy and &ci, iyaify iipt, hpri^ ^pt, ^^, ^a, vw, and voAv, are alwii/s Pino 
paroxytoncs, and hence exceptions to the rule respecting words %vich a 
short penult. 

(b) Verbal adjcctircs in -tiJ» remain Oxytoncs, even in compounds, if they 
have three endings, but are Proparoxytones, if they have but two. See 
h 78, 1, (c). 

(c) All compounds in -irX^^, -p^l^ -^p^f *^^9 <u^ Oxytones. 


-oy: Nom. kyc^s^ 


G€n. iya^ovy 


Nom. iy9ooSf 


Gen. PI. ^yB6f»y, 


Nom. ypa^/ityot. 

-ov: Nom. ZIkcuos, 


Gen. HiKolov, 


Gen. PI. Bucaluy, 


Nom. 4x^p6st 


Gen. ^x^pow, 
Nom. &^ptfo9, 



Gen. ii^p6oVf 


Gen. PL i;^p(J«y, 


j 76. L Adjectives and Participles of three 

L -01, -If, -ov: Nom. kyti^Sy &ynd^9 kytAiy^good^ 

firyiooyy eighik, 
MifwK (§75,4.) 
-Of, •«, -ov: Nom. Sifirmof, Suroid, Blieeuoy, jttst^ 





Most of the adjectives belong to this class. The Fcm. ends in a, when pre- 
ceded by lOT pt S ^i 1* StiU, adjectives in -00s have -6a in the Fem., when a 
precedes 0, otherwise, -Ari, e. g. idpJo, yet iy96ri. On the accentuation of 
adjectives in -os, -ij (d), -ov, see § 75. 

Adjectives in -cos, -^o, -foi^, which denote the material^ e. g. xf^^^t 
golden; iLpy6o€0St silver; Ktpdfuos, earthen; and multiplicative adjectives in 
•4oSf '6 11, -coy, e,g.cnr\6os, single; BarKioSj double^ are contracted. On the 
accentuation of those in -cos, -^a, -cok, sec § 75, 3, and on the contraction of 
those in '4a into -a, -611 into -17, and -^a into -a, see f 9, IL 









Remabk 1. Contraction is seldom omitted in Attic classic prose, not unfre- 
quently in the Tmgcdians, e. g. xp^^a, Xen. Ag. 5, 5 ; yet i^^piJos, -^d, -^oi^, 
crmcdecly is rarely found contracted; 8i«rp^os, -4d, -rfor, two-pronged, is com- 
monly contracted in the Masc. and Neut., Buepovsy Huepovy, but in the Fem tha 
nncontracted form is usual, ^ BiKp6a j 57800s is always uncontractcd. 











II. -6ff, -cid, -t: Nom. 
Gen. PI. 

yXvidSi y^vKuoj yXvK^f sweety 

y\vK4oSy yKutetteUy yKvK4os 

y\vic4wyy yKvMtmyy y\vK4cty (§ 75, 4.) 

Digitized by 



The declension of the Masc. is like wrixySi though with the common gcnitiyes 
in '4oSf '4wy ; the declension of the Neut. is like &0tv, yet always uncontnicted in 
the PL (-ea). The only deviations from the regular accentuation are, f/^«rwr, 
TIfAifftta, lifuavj half; ^Kvs, ^'fiktut, ^\v, female; itpda-fivs^ old (used only in the 
iiasc), and some poetic fonns. e^Avs is sometimes u:$ed as feminiue in Homer 
and in the Tn^gedians. 

Rem. 2. The adjective fifxto-vs, in the Attic writers, has both the contracted 
and uncontractcd forms in the Ace. PL, ^/Jtrcw and rifiia-tas: also the Neut. 
ilfiiata is found in several passages in Demosthenes in the contracted form 
ilfiUni. Sometimes the Ionic Fem. form -4a occurs, e. g. irXar^o, X K. £qu. 1, 
14. (in all MSS.) i^f((<rcat| PL Menon. 83, c. in the best MSS. 

Ill -6 J, -Ceo, -ty: Nom. Bfutyvs^ 9tucyvaa, litucv6yf showingj 
Gen. Scucj^i^of, Btucy^s, Htucy^ow 

Gen. PL Ztutvinntov^ Btucywray^ Htuiy^w (^ 75,4.) 
Nom. ^iSf ^wrof <p{ivy produced^ 
Gen. '^(fyros, ^{nniSy ^Amos [^ 65, 2 (c).] 

Gen. PL ipivrwp^ pwrSiv^ ^iyr»y. 

So the Pres. and second Aor. Act. participles of Tcrbs in -fu. For the de- 
clension of the Masc. and Neut., see f 54 (d). 

IV. -e I *, -€ 0- 0- o, -c v : Nom. XV^*^9 x«P^<o'o'«> X^P^*"? iovely^ 
Gen. xv^*'^<ff* X^^4(rtrris, x^^^^^^ 
Gen. PL x'''f^^'*'^Vi x'V^^^^^'^t x<^*^*^<^* 

For the declension of the Masc. and Neut., see 4 54 (d), the only difference 
being that the Dat. PL ends in -co-i, not -curt, e. g. xof^cfri. — The Masc. and 
Neut. is in the Nom. a Paroxytone, in the Fem. a Proparoxvtone •, yet the 
ancient grammarians prescribe that the Neut of x«y^«' should be accented on 
tiie antepenult, hence x^^*"- 

Bem. 3. Some of the adjectives in -^ e i r, -^ c o* cr a, -^ c v, and -^ c < ;, -^ f r* 
ra, -^ci', admit contraction, e. g. 

Nom. Tt/i^is, rifiii-ttrirai, ri|An-cy, honored^ 

TifijiSt Tifirjaaaf ri/u^y 
Gen. rifiritrroSf rifnticrtnis, rt/nivros 
Nom. ii€Xvr6-tu, fve\ir6-9<raa, fuXtrrS^Wy honeyedf 

/AcAiTovs, fttXtrowrtra, fitkirovM 
Gen. fitXiTowroSf luXiroinrtnis^ luKerowroi. 

y. -c(t, -^7(ra^ -iv, Nom. Xci^cfs, Aei^c7(ra, \ei^^y, rclictus. 

Gen. Xu^ivToSf Xci^c^^t, Kti^ivros 

Gen. PL \u^4yrn¥^ \€i^ticrS»v, Kti^^yrmv 

Nom. ti;^c{t, Ti^cTero, ri^^^r, placing^ 

Gen. TilbivToSf rt^ttffris, ri^tyroi. 

For the declensiotr of the Masc. and Neut., sec ^ 54 (d), and also in the Dat 
PI., e. g. Tv^tivi, So Ufewise the first and second Aor. Pass. Participle, and 
the Pres. and second Aor. Active Part, of r^/u and trjfu, e. g. itfj, Uiac^ Uvf 
tUf dfra, cy, ^tiSf ^tiira, ^4y, 

VI. -day -atv&.-dy: Nom. m^Xoj, fi4\aiya, ti4?Jiy, black. 
Gen. fi4\&yoSt fitkaiyris, fi4K&M0$ 

Gen. PL /i€hiy»y, ntKaty&y, fttXiawy. 

In the same manner only t*U«*, rdXatyot rdx&tf, unhappy, the feminine Voc. 
of which has also r^LKaof, For the declension of the Masc. and Neut., see 4 54 
(d), with Bem. 6. 

Digitized by 



VIL -af, -atreif -ap: Nom, rof, roo'a, Tay, all, every, 
Gen. rorrt^f, irdtnis, vturr6s 

Gen. PI. trdinwy wtur&r, irA^mp, 

In the same manner onlj the compounds of rai, e. g. hras (&iwro^ ftsar), 
9u/ivds, irp<{ira5, etc. ; these compounds have a short a in the Neut., in dac- 
tylic and anapestic verse. -See \ 54 (d), for the declension pf the Masc and 
^eut., and ^ 65, 2 (c), for the accentuation of the simple adjective in the Gen. 
•ad Dat PL and DoaL 

Vm. -dfy -Ao-a, -&y: Nom. Xc/if^y, Xcf^^oo-A, Xcn^oK, having UJU 
Gen. Xcfifccrrof , Ktv^imis, Xtli^aarros 

Gen. PL \u^drr»Vt Xftr^cur&y, Xsir^dyrtnf. 

So the first Aor. Act. Part., and also the Pres. and second Aor. Act Part of 
frrtyu : hrds, -euro, -^ ; orif , -euro, -^. For the declension, see \ 54 (d). 

IX -^F, -€<Fa, -ff: Nom. r 4^^ r4pttva, r4ptif (ftoetic), tmooth, 
Gen. rtptwoSf rrpff£n}r, r4ptvos 

Gen. PL r9p4vtoVj rtfKOf&v^ Tfp4tfutf» 

No other adjective is thus declined. For the declension, see \ 55, 1. 

X. -o^f, -oOo'a,-^!': Nom. ZiMs, BiSovtra, 9iJi6y, oiving^ 
Gen. Zil6vT0Sy StSo^crr;;, 8i8<Wor 

Gen. PL ^iZSyr^Vy ZtBowr&v, ^vUvrtop, 

Thus only the Part. Pres. and the second Aor. Act (8o^s, Somto, 8^y, Gen. 
B^rrof , So^f, Gen. PL Fem. Zov^&y) of verbs in -«/u. 

XL -«(^y, -oGo*!!, -^i^: Nom. kxAv^ iKowroy My, wiOing, 
Gen. Mvros, iieoiitrriSt kK6irros 

Gen. PL iK6vTtay, iKove&Vj iK6pruy, 

Thus only the compound i,4K»y, commonly &Kuy, Sjeot^raf hcoy. For the 
declension, see § 54 (d)» 

XH. 'uy,'Ova'&f-oy: Nom. Xftvotyj \ciirovaa, k€iiroy, leaving, 
Gen. Xfitroyros, X€tiro^<r»js, Xtltroyros 

• Gen. PL \tnr6irTuy, XtiieowrSay, \uir6yTtay, 

So also the Pres., Fut., and second Aor. Act Part., the last, however, with a 
different accentuation : *^y, -ovtra, '6v, e. g. \vir^v, -ouffo, -iv. For the declen- 
sion, see S 54 (<5)- In the same manner, the Present participles of contract 
verbs in -io;, -/», and -rf«, e. g. 

Kom. ri/iM', -MTo, -dy Nom. ^iX»i', -ovv-o, -oSy 

Gen. rifA&yros, '6<nis, ^hrros Gen. PL ^iXotWtfv, -owrSiy, -olvrwy. 

Gen. PL Ti/t«(^in'aiK, -wruPf -^trrwy. Nom. fmr^&yy -oDo-o, •oSi' 

Gen. PL fua^od^^v, 'OvaSoVf 'oCyrtoy, 

The Fut. Act. Part, of Liquid verbs is declined like ipt\&y, tpiKovffa, d>i\ody, 
Gen. ifitkovyroSf etc., c. jr. ffir§p&y, -ouact^ -ovy (formed from <nrtp4ofyj etc.), frofti 
^^t(p»f to sow. 

XIII. -«iy -wTa -(^$:Nom. T«ru^<6y, Trrv^t;?a, tctu^s, Jiawin^^SftTicfe, 
Gen. TfTu<p6T0S, rtrutpvlas, rtrv^tSros 

Gen. PL T«Tvif>6rofy, rerv^viuy, rcTU^^wr. 

On the form iar^s, -w(ra, {<rr<is and -6sf etc., see below, § 193, Rem. 2 and 3. 

Digitized by 




« 77.1 

XrV. The adjectives, fiiyas, H9yd\ri, fkiya^ greedy woKits, iroX\4» 
voXd» muehy are irregular in the Nom., Ace, and Voc. of the Masc. and Neut 
hi. ng. ; the other pans are reguhir : but even 'ro\K6p instead«of voKvv or toA^, 
occurs in tho Attic poets; Aesch. S. 824, uses the Voc. ik4yaK9\ v^aos, 
irpacia, irpaor, aaft, is also irregular; it has, throughout the Fem., in tho 
PI. and l>ual Neut., as also in the Gen. PL Masc, and sometimes, also, in the 
other Cases of the Masc Pl^ a form like Tpats, -cih, -i^ (comp. yXuK^s, -ua, -6), 
which occurs in the Dialects. See the Panidigm. 

♦ 77. Paradigms. 



&7ad^ iya^6y,QOod 






iTo^j ^a»-o5 






iya^p i.ya&-^ 






iycA-liy iya^iy 






iiycA-i tyo^6y 






aycA-al kya^-d 






iya^&y iiya^&y 






kya^cus iya^^is 











&7ad^ iiya^ 






&7ad^ dro^^ 








S.N. yXwc6s 

y\vk€ta y\vK</t SHuet 



trpaoy, soft 

G. y\vK4-os 

yXvKtlds y\vK4-os 




D. y\vKu 

y\vKfi^ y\vKU 




yXvKtTm^ yXvK^ 




V. yKvKi 

yXvKtta yXvKi 





yKvKuai y\vK4a 

frpaoi, vf 

facts irpaciai rpa4a 1 

G. y\vK4uy 

ykvKttvr y\vK4(ifV • 


rrpatiwy vpa4toy\ 

T>. yX.vK40'i{if) yXvKtieus y\vK4a'i{y) 

vpdoiSf 'trp 

a4ffi irpat 

lats Trpa4ffi 1 

A. 7Av«rf7f 

yKvKtlds yXvKta 

irpdovSf vp 

atis vpat 

cfdi •Kpa4a 1 



y\vKf7cu y\vK4a 

icpaot, wp 

atis irpaciat 'rpa4a 1 



yXvKtia y\vK4t 



ir/H<« 1 


yKvKtlaiy y\vK4oiy 


rpatlaiyvpdoiy, 1 



Xa^«<ro-o x«¥>f«>' 






XapUffffris xap^^y^os 






Xap^^ffffp x<V^«>^* 






XapifO'a'ay x^^P^'^ 






Xapitfftra xop^'" 





XOipifO-tTaX x«P^*»^« 






Xapt€<r<ro»y xap<^*^<«(' 



' K(i^4yT69y 


Xoi>ifcri(v) x<^>i^f^o'ais xap^*«''<(»') 1 

Keup^ti<n{v) Kfup^tlcais Ktup^uffiiy) | 



X0ipi4<r<ras x^^P**^** ' 


Xtiipbtitras \et4>^4yTa \ 



XaptfO'trcu x^P^f^To 





Xapi^<r(ra x«p'**^* 




X0Lpi4<riraxv x<V«^»^w» 


\(up&flffGuy\§i<p&4yroi0, 1 

Digitized by 







Xpvtrwv^ golden 



kitXjiop, siugle 
































. xpwy^op 






























a IT A n 












































































iipy^ptoy, silver 



rrrv^6s, having 























T(Tv^T»y rrrv^ui&y 











' rerifi^vlas 












wo\<if much 



fi 4 y a, great 





















































Digitized by 







fi4\ayf black 



ircbr, aU 





































































ffT&y^ stnniling 



\iir6y^ leaving 























. Xarowra 













































^>aafovyy ahont to 



i^cvyir^y, joining 


^ayovyros [show 

itvyy^yros (tvyy^ojis 


















Ctvyy^yTfs (tirYywrcu 



f <pa»ovffS>v 











t (fifyyvcas 









C*vyy6yT9 1 




itvyy6yToiyCfvyy6fftuy (tvyy6yroiy.. 1 

Remark. All participles in -•« arc declined like X€«^e/j (see \ 76, V.) ; all 
participles in -wf, like ^tiKvis (sec § 76, III.) ; all participles in -«, like rrds (see 
4 76, VIII.) 5 the Pres. Fnt. and second Aor. Part Active, like \tw6y (^ 76, 
XII.) ; the Fnt. Act. Part, of Liquid verbs, like ffirtp&y (^ 76, XII.) ' 

$ 78. II. Adjectives of two Endings, 

Adjectives in -os of two endings are declined like 6.yaB6^, 
except that they have no separate form for the feminine, the 
same form being used for the masculine and feminine. ' 

Digitized by 



L -oSf -oy'i 6 ii iXtyyos, rh AXoyov', irrational. 

To this class belong:, 

(a) A few simple adjectives without particular derivative endings^ e. g. i ^ 
fidpfiapoSf not Greek; \dfipoff vehement; fjfiepos, gentle; \oiBopos, calumniating; 
riiaaisf mild; x^P^^^* unfruUful; ^trixosy silent; Bdnavos, extravagant; ccoXos, 
yesterday ; 

(b) Most simple adjectives with the derivative-endings -los and -ftos, and 
-</iOf , e. ff. 4 ^ fftarfipiosy saving ; 6 ri fiofflktioSf regal ; 6 ri yvdtpiyuos, recoffuizable ; 

(c) All compounds, e. g. ^ ^ &\o7o;, rh &X070V, irrational; 6 ri iLpy6s (instead 
of &cp7^s), inactive (but kpy6s, -^J, -^k, hrigid) ; 6 ^ iriyKdKosy very fair (but KaX6s, 
-^, 'iv)\ 6 7) ivtUXcvKOf , very whUe (but \fvK6sf -^, '6y) ; ^cfJiryciMrros, -ov, divinely 
inspired (but vy9v<rr6s, -^, -rfv) ; adjectives compounded with adjectives in 
-Kos, which then become Proparoxytoncs, e.g. 6 -q ^^tvSaTriKos, not pure AUic^ 
but (*ATTtic<Jf, -^, -^y) 6 11 fuffoniptriKos (but UtpaiK&Sy -^, -<{i'). 

Exceptions are adjectives derived from compound vcri)s with the deriva- 
tive-endings -if rfy, which remain Oxytones; those in -t^os, which remain 
Paroxy tones, e. g. hctbtiKrtK65, -^, '6y, from ^irtScffci^v^ ; those in -rrfy rary 
between two and three endings, e. g. ia>§KT6s, -ii, '6v (from &y^x^)t ^^^ ijftnr6sf 
-6y, see Lobeck, ad S. Aj. 1296. Paralipp. p. 482, sq. Poppo ad Th. 2, 41, 4. 
But when compounds in -T<{y, -t^, -T<Jy, are again compounded, they hare but 
two endings, and are Proparoxytones, e. g. 6 ^ axaToo-Kc^curros. 

Rehabk 1. Comparatives and Superlatives have three endings, even when 
the Positive has but two, though there are some rare exceptions, c. g. &rop^§- 
pos 71 X^is, Thu. 5, 110. BvsffifioXfiTaros ^ A($k/>is, Id.. 3, 110. 

n. -ovs, -ovy'y 6 71 ftyovst rh (Syovy, benevolent. 

Adjectives with these endings are, 

(a) Those compounded with the contracted substantives yovs and vXot/s, and 
hence in the Masc. and Fem. are declined like these, but in the Neuter like 
Parody (§ 47), yet the Neuter PI. in -oa does not admit contraction, consequently 
rh 9ifyo<i, On the accentuation, see § 49, 3. 

Hem. 2. Attic tn-iters sometimes omit tl\e contraction in the PI., e. g. koucih 
y6ois X. Cy. 8. 2, 1. Kpinlfiy6ovs X Ag. 11, 5. Usyooi X. H. 2. 1, 2. 

(b) Such as are compounded with the substantive vovs, e.g. 6 ^ iroXurous, 
T^ voXvTTovyf and are inflected like it, but in the Ace. Sing., even as OiBlirov$ 
[4 71, B. (b)], are partly of the contract second Dec. and partly of the tliird, 
e. g. Gen. iro\6irolios and xo\{nrov \ Ace. irokinrolia and 7ro\{nrouy, etc. 

Keu. 3. In several adjectives of this kind, e. g. ixovs, fipaZvirovSf tlTtovs^ 
i»nrr6Trovsy the inflection does not follow the second Dec. 

III. 'caSy 'wy] S ri tXcvs, rh fkewyy compassionate. 

Adjectives of these endings are like the Attic second Dec. (§ 48). 

Rem. 4. The Ace. commonly ends in -wv, but in a number of compound 
words, it ends in -« (§ 48, Rem. 1 ), e. g; d|i^xp<», ivcCirXcw, 6y7jpu (in roepect to 
the accentuation, see § 29, Rem. 7), i7rlir\t»y uvtpxptu. 

Rem. 5. There are three endings to the simple adjective: — 

UKiuSy irXea, 7r\4(oVy fuU^ Gen. irAew, irXcos, irX/w, PI. wA.eV» irXtcu, xAea; tho 
compounds are either of two endings, c. g. A 1? iy<£irXe«y, rh kydirKivvy PI. ol <d 
(lier\€(p (fmretr fmrXcM X. Cy. 6. 2, 7.^»cirX6y rpdireCou X. Hier. 1, 18), rk ^«cxXc» 
X. Cy. 3, 1, 28. 1, 6, 7, and* even the Nom. PI. irx^a>, of the simple adjective 
U not seldom used for the Masc. and Fem., or they have (yet more seldom) 

Digitized by 



three endings, e. g. kydrXtcoSy &vair\4a (Fl. Fhacdon 83, d.), &vdir\tu», Eur 
Ale. 730, has irX^oi^, after tho example of Homer, as Neuter Sing. So like^ 
wise compounds, seldom in tho Sing., e. g. rh KforKtoy, Soph., oftcner in thi 
PL, 0. g. l/ivAcoi PI. Rp. 6. 505, c. and very frequently in the Neuter, e. g. 
fxirXta X. Cj. 6. 2, 7, and 8. vtpiwXta 6. 2, 33. Also from Z\c»s, Plato Phaedon 
95, a. has lX«a as Ncut. PI. 

Rem. 6. 'O i^ (r»s, r^ ir»y, scUvus, is formed from the old word 2A02 by 
contraction. In addition to the Nom. trcos, aw, this word forms only the Ace. 
Sing. <r&v, like the Attic second Dec. ; it has also the Ace. <r&o¥. The form ai 
(from ada), occurs as iPem. Sing, in Euiip. Fr. 629. (Dind.) and as Neut. PI. in 
Plat. Critias, HI, c. in the best MSS. The PL consists of forms from o-As of 
the second Dec. and of forms from the lengthened cnos, namely: — 

Fl. K. ol at ff&s (from crficf ), and ol <r&oi, al ff&eu, N. ff&a, rarely au» 
A. rohs fiu ff&s (from <r»af ), and robs ir^vs, N. a&ctf rarely aa. 

The Singular forms of c&os are very rare in the Attic writers, e. g. cuos, X. 
An. 3. 1, 32. 

Rem. 7. The con^pounds ot K4pas and y4\us are partly like the Attic 
second Dec, partly Uke the third Dec, e. g. d^ -xfiwrdxtpus, rh -xpwrSMpotv^ 
Gen. xpv(r^'f6fM» and xpvo'ot^po^ror ; 6 ^ ^<A,<(ycA»f , rh ^tKiytXatv, Gen. ^lA^Aw 
and ^iXoT^AafTos; fiwMpvs, Gen. fio^Ktpv and fiouKiporroi, so cftrciMf. The 
adjective dvs4p»s follows the third Dec. only, e. g. 9vs4pvros, etc Forms like 
the Common second Dec. originate from forms of the Attic second Dec, e. g. 
SiKcpor, r^KCfMM, JUepa. On the accentaation, see § 29, Rem. 7. 

ly. -«9r; -or; N. 6 ^ o-c^pwr, rh irA^poy, prudent, 

G. rov riis rod c^^povoi (according to S ^^j 1)* 

Rex. 8. From 6 ii vlwp,fat, comes also the Fern, form vUtpa, even in prose 
writers; so also 'fp6<ppao'<ra from b ^ irp6^pn¥, occurs in the poets. 

Rex. 9. Here belong, also, the Comparatives in -nv, -op, 4mp^ -tor; but in 
respect to the declension of these it is to be noted, that, after the rejection of 
r, they are contracted in the Ace. Sing., and in the Nom., Ace, and Yoc FL 
See the Paradigms, S 79* ^ the Attic writers, the uncontracted forms in -or a, 
-orcr, -OP as, frequently occur, e. g. fitl{opa, ixdrropti, KoXXiopo, ixdrrop^s, 
KtucloptSf fJLtt(op9S, fi€\rlop€s, vKtlopts, ifrropas, fit\riopas, iXdrropas, X. Cy. 5. 2, 
36. 7. 5, 83. 2. 1, 23. 2. 1, 13. 5. 2, 36. HeU. 6. 5, 52. Cy. 7. 5, 70. On the accen- 
tuation, see ^ 65, 5. 

V. -17 J, -f y ; N. a 1^ AAijd^f, t^ i\rib4sj true, 

G. rod rrjs rov itXri^4os, itXfj&ovs (^ 59). 

On the contraction of -^a into -a (instead of -^), where a vowel precedes, see 
f 59, Rem. 1. 

Rex. 10. Compounds in -^r (from tiros. Gen. 4rous), are either of two 
endings, e. g. troptlay x<^^> ^l* ^P* 10. 615, a. 'tr§pi48^ xg x<Axrr€f, Phaed. 249, 
a., or they take a particular Fcm. form, namely, -4ris, Gen. '4ri9os, e. ^. 
iirr4rris, F. iirr4ris] rpioKOprobKlHwp <nrop9&y, Th. 1, 87. 

Rex. 11. Simple adjectives in -ijf are Oxytoncs, except trX^ipns, vXnpcs» 
full. On the accentuation of the Voc and of the Neuter, see ^ 65, 5, and o« 
the accentuation of the Gen. PL ^ 59, Rem. 4. 

VT. -ijy, -c**; N. d ^ &^Ai7r, rh &^^cr 

G. rod riis rod Af^pos (§ 55, 1 ). No other word like this. 

VII. -^p, -op\ N. 6 9^ imdrup, rh Swarrop, fatherless, 

G.Tow rrjs rod iardropos (§ 55, 1). In like manner only 
itfifirwp, &fnrirop. 

Digitized by 





Vni. -11, -I J (a) N. 6 ^ Hpw, T^ tSpi, knowing^ 

G. Tov rrjs TOW l^pios (^ 63, llem. 5). 

In like manner, only vritmSf temperate, and Tp6pis, nourished. In addition to 
the fonn in -tor, these adjectives have another in -i8os, but more rare, and onlj 
poetic, e. g. XBpi^Oy IfSptScf . 

(b) N. 6 ^ f^apis, rh eCxo^h agreeable, 
G. TOV rris tov ^hxdpiTos. 

Here belong the componnda of x<^<^i »^Tp«» IXiriy, ^p6ms, which are 
declined like the simples, e. g. c<^c\ir<t, ci/cXiri, Gen. ev^AirtSos ; ^iKhnerpts^ Gen. 
^iXorcdrpiJbos ; the Ace. ends according to \ 53, 3, in -iVf e. g. circAviy, ci^xcvNS' ; 
bnt compounds of v^Air, when they refer to persons, are inflected in the Attic 
dialect in -i8os, e. g. ^lA^iroXif, Gen. -rZos, yet in tbj Ace., ^iKinroKiv and -cSa; 
still, as epithets of cities, etc., they are inflected like ir^Aii, e. g. KoJOdtroXtSf 
ZiKoi&iroXiSy etc., Gen. KoAXnr^Acwx, etc. 

IX. -us, -V ; (a) N. d ^9 liZaxpvs, rb tZcacpu^ tearless. 

So compounds of hJuipv ; yet these inflect only the Ace. Sing, like the thirl 
Dec., e. g. &8aicpvy, Neut. ftScucfn;. The otlier Cases are supplied by &8^pvroff, 
-opr, Gen. -ov, according to the second Dec. 

(b) N. ^ ^ Wmjxw, T^ Sdnjxwi ^«» e2b long, 
G. ToO T^f TOW Siir^x*^'* 

Here belong the compoxmds of ir^x^^^ i ^^<) declension is like yKvicltSy yXmi 
(f f 76, IL and 77), except that the Neuter PI. in -ea is contracted into -i|, like 
iirny, e. g. ZiHixn* 

X -owf, -oif ; N. 6 ^ /iOf^Sowr, T^ ixoySSow, one-toothed, 

G. TOW T^S TOW fU)tf6lioyTOS, 

So the remaining compounds of oBo6f. For the Dec, sec § 54 (d). 

§ 79. Paradigms. 

















Ziroia and dhrovy 



































' iy^oty. 


Digitized by 


♦ 79.1 




9lhr\(o-os)ovs 9fhr\{o-otf)ovy 

















thrKiH fCwKoa 










cirrXovy tffwXoa 




cSirAiM tihrXoa 









tviaiiJMV tH^atfiov 



fjkti(oty fi€t(oy 











ful(oymfi(l(v fjL(7(oy 









fitiCoyts ful(oya 












fhicdfioyas tb^fwya 



fitl(ovas fiti{oya 



fA^iCovs fulCo» 


fvZaifioyts tvHaifioya 

like the Nominative. 

like the Nominative. 










iiXriHs i^V^^t 





57«< ^•os)avg 





iJ,riS^(4-a)ri iX'n^t 


a« tyUs 






ij<.n^4-€s)€is ii\n»(4'a)fi 


* ^yi(4'a)V 







AAi;^(^-af)f?j iAn&(^)^ 


V hyi(4'a)cL 


like the Nominative. 

like the Nominative. 1 









c(?xapi» effx<V« 






Wdropos , 





tvx^iptTa and thx^y ci/xofx 







eix<^*T«» fix<^«Ta 










€*x«V«r«» €tX<V*^« 












W, Rem. 4. 


' but IT 

vrri^4-oty ^ (Twii^y, ^ 

•M9. Hem. 1. , 

Digitized by 



♦ 80. Ill Adjectives of one Ending. 

Adjectives of one ending have no separate form for the Neu 
ter, partly because their meaning is of such a nature that the> 
generally occur in connection with persons, and partly because 
their formation admits of no separate neuter form. In poetry, 
however, these adjectives sometimes occur in those Cases in 
wliich the Neut form is like that of the Masc. and Fem., i. e 
in the Gen. and Dat, even in connection with neuter substan- 
tives, e. g. fiavidcriy Xva'(nljfjijaucriy, Eur. Or. 264. iy irhnp-i awfutn, la 
El. 375. They very seldom take a separate form for the Neut, 
e. g, hrrfXxs, iiri^XvBa e^co, Her. 8, 73 ; a derivative a-ijective is 
commonly used, where the neuter is to be denoted. 


I. -a J, Gen. -ou; 6 yuovlas^ Gen. fioviov, single (Paroxytone). 

IL -as, Gen. -ayros: 6 ri iucdfias^ Gen. -atiros, unwearied (Paroxytone). 

m. -^5» Gen. -JlZos'. 6ti ^vyds. Gen. ^uydBos^ fugitive (Oxytone). 

rV. -ap, Gen. -apos: only fiducapt though the Fem. form fidtempa is sometime! 

V. -71$, Gen. 'ov: 6 i^Koyrfis, Gen. i^Koirrov, voittnlary. 

Some of these adjectives take, in connection with Fem. substantives, a sepa- 
rate Fcm. form in -ts (Gen. -i8oj), e. g. tdi^y, Fem. ^iwwiSf fair-looking. They 
are Paioxytones, except ^^eXoyrfis, Uovriii, and bfipwrfis. , 

VL -7JJ, Gen. -ijtos: bi\ hpyfis. Gen. kpyiiros, white. 

So all compounds in -Mis, -^fje/ist -iSX^s, -irA^s, and -k/j^s, and some simple 
adjectives, e. g. yvfurfis, naked; x^P'^'f needy; irhrns, poor ; wXAyris, ,txtndenng, 

VJJL -^y, Gen. -iivos: S4i kwriivy Gen. kirrriyos, unfeathered. In like manner 
no other. 

VIII. -4 1, Gen. -&ros: Sri hyvdis. Gen. dyyuroSf unknown. 

So all compounds in -fip^s, -yvdsy and -xp^s, and also hn^s^firm. 

IX. -«y, Gen. -*8of : hii ivdKKis, Gen. io'dKKi^os, powerless. 

These adjectives after the omission of a feminine substantive to which they 
belong, arc, like those in -ctj, -dSos^ e. g. ^ 'EAA(£j (sc. 7^), used as substantiyei, 
e. g. ji varpls (sc. yrj), fatherland. 

X. -Us, Gen. -C5o5 : 6ri v^Avy, Gen. vehXvBos, one latchj coine 
In like manner only a few other compounds. 

Digitized by 



XL -,f. Gen. -yot, -ico», -x»* • * ^ ^^>»a|, Gen. -&70f, rapacious. 

6 ri fUtfvC^, " -OxoJ» one-hoofed, 

XTL -4^, Gen. -IT 05 : 6 ^ a(7(\i^, Gen. -«iroy, Ai^A. 

Xm. Such as end in an unchanged substantive, e. g. JhraiSy childless; /uucpS' 
X^V* iong-handed; ainix^^f done with enters oum hand; luucpainv^ long-Uved; 
uo Kpa/ rxn^,^ lona-necked ; XcOKcunris, having a white shield. The declension of sach 
adjectives is like that of the substantives, e. g. fuucpaAxtros, On the oompoand< 
of iro6sf however, comp. $ 78, IL (b). 

i 81. Comparison of Adjectives. 

1. The quality expressed by an adjective may belong to 
an object in different degrees : — 

(a) When the quality belongs to one object in a higher 
degree than to another, the form is called the Comparative, 
e. g. Plato was more learned than Xenqphon. 

(b) When the quality in the highest degree belongs to an 
object, the form is called the Superlative, e. g. Plato was 
the MOST LEARNED of the disciples of Socrates, 

(c) The form of the adjective which expresses its simple 
meaning without any comparison, is called the Positive, 
e. g. Plato was learned. 

2. Only the adjective and adverb are susceptible of com- 
parison ; the participle does not admit it, except in a few 
rare cases, where the participle has the meaning of an 
adjective, e. g. ippcofievo*:, -earepo^, -iaraTOf:, 

3. The Greek has two classes of terminations for the 
Comparative and Superlative. The first, and much the 
most common, is -T€po<:, -ripd, -Tepov, for the Compara- 
tive, and -TaT09, 'Tarrj, -raTov, for the. Superlative; the 
second is - (i^) a>v, - (l) op, oi -cov, -ov, for the Comparative, 
and - (i) <7T0 9, - (/) a-rrj, - (t) a-rov, for the Superlative. The 
I is the union-vowel. 

4. The first class of terminations is appended to the stem 
of the adjective by the connecting syllables o (©), at, 49, e?; 
hence the general mle : In most adjectives^ the usual end' 
ings are appended to the stem by meam of the connecting 

Digitized by 



Rbxask. Instead of the sinj^le forms of the Comparatiye and SnperhitiYei 
the Greek, like the Latin, can prefix fuiXKoy (magis) and fidxwra (maxime) to 
the Positive. This periphrasis is necessary in all adjectives, which, for the sake 
of eaphonj, have no Comparative form. 

§ 82. A. First Form of Comparison. 

Comparative, 'T€po^, 'rip a, 'Tipov, 
Superlative, -raros, -rariy, '^arov. 
These endings are appended to the stem of the adjective; 
the stem is fotmd by rejecting os in the Nom. of the second 
Dec, and the same syllable in the Gen. of the tliird Dec. 
L Adjectives in -os, -17 (-a), -ov. 

(a) Most adjectives of this class annex the above endings to 
the stem by means of the union-vowel o or w ; the union-vowel 
is o, when a syllable long by nature or by position Q 27, 3), pre- 
cedes, but <a, when a short syllable precedes, — co being then 
used to prevent the concurrence of too many short syllables, 
e. g. 

KOv^Sf lights Com. Kov^-^epos, Sup. xov^fPrcrrof , -17, -or. 

ta-2(yp'6s, strong^ " lax^p-^^pos, " urxvp-^oroSf 

\nrr-6sy <Am, " Xcirr'^-Tcpor, " KnFT-6-raroSf 

ff^p^Sf vehement^ " xr^p-^tpos, " ff^Sp-S^aros, 

iruep-4sy bitter^ " vuep^-rtpos, " •wucp-6^aros, 

iXvp-Ssf Jimij " ix^ip-^-rfpos, " ix'^'^^^^^t 

Remark 1. A mute and liquid here always make a syllable long by posi- 
tion, though the Attic poets, on account of the verse, sometimes consider such 
syllable as short, e. g. f6re*fy<6TOTw from cl^ejcvof, Eur. Hcc. 579. 618. (Pors.), 
Bvsirorfi^tpa, Id. Ph. 1367. 

(b) Contracts in t€os = -ovs and -oos = -ovs are contracted also 
it the forms of Comparison ; the first contmct c and m the union- 
vowel into w ; the last assume the imion-syllable c? and contract 
in with the preceding 0, e. g. 

rop4>6p-f05 — irop^vp-ous axk-6os = airX-ovs 

wop<pvp-e<0T(pos = Top^vp'tio^fpos atrXO'dir-rtpos = avX-ois-rtpos 

wopii>vp-€<ifTaros ~- vopipvp-d-raros oirXo-eV-raror — oirA.-ov<r-TOTOS. 

Hero IxMonc^ nho contraots of two cndinijs in -ovs Jind -owj e. g. eUy-oos^' 
t(fr-wSf Neut. ttiv-ooy = t6v-cw, Com. thvo-iv-r^pos = tvy-o^s-rtpos, Sup. €&«f 
^(T-raToi => (vy-ovfr-raros. 

Digitized by 



RsM. 2. Adjectiyes in -oos take also the uncontracted forms of the C-omparft- 
tive and SaperhUive in -o^tpos, -m^otos, e. g. €inry9^€poi, X. B. £qa. 1, 10. 
€lrxp*>^*po^t ^ O. 10, 11. 

(c) The following adjectives in -atos: y€pai6^, old; irakai- 
OS, ancient; ircpaio9> on iJie other side; o-xoXatos, at leisure^ 
assume -rcpos and -raros without a union- vowel, e. g. 

jtptu-^ Com. ^pai-^€poSi Sap. TtpoZ-raros, 

Rbm. 3. llaKai6s and <rxoA.«7o9 have also the nsnal forms of Compari- 
son ; nXtu6rrtfos, xrxoXmh^pos^ so also yepttUrtfoSf Antiph. 4, p. 125, 6. 

(d) The following adjectives in -os: €vBtos, calm; lyo-vxos, 
quiet; 4810S, peculiar; to-os, equal; /aco-os, middle; opSptos, 
early; ^^109, late; vapaTrXi^o-tos^ similar; and vpuiio^inike 
mornings assume the union-syllable lu, the Comparative and 
Superlative thus becoming like the preceding words in -<uo% 
e. g. 

fikr-osi Com. fico'-af^cpos, Sap. fi^ff-al-rtfrosj 

Vii-oSf " i8»-<i{-T^j, " tii-al-^aros. 

Bem. 4. Sometimes also the common form is found, e. g. rfovx^tpos^ 
^^vX^teros \ ^tX^tpas, ^iX^rarM are the usual forms in the Attic writers. 
Here belong also the adverbial forms vpwtaltfpop, Tpcvio/rrra, from wpAlos ; thus 
in Flato ; likewise wpcdrtpo^ and vpwtrtera ; thus always, as it seems, in Thu. 
(Fopp. ad 7, 19, 1), also in Xen. Anab. 3. 4, 1. rpntrtpov according to the best 
MSS. (on the contrary vputcdrarof Cy. 8. 8, 9). The adjective ^i\os has 
three forms: ^iX^rtpos seldom (e. g. Xen. C. 3. 11, 18.), and ^iKArarBSf 
^tXair^pos seldom in prose (e. g. Xen. An. 1. 9, 29, though one' good Ms. has 
fiX^9pw), and ^iXcfrar Of seldom in prose (e.g. Xen.H. 7.3, 8.), ^iKrtpos 
poetic, and ^(kraros very frequent ; the Comparative is usually expressed by 
fwAAoy ^fXos. In addition to these three forms, also the Superlative ^iXMrros 
(as in Homer, the Comparative ^tXlwy) is found in Attic poetry. 

Hem. 5. The two adjectives, fidaosy middle^ and y4osy young^ have a special 
Superlative form, ii4varosy v^cros; but this is in use only when a scries 
of objects is to be made prominent, fi4ffcerot denoting the very nuddle of the 
series, and tflaros the last or most remote, whereas /itirairoew expresses the 
idea of the middle in general, and yf^aros retains the primary signification 
of the. adjective, ifoungy new. In prose, y^arot is used only in reference to the 
tones of music (v/crrof ^07701) ; and then the Feminine is contracted, trftnif 
ihe lowest line or string, 

(e) Two adjectives in -os: Ipp^fiivo^, strong, and aicparo?, 
unmixed, append the union-svUable €9 to the stem, e g. ippwfi^y 

Digitized by 



iar-r€po^, ipptofjLO^'ia'TaTO^, cucpar-ccr-Tepos, dicpar-co--raros. So also 
aiSotos has cuSoi-co-raTos in the superlative. 

Hem. 6. Further, the adjectives, ip^ovos, ridi; avoviaios, xialous; and 
icft^t'Ot, gladf sometimes take the above foiin, as iL^oytartpos, -^ararost 
together with the common form, -^fpos, -^noeros. From ifffitvos is formed 
iurfx^ytiTcpos, and the adverbial neuter, iurftfyairara and Surety- ic-rar a. — Soyerol 
other adjectives also have this formation, yet for the most part only in poetry, 
e. g. §1^c»pos. Unmixed (of wine) ; ^Zvfiost sweet ; ^fl-(«-c8os, flat {iirtrt94<n'fpos^ 
X. H. 7. 4, 13), and all contracts in -ovs] comp. (b). The forms in -iortpn^ 
-4<rrtirost belong properly to adjectives in -ijj and -wy, 

(f) The following adjectives in -09: XaXos, talkative; fiovo- 
^ayosj ealing alone; o^o^ayo9j dainty; and imaxos, pooTt 
drop 09, and append the syllable ts, e. g. XaX-09, Com. AaX-ur- 
rcposj Sup. XaX-«r-TaTos ; tttcu^os has also Sup. wT<i);(oraTos. 

Hem. 7. These endings properly belong to adjectives in -i^s, Gen. •i>v, 

IL Adjectives in -179, Gen. -ov, and \|/€v^^, -ci. Gen. -cos, drop 
-i^,and append the syllable -is, e.g. icXwit-its (Gen. -ov), thievish^ 
Com. icXcTiT-ur-Tcpos, Sup. KXcarr-wr-raTos ; ^cuS-tcr-rcpos, tj/ev^ia' 


Exceptions. *TfipurHis, -ov, insclent^ has ifipurrirtpos^ X An. 5. 8, 3, Ifipurr^ 
raros, X. An. 5. 8, 22. C. 1. 2, 12. From hcpeerfis (Gen. -/os) is the Com. iucpor 
rUrrtpoSf to distinguish it from iKparderraroSf No. (e). 

Ill Adjectives of the third Declension. The Comparison- 
endings are appended to the stem of the adjectives, either 
directly or by inserting the syllable -cs (also -4s). 

(1) Those in -vs, -cio, -v, lys, '€^ (Gen. -cos = -ous), a% 

-av, and the word fiaKap, happy ^ append the endings of Com- 
parison directly to the pure stem, which appears in the Neuter 
form, e. g. 

yXvKiiZy Neut. -^ — yKvKihrtpos yXvic^rctror 

oXnd^y, Neut. -^* •— ii\fi»4ffT€pos aXi^Ar-Tcrros 

jU^Aos, Neut. -ay — fuJJuMr^pos ^Aiy-roror 

rdKaSf Neut. -ay — raXdy-rtpof raxAy^aros 

M^dp, — fuuedp-rtpos fAsucdp-rceros, 

Rem. 8. The adjectives iiZifs^rax^s, and troXvs are compared in 'l«»y and 
^y. See § 83, 1. 

(2) Adjectives in -wv, -ov (Gen. -ovos), assume -cs, e. g. 

cu8aif(fl»v, Ncnt. ci^cu/uoy, happy. 

Com. tv^fu>y'4a'-r€poSf Sjp. tv^Mfioy-^^-rcens, 

Digitized by 



(3) Adjectives in -f sometimes assume -es, sometimes -is^ 

A^XZI, Gen. A^Xi*c-oj, growing old, &fnra^. Gen. &fnrceyoSf nipax, 
Com. h^XiK-iff-rtpos^ Com. afncayitr-rtpost 

Sup. &^i}Xiic-/<r-raTOf, Sup. ofncay-U'reeros. 

(4) Adjectives in -cis^ -cv^ whose stem ends in vt, append the 
Comparison-endings directly to the stem, the last t being 
changed into o-, and the preceding v being then dropped ({ 20, 2). 

XOfiftSf 4cy, Gen. x^'^^^'^'^^y pf«i*aftt. 

Com. xo^A'^-Tcpof, Sup. x^^-^oros, 

(6) The compounds of x«p^5 assume w, e. g. 

irlxofUf Gen. irix^ptr-os, pleasant 

Com. hrixapiT-6-rtpoSf Sup. irixaptr i^-varot. 

*Axapi^r€p**s in Homer, comes from kxapir-rtpos ; comp. No. U). 

♦ 83. B. Second Form of Comparison. 

Comparative, -('wv, Neut -Zov, or -cov, Neut -ov. 
Superlative, -io-tos, •Co'Trff -tcrrov. 

Bbmark 1. On the quantity of i in -IwPt -top, see § 28, 1 ; on the declension, 
f 78, Rem. 9 ; and on the accent, § 65, 5 (a). 

This form of Comparison includes, 

L Some adjectives in -vs, which drop -w and append -W, 
elc; this usually applies only to iJSvs, sweet, and to;(v% swift 
(the other form of these adjectives in -vripo?, -vnxros, is some- 
times used, but not by Attic writers). Ta;(vs has in the 
Comparative Sdtnr<ov (Att Sdmiv), Neut. SSjoxtov (Sottov), 
Comp. W 21, 3, and 17, 6. Toxi^wv is found only among the 
later writers. Thus, 

ifi-h. Com. ^8-f«y, Neut. IJB-io/', Sup. IJ^Mfrof , -ty, -ov, 

Tux'^Sf " b^trwff Att. ^^rrwi', Neut. 3a<r(rof', Att. (Syarroi', Sup. r^x'*'^^' 

RSM. 2. The other adjectives in -^f, as fia^is, deep; fiapvs, /icavg; fipw 
66Sf ilow; fipax^s, short; yXvKvs, sweet; 9air6s, duck; €bp^s, wide; ^{vf, 
aharv; irpdcfivs, old; wieis, swift, have the form in -^cpot, -{naeros {S 82, 
m.) ; in Attic poetry, however, single examples of these adjectives are found 
with the other form, e. g. fipdxurros, trpifffiurros, &Kurros, 

II. The following adjectives in -pos : aitrxpo^t base ; ix'^P^^ 
hostile: KvSpos, honorable; and oiKTp6s,taretclied (but always 


Digitized by 



oiKTpwtpo^ in the Comparative),' — the ending -/jos here alsti 
being dropped, e. g. oMrxpos, Com. atap^-t^wy, Neut QMr\'lav, Sup. 


Rem. 3. O&riorros, Kv^ay^ KiSurroSf are poetic. Besides this form, in -umr, 
etc., Vhich is preferred by the Attic writers, the above adjectives have also, 
though seldom, the other form in -^tpoSf -^raroSf e. g. ix^p^raros ; bat always, 
in prose, oUerpSrcfjos 

i 84. Anomalous Forms of Comparison, 


2. fcoK^s, body 

3. KoX^f, heavtifuLy 

4. iJ<y€w6iy paitifidf 

5. faacpSst long^ 

6. fUKp6sf smaU, 

7. hxiyoSffeWj 

8. /x^yoj, <7rca/, 

9. vo\6sy miKhj 

10. ^dtos, easy^ 

11. ir^ttfv, n)9«, 

12. winy, fat y 

it/iflyefyf Neat. UfA^u^oy 

{fi4\TtpoSf Poet.) 
Kptitrauv, Att. uptlrrwy 

{^dprtpoSf Poet.) 

^<r(r(i»i', Att. l$TTfl»y 



(fiixro'uyf Poet.) 


ixAfftruVy Att. ixdrruy 



wktlwy, or ir\^«y 





(iBcATOTos, Poet.) 

(^^proros, ^pun<Sy Po0t) 

Adv. ^Kuna 






Remabk 1 . The Saperlative Aptaros (from "Apris, the god of war), and the 
Comp. ii/ulyuyy have particularly the idea of bravery, boldness; fieXrUty, like the 
Latin meliory signifies better^ in a moral sense, thongh by no means confined to 
that ; K(f»y is mostly used in such phrases as \^6y ifm, it is better^ and A^oros 
mostly in the Voc. & K^irrt, The poetic Superlative fp4pt<rros is found in 
Plato, in the exclamation & <p4pt(rT€ ! most voartky ! The irregular forms of 
fUKpSs, viz. i?Jura'(oy, ixdxttrros, express both the idea of smaUness and feumess 
(hhlyos)\ but palvty generally expresses the idea of fevmessy seldom that of 
smaUness; the regular forms of fUKp6sy viz. fwcp^tposy -iraTos, always retain 
their original idea of smaUness, and also iklyurros that of fewness^ though hMyot 
«ften signifies nmaU, 

Digitized by 



Bem. 2. The use of the longer and shorter form of the ComporatiTe irxduw, 
rA^«r, should be particularly noted. The neuter ir\4ov is more frequent than 
vAccby, especially when it is used adverbially ; v\4ouos and vKtloyos, v\4oyi 
and vKtlovi, Ace. vK4w, xA/oya, and xAc(», arc used indiscriminately ; PL Nom. 
and Ace, usually xAcfovi, also wketoy^s and xAc^oyas (but not vhious) ; v\tlu- 
is much more frequent than w\4w ; 'K\fi6vwv and irXcWi arc more frequent than 
9\t6imw and vXiovu Finally, the shortened form of the Kent. Sing. xAccV 
(formed from xAeiby), but limited to such phrases as rrXny ^ /i^pioi, should be 
mentioned as a special Atticism, 

Several adjectives, which express the idea of an order or 
sericsy have only the Comparative and Superlative forms, 
because, on account of their signification, ihey cannot be used 
absolutely, but only in comparison. An adverb of place is 
usually the root of these forms of Comparison, e. g. 

^from wp^), vpSrtpos (prior), irpwros (primus), ^rrt. 

' &r»), iky^€pos (superior), ityArceros (snpremus). 

' Mp)y Mprtpos (superior), kighert twiprceros^ Poet, ffircrros (supremos). 

' tm6 7), (Sirrepoi (posterior), fater, toraros (postremus), last. 

' ^)t taxatros (extremus), outermost, 

' vXitffioyi propc), (irAiyo-foi, Homeric), irA9}<rM/rfpoi, or rAiKri^«pos 
(proprior), nearer, vXtitnairceros^ -iirrvTos (proximus), nearesL 
( " vp6c»)ffarfirpo<r^tpos9 farther, irpwrArctTOSf farthest. 

Rem. 3. Other adjectives in the Comparative and Superlative, which are 
also derived from adverbs, have no Positive form of the adjective, c. g. ^p^/io, 
qmetly, iiptftiartpos^ i)p€fU<rraxo5 \ TpoCpyov, useful, trpoifpyudrtpos, more useful^ 

Rem. 4. Comparatives and Superlatives are also formed from substantives. 
Here two cases are to be distinguished : (a) when the substantive, both in form 
and signification, is the Positive from which the Comparative and Superlative 
may be formed, i. e. when the substantive can be considered as an adjective, 
e. g. SovXos, slave, iovXSrtpost f*tore dovish; — (b) when the substantive, in 
respe?t to the signification, is not really the Positive, but only in respect to the 
form can be considered as the basis of the Comparative and Superlative, the 
proper Positive form having been lost, (comp. Kpdrivros from the Epic Kporh, 
iK4yxt(rros from the Epic iXeyxhS') Numerous examples of the last kind may 
be found in poetry, particularly in Epic. See § 216, Rem. 2. 

Rkm. 5. For the sake of greater emphasis, the Comparative and Superla- 
tive arc sometimes compared, e. g. 1l(rx»ros (Supcrl.), i<rxaxArtpos, ^<rxcrri^a- 
Tor ; so irp^ioros froTn irpwros. This is frequent in the Comic writers, seldom 
in Homer and the Trngedians, still more seldom in prose. 

Digitized by 





♦ 85. Comparison of Adverbs, 

1. Adverbs derived from adjectives, when compaied, have 
commonly no independent adverbial ending ; the Comparative 
is expressed by the Ace. Sing, neuter of the Comparative 
adjective, and the Superlative by the Ace. PI. neuter of the 
Superlative, e. g. 

Com. vQ^drrtpw Sup. vo^^cera 


from <ro4>6s) 


I " <r«^f) 

XapUrrofS I 

" X«P^"5) 

'« cdSaT/i^y) 


« alirxp6s) 


- 4lB6s) 


[ " raxfis) 










^(Ttroy, -rrov 


Remabk 1. The Singular of the Comparatiye is used, because only two 
objects are compared, and it is affirmed that one of these is better, etc than 
the other; bat the Plural of the Snperlatiye, because the object compared is 
the best, etc of many others. 

Rem. 2. But sometimes these adrerbs also retain in the Comparative tho 
adverbial ending of the Positive -«r, e. g. xa^<ir«^^p»$t i^n^€ar4pns, /lox^P^. 
r4pns, KaX\i6y»s, especiallgr taMt{6pws, etc. The Neuter Singular is seldom used 
in the Snperlatiye, and belongs mostly to poetry. 

2. All original adverbs in -co, e. g. ofci), icaroi, K^o), hro, etc., 
retain the ending -co regtlarly in the Comparative, and almost 
uniformly in the Superlative, e. g. 

xdruy behwj 

Com. hmrlpto 

Sup. kyttrdrw 

In hke manner, most other original adverbs have the ending 
•w in the Comparative and Superlative, e. g. 

^yxov, near, 

Com. iyxor4pn 

w4pa, ultra, 


Sup wanting 







hy^f n«w, 


$yyt9ra (rarely). 

Digitized by 


f* 86, 87. 1 THE PRONorNs cyw, crv, oS. 



The Pronoun. 

♦ 86. Nature and Division of Pronouns. 

1. Pronouns do not, like substantives, express the idea 
of an object, but only the relation af an object to the 
speaker; i. e. they show whether the object is the speaker 
himself (the first person), or the person or thing addressed 
(the second person), or the person or thing spoken of (the 
third person), e. g. I (the teacher) give to thee (the scholar) 
i^ (the book). 

2. All pronouns are divided into five principal classes : 
(1) Personal, (2) Demonstrative, (3) Relative, (4) Interrog- 
ative, (5) Indefinite Pronouns. Pronouns are again di- 
vided, according to their signification and form, into (a) 
Substantive, (b) Adjective, and (c) Adverbial Pronouns, 
e. g. ^70) raxha hroiT^aa] (a) /, thoUy Ac, she^ it; (b) wy, thy^ 
his; (c) Acre, there^ thus. 

I. Personal Fbonouks. 
A. Substantive Personal Pronouns. 

♦ 87. Thi 

i simple lytoy i 


<rv, tu, o5, sui. 


fuw iftou), ifwv, o/me 
ttoi (/Ml), 4fu>l, to me 
fU (fu), ifii, me 


<ro6 liTou), of thee 
troi {irot), to thee 
ff4 (trc), thee 


i^{o6),ofhimsdf etc. 
oT{ol), to himself etc 
1 (4), himself etc. 

Dual 1 


vA^ we both, us both 
^V^y of us both, to us 

<r^, you both 
to you both 

(r<tw4. Ace. (Poet.), them both 
<r<l>uiy {iripa>iy), of them both, 
to them both 

Plural. 1 

Nom. ^/tfTt, we 
Gen. 4iimv^ of \ts 
Dat. ^fuV, to i« 
Ace. ^/uU, t» 

bfi&y, of you (0) 
6,ms, you (u) 

<r4»«7j, Neut. <t^a (Poet.), (<r0««) 
ir^v, of them . [they 
ait>l<n{y) {<r4>urt[v]h to them 
<r^j, Neut. <r^«o {<rit>fa), them. 


Digitized by 



Remark I. The forms susceptible of inclination are put in a parenthesis, 
without any mark of accent. Comp. §4 33 (b), and 35, 3. On the accentuation 
and use of the third Pers. of the Prononn, see § 302, Rem. 3. The Vocative 
is here, as in the following paradigms, omitted, because, when it occurs, it is 
always liko the Nominative. 

Rem. 2. The Gen. Sing, of these three pronouns, in imitation of Homer, 
often has, among the Attic poets, also the forms ifid^tVf o'^^cv, c^ev: these 
forms always retain their accent, except when li^cr is not used as a reflexive 
(mit), but as a pronoun of the third person (ejus). Comp. ^ 35, 3 (b). 

Rem. 3. The Ace. Sing, and PI. of oZ ha« in Attic poetry also the form 
vip {viv) signifying Aim, Aer, it, PI. them^ e. g. Soph. OR. 868. 1331, instead of 
tBbrods and abrds* See the Dialects, \ 217. 

Rem. 4. The oblique Cases of iifttis and 6fiu5, when not emphatic, some- 
times undergo a certain inclination among the poets, being written in the fol- 
lowing manner: ^ijmp Cimp, fifuy Sfuu, or {/uy vfuvj still, this inclination 
cannot take place if a Paroxytone precedes. The shorter form of the prononn 
of the third Pers. is used in the Dat. and Ace. PL by the poets (also by the 
Attic writers), e. g. Dat v^i (or ff^lv) instead of ir^ifft{y). to them. Ace. ^^ 
instead of j-tpas, them. Both forms, cr^l and ir^iy^ though seUom, are used by 
the poets as the Dat. Sing. ; the form ir^4, on the contrary, is used much more 
frequently as the Ace. Sing, instead of o^r^y, -^r, -6, also as reflexiye instead 
of kwn6v. 

♦ 88. (b) The Reflexive Pronouns^ Ifiavrov, crtavrov, 


Singular. 1 


i/twnov, -rist of 

o'cavrov, -^t, or 

kaanov^ -^i, or 

myself ^ 

acurrov, -^», oftkysdf 

a&Tov, -i) J, of himself of heradf 


iiiaurvt -J?, to 

fftavT^, p, or 

ioin-V. -g, or \itsdf 


crowTy, p, to thyself 

afir^, -f , to himsdf to herself to 


ituajTdVf -7IV, 

atavrSvt -^k, or 

iauriy, -iiv^ -6, or [Usdf 
aiT6y, >. -6, himsdf hersdf 


<ravT6y, -^k, thyself 

Plural 1 


flfjL&y alnmy, of 

6fi&y abr&yf of your- 

ieanwy or oftrwr, or 



ffp&y awTWK, of themselves 


rjfuy ainois, -aisf 

ifuy avToiSf -nus, to 

iauTois -eus, or a&rois -cu5, or 

to ourselves 


ff^ivuf avTois 'cus, to theniseliyx 


TlfjMS airrovs, -ds, 

&fjMS avTo{ts, -dSf 

icurro6sj -(is, -d, or airrovs, -ds. 



-dy or 
0-^05 owTows, 'dsf ff^4a aindj 

Digitized by 



i 89. (c) Reciprocal Pronouns. 

To express reciprocal relation, the Greek has a special pro- 
nominal form, wliich is made by the coalescence of oAAoc aXXxov, 
olXXot aXXoK, oAAoi aAAov5, into one word. From the nature of 
the relation, this word can have no Singular. 

iiXX4l\up, of one another 
&AX^Aovf, -as, -a 

Plural Gten. 

Dual itKK'h^oty, -aiy, -ouf 
&AA^Aoiy, -euy, -oiv 
\AA^A<», -d, -«. 

S 90. B. Adjective Personal Pronouns. 

Personal pronouns, having the form of adjectives, ore called 
Possessive pronouns, since they express possession. They are 
formed from the Genitive of substantive personal pronouns : — 

ilUsj -^, '6vi meuSj -a, -utUj from ifiov] rifiirtpotf -rdpd, -rtpoy, noster^ -tra, -trum^ 

from rifuiy ; 
<r^j, -^, '6y, tutu, -a, -«m, from trov] d/t^rcpos, -r/pd, -rtpoy, vester^ -tra, -trumy 

from 6fA&y ; 
v^irtpoSf •T4pdf -Ttpoy, suus, -a, -unij from ir^Hp (used in speaking of many ; 

when single persons or things are spoken of, Att prose always uses the 

Gen. iavTov, -qs). The Epic form, 8f, 9i, 5y, suusj -a, -um, also occurs in 

the Tragedians, though seldom. 


91. n. Demokstbatiye Pronouns. 












6 ^ 





































cvr6 . 

































rolfs rds 










N. A. Ti6 


rdf 1 TO^w 






G. D. roTy 

rdiy roTy \ ro^noiy 






1. The pronoun olros is composed of the article 6, i^, t«J, and the pronoun 
a{rr6sj whero the article has o, «, or ot, they comhine witli tlie first syllable 
of a&r^f and make ov; all other vowels of the article are absorbed by the 

Digitized by 





first syllable of avrot. Hence the jirst sylUble of oZroi ends in ov where th« 
article has o, «, or ot j elsewhere in ov. (The same rale holds when tUn4s ia 
compounded with an adjective pronoon, e. g. roaovros (from r6<ros and a^6s). 
Examples : 6 ean-6s = oSros, ^ oarHi == a0n|, rb a^rf = rovro ; tow o^ov = 
To^ov, T^y afrr^j = ra6r7js, etc. ; so rc^cros aW6s = toctovtos, i jJoiy curHi == too^ 
ai^, rdcoy ain'6 = roffovrOf r6aov axnou = roo'o^ov, etc. 

2. Like 6, ^, r<{ is declined, S8f , liSc, riJSc, roG9c, t^s9c, PI. olSe, oI8c, rtCSc ; 
Like olros are declined, TO<roOrof, roaairri, ro(rovro{y)y tantttSj -a, -um, roioV' 
Toy, rota^n}, TOU>0Td(i^), ta/w, ^, n^XucoSroy, TijXiica^nj, n}AiicoDro(y), so great, 
so old; it is to be noted, that the neuter Sing., besides the form in o has 
also the common form in oy ; 
Like aln6s is declined, iictlyos, ix^lyti, ^iccivo, he, she, it^ &\Xoy, i}iX% &Wo, 
aliusj alia, aliud, the neater Sing, hero also ending in o. 

Remabk 1. The neater form in o seems to hare rejected a 9, as may be 
inferred from the Latin, is, ea, u/, ille, -a, ^, alios, -a, -nd. — On the Dual 
forms, rd, rcuy, raCra, radrao', see § 241, Rem. 10 (b). — Instead of iKtofos, the 
Ionic K€iyos is also used in Attic poetry; this word occurs somewhat frequentlj 
in Attic prose, bat always after a long vowel or diphthong ; nence Aphoeresia 
(S 14, 5) must be assamed here, as ^ Vc/vwy, PL Rp. 2. 370, a. 




rofFovTos roaa&rri roerovro{y) 
roaodrov roaaOrris roco^ov 
Toaoirtp rocalrr^ roa'o^<fa 
Tocovroy rocradniy rocovro{y). 

rovovTOi roffavrat roacarra 
Toaoinny rofrotntcv Tovointoy 
roaovTOts rocairais roffo^ois 
twroi/ravs roaa^ras rocavra 


N. A. rwro^a rwravra Toao^nu 
G. D. rotroUoiy TOffa&rtuy rovo^ow. 

Rem. 2. The article usually coalesces by Crasis (§ 10) with aifT6s and forms 
one word, viz. airSs (instead of 6 aln6s, idem)^ a6r^y ralr6j usually tov- 
r6y (instead of rb aM), radrov, butTijt alnijs, raltr^, rahrf (to distinguish 
it from radrii, this), but rhy oJbrSy, r^v aMiy, a^xol, airat, rabrd (instead of 
tA avrd, to distinguish it from raliTa, haec), but r&y ovrwy, ro7s avrois, etc. 

§92. nL Relative Pbonoun. 






• •« 






































Digitized by 





§93. IV. Indefinite and Intebhooatiye Pbonoijns. 

The Indefinite and Interrogative Pronouns are denoted 
by the same form, but are distinguished by the accent and 
position, the Indefinite being enchtic (§ 33) and placed after 
some word or words, the Interrogative being always accented 
and placed before. 

Kemabk 1. When the interrogative prononns stand in an indirect question, 
the relative 5 is placed before their stem, which, however (except in the case 
of SsTii), is not inflected, e. g. ^ocbt, ^6aos^ ^^tpos, etc 

Sing. N. 



Plur. N. 




Dual N. A. 

(J. and I). 

rlSf some one 

N. rl, some thing 

Tiy6s, or rov 

TIJr(, or T« 




N. riyd and i-rra 



Tiyds ' 

N. rwd and Arra 


rls; quisi 
rlyos, or rod 
r'wiy or Ty 






ri; quid? 



5rrij, whoever Jrij S ri 
fi^tyoSf or irov rtrriyos 
friyij or Zrip friyi 
iyriya irrtya, 5 ri 

otrtyts eSriy€S Atiko, or firro 

&vTivny (rarely Ih-tay) 
o[rrun(y) (rarely troiat[v\ ) atsrurt{y) oTsrMrt{y) 
oSsriyas Asriyas firiyo, or &rra 

Dual N. A. Srivf, firivc, G. D. oTyriuoiyy atyriyoiy. 

Rem. 2. The form Stto not enclitic (Ion. i^aa) is often used instead ofrtyd 
in connection with adjectives, e. g. Seu^^ Array luxpk Att*, or placed first, e. g. 
j(y 7^ 8^ trra rotdBt, PI. Phaedon. 60, e. On the accent of Sryriyuvy otyrtyoiy, 
atvriyoty^ see \ 34, Rem. 1. The shorter forms, JJrou, JJry, etc. arc used by the 
dramatists almost always ; 8rov, Urip are also used by the orators ; but Srwy, 
8roo'i(y) are very rare in. prose. The negative compounds of rls, viz. oSrij, 
oCti, At^ris, /i^i, no one^ nothing^ inflect the simple rU merely, e. g. ofrrwos^ 
otfriy€St etc. These forms are poetic ; instead of them, prose writers, use oWtfj, 
/iifSciS ; only otht and fi-fyri are used in prose with the adverbial meaning, in no 
respect, not at all, and in the phrase, ofhi y€ 8^ (/t^i yt 8^), Jet alone tJien, inurh 

Sing. N. 



Sii rh Scr^o, some one, some thing 
rov rrjs rod Sctyot 
T# rp Ty 8««yi 
tSv r^y rh ScTva 

Plur. oi Sftyts 
r&y Htlyuy 
robs dtiyas. 

Rem. 3. Atiya is also used indeclinably, though seldom, e. g. rov r^ ram 

Digitized by 





^ 94. Correlative Pronouns. 

Under Correlative Pronouns are included all those which 
express a mutual relation (correlation) to each other, so that if 
one imphes a question, the other with a corresponding form 
contains the answer. 

1. This mutual relation is either a general or a definite one. The general 
correlation is expressed by fisi rii whof what? tIj, tI, some one^ some thing; 
88e, olros^ Jie^ Uiis; iKtivos, tliat one; o&8c(f, no one; 5s, irAo, tohich^ etc. Here 
the forma of the correlatives do not correspond with each other, except in tlie 
case of ris. For example, if a question is asked '* j t(j, the answer may be by 
rls, 58c, oSros, etc 

2. The definite correlation has four different forms, viz. the Interrogative, 
Indefinite, Demonstrative, and Relative. This fourfold correlation belongs both 
to adjective and adverbial pronouns. All the four forms- come from the same 
root, but they are distinguished, partly by a different accent, partly by a differ- 
ent initial ; the Interrogative begin with ir, the Indefinite have the same form, 
though with a different accent, the Demonstrative begin with r, and 'the 
Relative with the Spiritus Asper. The indirect interrogatives, as. shown above, 
^ 93, Rem. 1, place the relative b before the initial x. 

3. Correlative adjective pronouns express relations of quantity and quality; 
correlative adverbial pronouns, the relations of ptace^ time^ and manner^ or 

(a) Adjective Correlatives. 




Rclat. and De- 
pend. Interrog. 

^6^09, -U, -OV; 

howareai? how 
much? quan- 

of a certain 
size, or number^ 

rrfo-oi, -^, -ov, so greats so 

muck, tantus 
Totr^crSe, To<r^8e, roffSvb^ 
rocovros, -aOrri, -ovTo{y) 

5<ros, 17, 'ov and 

drSoos, -17, 'Ov, 

as great, as 

much, quantus 

iroios, -d. 'Oy ; 
of what kind? 
qualis ? 

TotiJs, -<i, -^v, of 
a certain kind 

roios, -d, -ov, of such a 
kind, talis 

TOt6s^€, TOIC^C, TOlSyBt 

Toiovros, -a6rri, -oi)ro(v) 

oTos, -d, -ov and 
iroTos. -d, -ov, 

of what himi, 


m^X/iroT, -77, -ov; 
how great f how 


rrikbcos, ti, -ou, so great, so 
rn\tK6sJi€,-4fi€,'6'uS€^ [old 
rrjKiKOVTos, -ot/Tty, -ovro^y) 

riXiKos, -17, 'OV and 

irtrrtXlKOS, -tj, -ov, 

as great, as old. 

Remark 1. The simple forms r6<ros and to7os are seldom used' in Attic 
prose ; t6oos and to7o5 are found in the phrase, toXos ^ rotos, PI. Phaedr. 271| 
d, and elsewhere ; rStros col r6oos (PI. ib.) ; in r6oov (so long time stnoe), PL 
Leg. 642, at end ; r6<rtf with a Comparative, corresponding to the relative ta^ 
9. g. Th. 8, 24. X. Cy. 1. 6, 26. VeCt. 4, 32. 

Digitized by 



(b) Adverbial Correlatiyes. 







wov ; where f 

ir^ey.- whence? 

wot,- whither? 


irot5, somewhere, 

wo^iv, from some 

place, alicnnde 
wol, to some place, 


wanting (hie, 

wanting (hinc, 

wanting (eo) 

o5, ivheic. 

S^€jf, whence, 

of, whither, 


Siroy, uhere. 


ir6T€ : when ? 
qiiAndo ? 

wnytKci : qno 
to? quot^ ho- 

wori, some time, 


r^Tt, then, tarn 

nyw- 1 lioc 
k6Z€ ipso 

Koarra J pore 

SrCf when, 

rfyiKO, when. 
quo ipso 


when, quo 
ipso tem- 

wwsi June? 
TFTi/ whither? 

tt^s, some how 
irt\, to some place, 
thither, in some way 

o9r(»(s) »dc, so 
Tp5€ ( hither, 
ToArff I or fiere 


i, nJusre, 

Sirws, hofv 
oxrj. irh^rc, 

Kem. 2. The forms to express the idea of here, there (hie, ibi), wanting in 
the Common language, are supplied by iyrav^a, iy^dbit, and the idea of hence, 
thence (hinc, inde), by iy&4y9(, iyrtv^w] Ma and ty^ty in the old and poetic 
language have both a demonstrative and relative sense, but in prose onlj a 
relative sense, except in certain phrases, e. g. fy^a ii\y — ty^ hi, hie, illic, 
Mwbw icol ty^w, hinc, illinc, and when the signification of place is changed to 
that of time, e. g. ty^a Kiyti, then he says, tybw, thereupon. The forms r^s, thus, 
r^, hither, here, are poetic ; &s (instead of oSrus), is also for the most part 
poetic ; in prose, it is confined almost wholly to certain phrases, e. g. xcd &s, vel 
sic, o&S* (finf^) &St ne sic quidem, and in comparisons, &s — &s, ut — sic, PL Rp. 
7. 530, d. Frot. 326, d. ; also &s oZy, so then, Th. 3, 37. 

♦ 95. Lengthening of the Pronoun. 

Some small words arc so appended to the pronouns, for the purpose of giving 
a particular turn to their signification, that they coalesce and form one word. 
They are the following : — 

(a) The enclitic y4 is joined to the Personal nronouns of the first and second 
person, in order to make the person emphatic, oy putting him in contrast with 
others, e. g. iyctye, I for myjxirt. The pix>noun iyt& then draws back its accent 
in the Nom. and Dat. e.g. tyotyt, ifjiovyt, ffioiyt, ifi^yt, triyf. As y4 can be 
joined with any other wonl. so also with any other pronoun, but it docs not 
form one wonl with the pronoun, e. g. olrSs yt, 

(b) The particles 5^ (most commonly S^irorc), and oZy, arc appended to 
relatives compounded of interrojratives or indefinites, as well as to Utros, in 
onlcr to make the meaning general or indefinite, i. e. to extend it to everything 
embraced in the object denoted by the pronoun, e. g. 6ms84, dsrtst^ort, 6rris- 
ii^orovy, dsrisovy, rrrisovy, driovy, whoever it be, I know not who, nescio quis, qui- 
cunqne (Gen. ovnyosovy or drovovy, Tjsriyosovy, Dat. ^lyimiy or ^tMivy, etc.) ;-— 
iro»os84, Awotrosovy, d<rof8^oTe, quantuscunque ; — ^miKiKosovy, noicever great, 
haw old soever; so also Anrtpovy [comp. (d)]. 

Digitized by 



(c) The suffix 8f is joined with some demonstratiTes for the purpose of 
strengthening their demonstrative relation, e. g. 0S«f f}9c, rSit \ roidsSe ; ro^^ 
Be ; T)}\iic^s8c, from to?os, t^os, Ti}\i«co5, which change their accent after 8e is 
appended (^ 34, Ilem. 3). 

(d) The enclitic vdp in appended to all relatives, in order to strengthen the 
reference to a demonstrative, and thus to connect the relative more closely with 
its antecedent ; hence it denotes, even who, whichy the very mem, who, etc. e. g. 
Snrfp, 4}ircp, Srcp (Gcn. oSircp, etc.) ; Zffonrtp, ol6sirtp (Gen. ocoutrfp, ototnrtp, etc.) j 
H^iiTfpf S^cnrcp. 

(e) The inseparable demonstrative f, is appended to demonstratives and some 
few adverbs, always giving them a stronger demonstrative sense. It takes the 
acute accent (which yet, according to 4 31, 1., is changed into the grave in con- 
nected discourse) and absorbs every short vqwcI immediately preceding it, and 
also shortens the long vowels and diphthongs : — 

oirwrf, this here (hiccc, cclui-ci), aWrit, rovri, 

Gcn. rovrotf, Townitff, Dat. rovr^iy raurft, Fl. o^otij airait, ravrt] 

M/, rfity ro9t from SSc ; M from £<c ; oirwrt from otirtts ; 

ivrtv^tMt from iprtv^w] iy^aii from iy^di€\ ru^t from yw] 9wpi from Scif*. 

Th'e Numerals. 

♦ 96. Nature and Division of Numerals, 

1. Numerals express the relation of number and quantity. 
They are divided into the following classes, according to their 
signification : — 

(a) Cardinals, which express a definite number absolutely, 
and answer the question, how Tnany ? e. g. one, two, three. The 
first four Numerals and the round numbers from 200 (Saucoo-wt) 
to 10,000 (jjLvpioi) and their compounds, are declined; but all the 
others are indeclinable. The thousands are expressed by 
adverbial Numerals, e. g. rpi^iXtoiy 3000. 

(b) Ordinals, which denote a series, and answer the question, 
which one in the series ? .All have the three endings of adjec- 
tives, -o9, -17, -ov, except 8cvrcpo9, which has -09, -d, -ov. All up 
to 19, except 2, 7, 8, end in -ros and have the accent as near 
as possible to the beginning of the word. From 20 upwards 
they end in -aroi:. 

Remark 1. Adverbial Ordinals^ which also denote a scries, arc expressed by 
the Neut. Sing, or PL, with or without the article, hut sometimes also with the 
Adverbial ending -«s, e. g. irp&rov, rh vpArop^ TpSrroy rh, wpAra^ vpArns, 

Digitized by 



(c) Numeral adverbs, which express how often, or how many 
times anything has happened, and which answer the question, 
haw many times ? They are formed, except the first three, from 
the ordinals with the ending -a#ct5, e. g. ttcvtokX^, Jive times 
(» 98). 

(d) Multiples, which show the number of parts of which 
a whole is composed, and answer the question, how mmiyfold 1 
All are compoimded of irXoO?, and are adjectives of three end- 
ings, -o99, •% -ovv (W 76, I, and 77). 

orAovf, -^, -ovv, single; SiirAovs (2), rpivKovs (3), rrrporAoOt (4), ireKravAoDs 
(5), i^avKovs (6), hrrmrKovs (7), oKTcarXous (8), iyyawKovs (9^, ScKcnrAovs (10), 
iicaroyrarr?iOV5 (100), xtAiairAoi/T (1000), fwptarhqvs (10,000). 

Rem. 2. The adverbial Mnltiplcs in answer to the question, how viany 
fold? or into how many parts 9 are formed from the Cardinals with the ending 
'XSl or 'X^ and -x«5» c. g. ir^trrax&t irtpraxrit ie€trrax&s. 

(e) Proportionals, which denote n proportion, and answer the 
question, how mxiny times more ? All aje compounded with the 
endings -irXirto?, -id, -tov (more seldom 'irKaxruavy -ov, e. g. ocarov' 
rairkcurutjy, -of) : — 

SnrX^ios, finbe (U much (as another which is taken as an nnit), rparhdirios 
(3), TtrpcarKdurios (4), vcKrcnrA^ios (5), i^carXdcrtot (6), jirrcnrAdCo'iof (7), ^icra- 
irXdinos (8), ^yMnrAdCo-ios (9), ScirairAcCo'ios (10), iKctToyTair\d4rios (100), x<^<^ 
rAtio-fOf (1000), fxvptowXAffios (10,000). 

(f ) Substantive Numerals, which express the abstract idea 
of D'lmber. Except the first, all are formed from the Cardinals 
witn the ending -as, Gen. -aSos: — 

^ fioyds (from /ji6vo5, only), more seldom ^ Ms, unity ; ivds, duality; rpids (3). 
rrrpds (4), ir^trrds onrtfiirrds (5), i^ds (6), ifidoiids (7), Mo«^^ (3)> ^f^«^^ (9)i 
itxds (10), ciWs (20), rptdndt (30), rerrapoKoyrds (40), irtmriKovrds (50), j«ca- 
roKrtis (100), xtX«^ (1000), ftvpuU (10,000), S^o /ivpu^Scs (20,000). 

Bbm. 3. In addition to the Numerals mentioned above, there is stUl another 
doss, which does not, like those, express a definite number, but either an 
hid'efinite number or an indefinite quantity, e. g. tyiotj some ; wdm-ts, all ; iroA- 
?J, many (^ 77); 6\lyoij few ; 6\lyoy, oKlya, a little; ouBtts, no one; ovdcV, 
ftothtng, etc. 

2. Numerals, like pronouns, are divided, according to theii 
signification and fonn, into Substantive, Adjective, and Adver- 
bial Numerals, e. g. rpcU ^kSov ; o rptTo^ ayyp ; rpt?. 

Digitized by 




[«»7, 9S 

i 97. Numeral Signs, 

1. The Numeral Signs are the twentj-four letters of the Greek alphabet, t« 
which three obsolete letters are added, viz. after f , BaD, or the Digamma F, of 
St?, r ; the last character is taken from the figure r, which is a mutilated form 
of the Digamma, but which has only an accidental resemblance to the abbre- 
viation of <r (r) and r (k h Rem. 2) ; — K^Jinro, 5, as the sign for 90; — a«v«»<. 
?^ , as the sign for 900. 

2. The first eight letters, i. c. from o to ;^ with the Bad or art, denote the 
units; the following eight, i. e. from i to » with the lUinra, the tens; the last 
eight, i. e. from plow with the Softir?, the hundreds. 

3. Up to 999, the letters as numerjil sij::ns, are distinguished by a mark 
placed over them, and when two or more letters stand together, as numeral 
signs, only the last has this mark. With 1000, the alphabet begins again, but 
the letters are distinguished by a mark placed under them, thus, o^ = 1, /» =» 
1000, l' = 10, / = 10,000, ,€^fief = 5742, /lotfifif = 1842, f/ = 100, ^ « 

§ 98. Principal Clas 


1 t^ cTt, fjd&, ty 

2 B^> 

3 y rpcif , rp(a 

4 9' rhra/KSy -a, or r4<r(rapts, -a 

5 ^ ir/rrc 

8 H' 6KTt& 

9 ;» iw4a 

10 ^ 94Ka 

11 M^ MfKU 

\2tPf 8<68eK» 

13 n- rpciif (fpia) ical Uku^ 

14 iS' rirraptsia) ffol S^ira* 

16 t^ ^KKcdBtKa 

17 if irreocoTSeico 

18 nf hm-wKolZtKa 
\^ i!dr* iyyfOKcd^fKa 
2b i/ cfico<ri(i') 

ses of Numerals. 

vp&Tos, -i|, -OK, primus, -a, -nm 
Sc^cpos, -d, -or 
rplroSf -ij, -or 
riraproSi -i|, -or 

Micros, -ij, -or 

?08o{iOf, -1?, -or 

^oos, -ij, -or 

iraros, -fit -op 

idKoroSf -17, -or 

MdKoros, -1?, -or 

StfS^icorof , -17, 'oy 

rplros, -17, -or icol Ukcptos^ -if -«r' 

rirapros, -17, -or icol S^koctos, -17,. ■oi' 

irdfirros, -17, ^or koI 8^«c«roj, -17, -or 

Sktos, -17, -or icol ZiKorroSy -17, -or 

tp^fLOSt -t?, -or iral 8/#caToy, -17, -«r 

tfySoos, -17, -or xol Wicflpros, -17, "fty 

Ifyaros, -17, -or koL S^jcorof, -17, -or 

ciicoar({s, -^, -^r 

• The rare Attic form rpisxcddtKu is indeclinable. 

• The non- Attic form rt<r<rap€uccddtKa is indeclinable. 

• The forms given from the 13th to the 19th are preferable to rpisKaiS4Karo% 
^rrmptucaiidKaroSf xcrrcfccuS^iraTos, etc. 

Digitized by 






21 au^ ttcoaiy tts, /Ja, tP 

40 fi' rerropdicoKrM 

50 i/ iFtrHiKorra 

60 i' llWrra 

70 o' ifiSoti^Kotrra 

80 «^ ^o^xoKTa 

90 5' iytv^Korra 

100 p' jjc&r<{ir 

200 (/ Biwc^o-ioii -<u, -a 

300 t' rptaxSinoi, -cu, -a 

400 i/ T€Tp&K6<noiy -ou, -a 

500 4^' vfm6K6fftoif -ai, -a 

600 x' HiK6a'uny -oi, -a 

700 4^' lTT6K6<rioif -OI, -a 

800 «' 6icr&K6o'u>t, -OI, -a 
900 '^^^ iyy&K6(noi, -at, -a 

1000 ,a x^^^h -cu, -a 

2000 ;3 8uxlAjo>» -<u> -a 

3000 ^7 rpisx^MMy -oi, -a 

4000 ^8 rcrpdicisxl^o't -«, -a 

5000 ^f vtrr6Kisx^i\ioif -fiu, -o 

6000 ^ i^6Kisx^bsMi,' -ai, -a 

7000 ^f '(hrr&ietsxtXioi, -oi, -a 

8000 ^1} ^KToxifx^'^'^^t 'O'f -A 

9000* ;^ ^vraicisx^Xioi, -«u, -a 

10,000 / /t^pioi, -OI, -a 

20,000 ^ 9is/i^pioi, -cu, -a 

100,000 ^ StKOKis/tdpioif -at, -a 

1,000,000 1/ iKoroyreueisfidpioi, -at, 

8,000,000 Kjp Btwcoo'taKtSfi/tptoif -at, -i 

9lKoerhs, -^, -iv, irpwTos, •7, ■ 
TpiitK0<rr6s, -^, -rfv 
rrrrapoKtHrrds, Wj, -<Jir 
xcyntacooT^s, -^, -iJy 

rptaKocrtoar6Sf -4, -oy 
rrrp€ucoffto<rr6st -^, -rfy 
%€rraKoatoar6s, -^j -Ar 
{(cuciMruHrr^s, -^i -^y 
firTWco<n(Nrr<(s, -^, -oir 
oitraKOfrto9r6s^ -^, -w 
iryoKotnocr^Sf -^, -^y 
XtAlOfTT^f , -^, -^y 

8isx<^'^<'^^'i "^1 -^i' 
rptsx<Aio(rr^s, -^, -Ar 
r*rpaKtsx*^MVT6s, -4, -^ 
irci^aJCifX'^'^M'^'^'t -^» -^ 
l{ajciix*^c<^^'i "^i -^^ 
<irraiusxiAM0T^f , -4, -^ 
iicrojcisx'^'^*^^'} "^1 -^ 
ivyttKisxiJ^MirT6s, -^, -^v 
fu/ptoar6sy -^, -^y 
9tsfJivpioor6sf -^, -rfy 
itKoKapa/ptoffrSs^ -^t -^i^ 
iKaTorratusftvpioffT6tf •^, -^y 
Suucofruuru/iupiocrr^s, •^, -^y. 

1 &ra{, once 

2 8/1, tin'oe 
8 rp(s 

4 Tcrpijicif 

5 ircKrifcis 

6 cldxif 

7 {vTfLvcf 

8 Edicts 

10 ScKdUif 

11 Mtxdiets 

12 Bi»acKcLcis . 

Numeral Adverbs. 

13 rpifaecu8cic«Lcii 

14 TeTraptSKOi^tKdKts 

15 vcyrcJcaiSemlUHf 

16 ixKoiJitKdKis 

17 jvToiraiScKdUcif 

18 ^icrwKcuSewdUcii 

19 iyy€aKeuli€Kdicis 

20 eiK0<r<<ici9 

21 fiKoadKu fiira| 

22 tUwrdtets 9ls 
30 rpuucovrdxts 

40 rerrttpoKorrdtetf 

50 ircynixoyr^if 
60 {(iifftfKrtLcit 
70 ifiSofiTiKovrdiOM 
80 oT^oiyKOKTiLvis 
90 ^ifcvi|ftOKr(£icif 
100 licaT0Kr(Lvi5 
300 TptoKoa-idKU 
1000 x(^M^» 
2000 itsxi^^is 
10,000 ftvpidictt 
20,000 Bif/ivpMUu. 

Digitized by 



i 99. Remarks. 

1. The rarer subordinate forms of 13, 14, etc., used by later writers, are 
ItKorpus, Neut. Scucorpja, ZtKctrirrapes, -a, dtKotritrrt, etc. 

2. M6pioh 10,000, when Paroxytone (fivpiot), signifies innumerable, 

' 3. In compound numerals, the smaller number either precedes the lai^ger, 
and then always with jcaf, or it follows the larger, usually with koT, sometimes 
without it. The first order corresponds with the usage in English, e. g. fiot 
and twenty; the second only in part, e. g. twenty-five^ e. g. 

25: r/rrc Ka2 c&oo-ilv), or ctiKOo't xoi Wrre, 
345 : vivr€ ical rrrrapdKorra lud rpuucSirtoi, or rpujc, rcrr. ica2 x. 

The same holds of the Ordinals, e. g. 

w4/*trros ical €\K0ffr6sy or ciKOtrrbi icec^ ir^fiJrros. 

4. The tens compounded with 8 or 9 are frequently expressed in the form of 
gubtradion, by means of the participle of itiy, to want, which agrees with thi 
larger number, e. g. 

49 : vtmiiKotrra hhs lioma irn^, undequinquaginta anni, 
48 : irarHiKOirra 9voiy 94ovTa In}, duodequinquayinia anni, 
39 : yrits ftias Ziovam, rerrapdKOtrra, undequadraginta naves. 

So with the Ordinals, e. g. 

49 : Ms 54wy vtrrriKotrrhs iarfipf undequinquagesimus vir. 

5. Fractions are u&ually expressed by iiipos or fioipa. These words, as 
denominators of the fraction, are put in the Gen., depending on the numeral 
which denotes the numerator. If they are expressed as denominators, they are 
understood with the numeral denoting the numerator; if they are expressed 
as numerators, they are understood with the numeral denoting the denominator, 
e. g. f is rStp TdtfTt lupmw tA 8^ [m^]) or f^v Wktc \fifpSav\ rh, 96o fitpri, two 
partt of the five ; | is r&y dirrcb fiotp&w of Wrrc [fiotpai], or rwy dirrcb [/wtpmy] td 
8^ /toipeu. But one half is expressed by compounds with ^i, e. g. ^fu^ap€uc6y, 
half a daric ; so in the PL rpta, ir^yrt tifudapeucd, a daric and a halfi two darics 
and a half. — Fractions are also expressed by an ordinal with fi6pioy or fi4post 
e. g. rpiTrifjL6pioy or rpiroy fitpos = ^, rr4fiirroy fitpos = i J a mixed number is 
also expressed by rjfu preceded by n numeral, e. g. ir/vrc rifu9aptucd = 2^ darics, 
also by irrt prefixed to an ordinal, e. g. iwirptroy = I J, irrtircfiTroy = l-J. 

6. The Cardinal numbers compounded with aw arc equivalent to the Latin 
distributives, e. g. ccvv^vo (bini), ttco toyclJier^ iivo at a time, each tivoj ovyrp^tM 
(temi), aifirrtyrf (quini), etc. 

* Fifty years, wanting one. 

Digitized by 



7. Declension of the first foar Numerals : — 



tda tv 



/uas . iySs 



/ii? M 



AiW tly 



Neut. rpia 







Nent. rpia 


8uo(y (yeiy seldom Bvc7y) 

^wuy l^wrlly] Ionic and Th. 8, 101.) 


T^rmsy or r4tr<np9B 



Neat rhrapa 
Neat T^c^w 

Remabk. Like cff are also declined Mtit and foi^ets, no one; like «& too 
thej have the irregular accent, e. g. o&8</s, o^Sc/xIa, o^^y. Gen. o^Sck^i, oiSe- 
fuar, Dat o68cy(, oMcfuf, etc ; but in the PI. M4y€s {fiiifiiyts)^ -iymy^ -^<(i^}, 
'4yos, Comp. farther, ^ 65, 3 (c). The form 8^, instead of 9do, seems to be 
foreign to the Attic dialect A^ is often used as indeclinable in all the Cases. 
"Afi/pw. hath, is declined like h6o. Gen. and Dat ^^u^o&, Ace ift/^. 

The Adverb. 

i 100. Nature and division of the Adverb, 

Adverbs (§§ 38 and 314) are indeclinable words, denoting 
the relations of place j timCj manner^ modality ^ intensity ^ and 
repetition. They are formed either from essential words 
(§ 38, 3), viz. Substantives, Adjectives, Participles, or from 
formal words, viz. Pronouns and Numerals, or they are 
primitive words, e. g. ou, /xiy, Kal, firjv, ^, av, etc. 

(a) Adrerbs of place^ e. g. obpea^ty, coelitos, iroi^ax^t ubiTis; 

(b) Adrerbs of tunet e. g. y{ntr»p, noctu, n/y, nunc; 

(c) Adverbs of manner^ e. g. KaX»t, <^u{s) \ 

(d) Adverbs of modality, which, e. g. yai and o&(ic), express an affirmation and 
negatUm^ or e. g. /x^v, to(, ^J, ^ ^x^y, 8^, l<r»t, »o^, lb', »^b^«J, etc. which 
express certainty, deJiniLeness, uncertainty, oonditionaUty ; 

(e) Adverbs of intensity and frequency, e. g. fuUa, ir^, iroA.^, 8<roi', etc. rpft, 
three times; aS^is, again; iroAA^t;, often. 


Digitized by 





§ 101. Formation of Adverbs, 

1. Most Adverbs are formed from adjectives by the ending 
-CDS. This ending is annexed to the pure stem of the adjective ; 
hence, as the stem of adjectives of the tliird Dec. appears in the 
Gen., and as adjectives in the Gen. PL are accented like 
aokerbs, the following rule for the formation of adverbs from 
adjectives may be given : — 

Chfmgc 'lav, the ending of the adjective in the Gen, Fl., into tas, 

^i\-oj, iwdfy, Gen. PI. ipiK-wif 

Adv. iptK-ws 





Koipt-os, Hmd^, 




iat\(6^s)wsy simple^ 




c(^(o-os)ovs, benevolent^ 


(tM-^p) dhmtf 

{tbtt^s) 9ihms 

TOf , cM, irearr6Sf 




<rfi^»pcn^, prudent, 


Xapl€is, pleaicmt, 




rtKxfis, gwiji. 




fUyas, great, 




iJiiidiis, true. 





{trvmi^t'ws) avr^dw. 

Rbmabk 1. On the accent of compounds in -^dws, and of the compoimd 
«^dpK»Sf see ^ 59, Bern. 4, also on the accent of ttitws, instead of c^vws, f 49, 
3. On the comparison of Adverbs, see § 85. • 

2. In addition to the adverbs with the ending -a)9, there are 
many which have the endings of the Gen., Dat., or Ace. 

(a) The Gen. ending appears in many adverbs in -lys and -ow^ 
e. g. i^fj^, €^^, in order; iiawivrj^, stddderdy; irov, alicubi; «w, 
ubi ? 070V, ov, ubi ; avrov, ibi ; ovSofiov, now^iere. 

(b) The Dat., or an obsolete- Abl. or Locative^ ending, occurs 
in the following adverbs, 

(a) In adverbs with the ending -?, o. g. ^pi, in the morning, comp. ^p, spring, 
iutpt, unsea9on€tblv ; c/nrri (Dor. cjcot*), &^inrri, iKotrrf, UKotnf] in aa verbs 
of manner in -cfand -i, from adjectives in -oj and -ijt, and almost exclu- 
sively in adverbs compounded of a privative and xSs or avT6s, e. g. 
vayopfui and ireanpfd. On the use ot both forms, sec Large Grammar, 
Part I, ^ 363 (/3). 

* The Locative Case, is one which denotes the place wben. 

Digitized by 



(3) In local adverbs in -oT, commonly derived from substantives of the sec- 
ond Dec, e. g. ^la^fiot from ^Iff^fi^s, Uv^oi from Tlv^ti, Mtyapoi {rk 
M^yapa), UttoatoT, Kucvyyoil from ^ KdrvvKs), of, Siroi, quo, whither ^ ofiroi, 
domi, from oIkos. 

Bex. 2. Adverbs in -o?, derived from substantives, denote an indefinite 
whore, but those derived from pronouns commonly denote the direction whUfiet, 
fet sometimes the indefinite where. 

(y) In local adverbs in -cu. This ending occurs only in a few forms, e. g. 
Xt^9 humi, ird\ai. To this form corresponds the PI. locative form 
■^fft{y)^ or where i precedes, -d<riy, derived from substantives of the first 
Dec; this ending originally belonged to plural substantives only, but 
was transferred later to substantives in the singular number, e. g, e^3i|- 
ci{p) from Bfi/Soi, *Ai^yi}<rt(y) from *Ad^MU, nXarreuSun(v) from Il\arauU] 
U€pyani<Ti{y) from TltpycuHi, H)Avfiirfdo't(y) from 'OKvfotlcu 

(8) In adverbs in ^ and -a, e. g. AxXiy, Mpnf^ vc(^, 6n foot ; wpu^, xd&pdf 
<2icq, temare; Mofirif hifjMoiuj publice; Koini, tn common; I8(a, privatim; 
icofu^, diligenia- ; also v^, Sn|, iriUn^, ^, r^, t^8c, to^, etc. ; ly and a com- 
monly have an Iota subscript. 

(c) The Ace. ending occurs in the following forms, 

(a) In the endines inv and -ay, e. g. xpc^y; fuucpdyjfar; Wpay and s^piyy, 

finoiu (but irjpo, uftra), etc.; so also of substantives, e. g. 9lKriy, instar; 

ixixfiv (aan«), scareeUf; Zttptii^, gratia, 
\) In the ending -ov, e. g. 8i}p^y, <nu; trftiuow^ hodie; aXipiov^ txHmarrow, 
\y) In the endings -^oy, -^lyy, -8 a (adverbs of manner), e. g. a&ro<rxc'^K, 

oomtnus ; x"^^^*') Imrorpoxdlhiy, ftvoaraScL 
(8) In some substantive forms in the Ace. of the third Dec, o. g. x^<f^i fif 

the sake of; v/K>7ica, graiuitoudy. 


The Verb. 
Nature ahd Ditibion of the Verb. 
• § 102. Classes of the Verb. 

1. The Verb expresses an action or state, which is af- 
firmed of a subject, c. g. the father writes^ the rose blooins^ 
tfie boy sleeps^ God is loved. 

2. Verbs are d'.vided into the following classes : — 

(1) Active verbs, which express an action, that the sub- 
ject itself performs or manifests, e. g. ypdffxo, to write ; 
^aXXo), to bloom (comp. § 248) ; 

(2) Middle or Reflexive verbs, which express an action 
that the subject performs on itself, the subject being. 

Digitized by 


128 VERBS. TENSES. [i 103 

therefore, both agent and object, e. g. fiovXevo/mi, 1 
advise myself, I deliberate ; 
(3) Passive verbs, which express an action that the sub- 
ject receives from another object, e. g. rvTrrofuu xnro 
Tivo^, I am smitten by some one. 
3. Verbs, .which are used only in the middle form, are 
called Deponent. They have either a reflexive or intransi- 
tive meaning. They are divided into Middle Deponents, 
which have a middle form for their Aorist and Future, e. g. 
^apL^ofMat, gratificor, Aor. i^apurd/j/ijp, Fut. ^apiovfuu ; and 
into Passive Deponents, which have a Passive form for 
their Aorist, but commonly a middle form for their Fut, 
e. g. iv^vfiiofuu, mecum reputOy Aor. ive^v/iif^Tjp, mecum 
reputavi, Fut. ii^vfiij<ro/uu, mecum reputabo. Comp. § 197. 

i 103. The Tenses. 

1. The Tenses denote the time of the action of the verU 
The Grreek has the following Tenses: — 

I. (1) Present, fiovKevoD, I advise, 

(2) Perfect, fie^ovXev/ca, I have advised; 
II. (3) Imperfect, ifiovXevov, I was advising, 

(4) Pluperfect, ifiefiovXev/cecv, I had advised, 

(5) Aorist, ifiovKevca, I advised (indefinite) ; 
III. (6) Future, ^ovKjewo), I shall or will advise, 

(7) Future Perfect (almost exclusively in the mid- 
dle form), ^€fiov7i£v<TOfuu, I shall have advised wy- 
self, or I shall have been advised, 

2. All the Tenses may be divided into, 

a. Principal tenses : Present, Perfect, and Future; 

b. Historical tenses: Imperfect, Pluperfect, and Aorist. 

Remahk. The Greek has two forms for the Perf. and Pluperf. Act, two for 
the simple Fut. Pass., and two each for the Act., Pass., and Mid. Aorist ; these 
two forms may be distinjruished as Primary and Secondary tenses ; i. e. the 
first Perfect is a primary tense, tlie second Perfect a secondary tense, etc 
Still, only a very few verbs have both forms ; most verbs constract the abOYO 
tenses with one or the other form, but not with both. No verb has all tho 

Digitized by 


H 104, 105.] VERBS. — MODES. — PARTICIPIAL8. 129 

Pare veri)S (^ 108, 5) form, with reiy few exceptions, only the primaiy 
tenfles. Mat« and liqnid verbs (f 108, 5) maj form both the primary and 
secondary tenses, but no verb has all the forms in use. The Fut. Ferf, which 
IS found in bnt few verbs, is entirely wanting in liquid verbs. It Is seldom 
found in verbs which have the temporal augment (^ 121), e. g. a//>/», to take^ 
^p^o/Mi, PL Prot. 338, c, irifidiUfto dishonor^ iirifx^ofiatf Dem. 19, 284. 

i 104. The Modes. 

The Modes denote the manner in which the action of 
the verb is represented, whether as a direct ajQSrmation, a 
condition, or a command, etc (comp. § 258, seq.) The 
Greek has the following Modes : — 

I. The Indicative, which makes a direct affirmation, e. g 
the rose blooms^ bloomedj will bloom. 

IL The Stibjiinctive, which expresses what is merely 
conceived, or conditional. The Subjmictive of the his- 
torical tenses is called the Optative. Comp. ypd^ifu with 

Bemabk. See f 257, 2 (a), (b), and Bern. 1, for the manner in which the 
Aorist may nse both forms of the Sabj., and how the Putnre may have an 

IIL The Imperative, which expresses a command, e. g. 
fiovXjeve, advise. 

i 105. Participials {Infinitive and Participle'^ 

Besides the modes, the verb has two forms, which, as 
they partake both of the nature of the verb and also of 
the nature of the substantive and adjective, are called 
Participials : — 

(a) The Infinitive, which is the substantive participial, 
e. g. 6^e\o> fiov\€V€cv, I wish to advise^ and to fiovXevecv, 
the advising. 

(b) The Participle, which is the adjective participial, e. g. 

8ov\€VQ)v avi]p, a counsellor. 

Reuark. These two participials maybe called v^rbum infinitum; the r» 
maining forms of the verb, vcrbum finitunu 

Digitized by 



♦ 106. The Persons and Numbers. 

The personal fomis of the verb show whether the sub- 
^fect of the verb be the speaker himself (/, we, first person) ; 
or a person or thing addressed (thou^ you, second person) ; or 
a person or thing spoken of (he, she, it, third person). They 
also show the relation of number: Singular, Dual, and 
Plural (comp. § 41, 1), e. g. fiovXeva>, I, the speaker, advise ; 
fiovXevei^, thou,\he person addressed, advisest; ^ovKevei^ Ac, 
she^ it, the person or thing spoken of, advises ; fiovXeverov, 
ye two, the persons addressed, advise ; fiovXeuovac, they^ the 
persons spoken of, advise. 

Remark 1. The student will at once observe that the ending, or personal 
forms of the Greek verb, determines the person and number '^thout the subject 
being expressed. So in Latin. But in English, as the verb is not yaried so 
as to indicate the person and number of itself, the subject must be expressed. 

Bex. 2. There is no separate form for the first Fers. Dual throughout the 
Act., and none for the Pass. Aorists ; in these instances it is expressed hj the 
form of the first Pers. PI. 

i 107. Conjugation. 

Conjugation is the inflection of the verb in its Persons, 
Numbers, Modes, Tenses, and Voices. The Greek has 
two forms of conjugation, that in -cd, which includes much 
the larger number of verbs, e. g. fiovXev-o), and the older, 
original conjugation in -fu, e. g. urrq-fu, to station. 

Conjugation of Vbbbs in -• 

♦ 108. Stem, Augment, and Reduplication. — Char" 

1. Every verb is di\'ided into the stem, wliich contains the 
ground-form of the verb, and into the syllables of formation, by 
which the relations of person, number, tense, etc. are denoted. 
The stem is found in most verbs in -cu by cutting off the ending 
of the first Pers. Ind. Pres., e. g. ^ovXcv-w, Xey-w, rpCfiio. 

Digitized by 



2. The syllables of formation are either annexed as endings 
to the stem, and arc then called inflection-endings, e. g. ^SovAcv-co, 
/SovXcv-o-ci), fiovXcv-a-ofuu, or are prefixed to the stem, and are ^ 
then called Augment and Reduplication, e. g. i'^ovXevov, I was 
culvising; p€'Pov\£VKq^ IJiave advised. For a change in the stem 
of many verbs, e. g. rphr-ij^ ri-rpo^'O^ c-rpair-i/v, see § 140. 

3. The Augment is c prefixed to the stem of verbs which 
begin with a consonant, e. g. ^-^SovXcwro, I advised; but in 
verbs which begin with a vowel, it consists in lengthening the 
first stem-vowel, a and c into iy (and in some cafees into ct), i and 
V into 4 and £>, and o into w. Tlie Augment implies past time, 
and hence belongs to all the historical tenses (Imperfect, 
Aorist, and Pluperfect) ; but it is confined to the Indicative. 

4. Reduphcation consists in repeating the first stem -conso- 
nant with €, when the stem begins with a consonant ; but when 
the stem begins with a vowel, the Reduphcation is the same as 
the augment, e. g. Pc-povXevKo, I have advised; 'ucercvKOL, I have 
siijjplicatcd, from "ucercu-w. The Reduphcation denotes the cam- 
pletion of the action, and hence belongs to the Perfect, Pluper- 
fect, and Future Perfect For a fuller view of the Augment 
and Reduplication, see § 119, sq. 

5. The last letter of the stem, after the ending -cu is cut ofl, 
is called the verb- characteristic, or merely the characteristic, 
because, according to this^ verbs in -w are divided into difl!erent 
classes ; according as the characteristic is a vowel, a mute, or 
a liquid, verbs aie divided into pure, mute, and hquid verbs, e. g. 
povkfV'it), Tifid'Ui (pure verbs), rpip-io (mute), <f>aivia (liquid). 

i 109. Inflection- endings. 

In the inflection-endings, so far as they denote the relation 
of tense, mode, and person, there are three difl^crent elements : 
the tense-characteristic, the mode-vowel, and the personal- 
ending, e. g, ^SovAcv-c-o-fuu. 

k 110. (a) Tense-characteristic and Tense-endings. 

1. The tense-characteristic is that consonant which stands 
next after the stem of the verb, and is the characteristic mark 

Digitized by 



of the tense. In pure verbs, k is the tense-characteristic of the 
Perf. and Plup. Ind. Act, e. g. 

the characteristic of the Fiit. and first Aor. Act and Mid., and 
the Fut Perf. is a, e. g. 

the characteristic of the first Aor. Pass, is S; the first Fut 
Pass, hfis, besides the tense-characteristic cr, the ending of the 
first Aor. Pass. -Srf, thus, 

The primary tenses only {i 103, Rem.) have a tense-charac- 

2. The tense-characteristic, together with the ending follow- 
ing, is called the tense-ending. Thus, e. g. in the form fiov- 
\xwrto, <r is the tense -characteristic of the Fut., and the syllable 
ottf is the tense-ending of the Fut The stem of the verb, 
together with the tense-chaiacteristic and the augment or 
reduplication, is called the tense-stem. Thus, e. g. in c/3ov- 
\eva--a, iPovXcvc is the tense-stem of the first Aor. Act 

$ 111. (b) Personal-endings and Mode-vowels, 

The personal-ending denotes the person of the verb, and 
takes a different form according to the different persons and 
numbers; the mode -vowel connects the tense -stem and the 
personal-ending, and takes a different form according to tlie 
different modes, e. g. 

1 Pcrs. Sing. Ind. Pres. M. fiovKe^o-fuu Subj. fiovkt^-ct-fuu 

3 " " " Fut. " fiov\9^frcu Opt. fiov\t6-<r'0i-ro 

1 " PL " Pres. " fiovk(v-6-fu^a Suhj. fiovKciM&'fie^ 

2 " " »♦ " « fiou\€^f(r^€ « fiovKfl^-ffdt 

1 " Sing. •• A- L " i^u\€iMr-d'fi7]y " ^vktv-tr-w-fuu 

3 " " « « «« ifiovKti'ff-a-TO Opt. fiouKt^ff-cu-ro. 

Kemark. In the abore fonns, fiov\€v is the verb-stem, and /SovXcv, jSouAfiw, 
and ifiovXtva are the tense-stems, namely, of the Pres., Pat., and first Aor. 
Mid. ; the endings -/«a«, -rcu, etc., are tlie personal-endings, and the vowels 0| 
ti, €, o(, ij o, oi, arc the mode-vowels. The mode-vowels e and o of the Indio 
*re lcngthene<l into ri and » in the Subj. 

Digitized by 




* 112. 


ary of 










Pies, and Fat 


Impf., A. U. A. and 

Act. Mid. 

S. 1. 






«, c 







D. 1. 








P. 1. 
















A. I. A. and 

A. I. A. 


A. LA. and M. 

A. L A. and M. 


S. 1. 


& • 










P. 1. 






A. LA. and M. 











i 113. Personal-endings 

o/ Verbs in -w. 

I. Active Form. 

II. Middle Form. | 

A. Ind. and Snbj. 

B. Ind. and Opt. 
the lUst. tenses. 

A. Ind. and Subj. 
(he Princ. tenses. 

B. Ind. and Opt 
the Uist. tenses. 

Sing. 1. 


Dnal 1. 


Pinr. 1. 






(yri) <ri(y) 

y. Opt. fu 




y, 0'ai' 







yrai (aT«i) 








yro {aro) 

C. Imperative. 

C. Imperative. 

Sing. 2. 
Dual 2. 
l»lur. 2. 

3. -« 
roy 3. oujv 
TC 3. rcoaay 

Sing. 2. {a-o) o 3. a^w 

Dual 2. <r;^i^ 3. e^y 

Plur. 2. <r^t 3. e^wray^ cfSwy 

D. Infinitive. 

1). Infinitive. 

y Pros., Put., and Aor. II. 

yxi Ferf. Act. and Aor. I. and II. Pass. 

1 Aor. I. 


K. l*articii)]e. 

E. Participle. 

Stem yTy widi oxtci>tion uf tlic Pcif., 
wliosT stJni ends in -m. 

lityosj fi^yjj, fuyoy ; 
ju^i/of, fityri, [xdyoy, Pcrf. 

Digitized by 



Bbmark. The Personal-endings follow so directly the modc-yowcl, and an 
BO closely joined to it, that often the two do not appear separately, but an 
united together, e. g. fiovXtiff-ys, instead of fiov\fwr-ri-is, fiou\fv-fif instead of 
fiovXe^c-cu (a and c coalescing and i being subscribed). 

i 114. Difference between the Personal-endings xn 
the Principal and the Historical Tenses, 

1. The difference between the Principal and Historical tenses is important 
The Principal tenses (Pres., Perf., and Fat) form the second and third Pers. 
Dual with the same ending -or, e. g. /3owA.c^c-tof ^ovA^-c-rov; i3puXc^-€-<r3oi> 
/SouAc^ff-ffi^oy ; the Historical tenses also form the second Pers. Dual in -oy, 
but the third in lyy, e. g. 

2. The Principal tenses form the third Pers. PL Act. in -<r«(K), from -kti, 
'iffft, and the Mid. in -yrai] the Historical tenses in the Active, in -v, and Mid., 
in -yro, e. g. 

/3ov\c^-o-y<ri = fiov\t^vc-t{y) ifio6\€tM)-y 
BovXt^-o-y T a i ifiovXt^-o-y t o. 

Bexabk. In fiov\€ioyai the y is dropped, and as a compensation the o pre- 
ceding it is lengthened j so also in the Fut. Act Comp. 116, 5. 

3. The Principal tenses in the Sing. Mid. end in -fuu, -trait -rw ; the Histori- 
cal in -fifiy, -ffo, -TO, c. g. 

/3ovAc^o-ftai ifiovkev^fifiy 

fiov\€^'<rai =3 /9ovXc^]7i ifiov\ei-t-co — ifiovXtC-ov 

/SovXc^C'Tai ifiov\(6-€'To» 

4. The Personal-endings of the Snbj. in the Principal tenses are like thoM 
of the Ind. in the same tenses j the Opt are like tliose of the Ind. of the Hb- 
torical tenses ; 

8 and 3 Du. In i. l*r. fiovkt^^-r o y Subj. fiovKt^n-r o y 

fiovKtU-e^oy " fiovKt&ti-v^oy 

3 PL " « fiovKtiotMTii*) »« fiov\€^uHri{y) 

fiovKt^o-yra »* fiovkt^^-yrai 

iSing." '^ fiovXfio-fiai " fiovKt^/iai 

2 *• « " fiw\f6^ " fiwKt^ 

3 " " " /3ow\€^e-roi « /3ow\f^-T«» 

t and 3 Du. " Impf.^j3«vXc^c-roy, -i-rfiy Opt /9ov\(^t-roy, -ol-^jiy 

ifiovKt^t-c-^oy, '4-ir^riy " fiovKt^ot-c^oy, -oi-^^iitf 

3 PL " " ifio^\(vo-y " fiovKM^fty 

ifiov\(^o-y T d " fiov\t^ot-y r o 

iSing." '' i$ov\(v6'fiiriy " fiovKtvol'firjy 

2 " " '' {4fiov\tv€-(ro) ifiov\(v-ov " (fiovKtvot-ao) fiooh^^-o 

3 tt « (i ^„X€^«-TO " fi0V\€V0l-T0, 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


^ 115, Conjugation of the Regular Verb in -«». 
Pbelimikabt Behabkb. 

1. Since pure verbs do not fonn the secondarj tenses (| 103, Rem.) these 
tenses arc supplied in the Paradigm from two mute verbs and one liquid 
verb {rpifi-u, \€br-», stem AIIT, ^y^, ^AN), so as to exhibit a full Conju- 

2. In learning the tabic, we are to note, 

(1) That the Greek forms may always be resolved into, (a) Porsonal-endinj^, 
(b) Mode-vowel, (c) Tense-characteristic, (d) Tense-stem, (e) Verb-stem, (f ) 
Augment, or Reduplication. 

(2) The spaced forma, e.g. fiovKt^troy, fiovKt^-^roy, third Pers. Du. Ind. 
and Subj. Pres., may direct attention to the difference between the Uistorical 
tenses in the Ind. and Opt., and the Principal tenses. 

(3) Similar forms, as well as those that differ only in accentuation, are 
distinguished by a star (*). The learner should compare these together, e. g. 
/lovXc^w, 1. Sing. Ind. Fut. Act. or 1. Sing. Subj. I. Aor. Act.; fioiKwaeu,^ 
2. Sing. Imp. I. Aor. Mid., fiov\f^aij 3. Sing. Opt. I. Aor. Act., fiovKfwreUf 
Inf. I. Aor. Act 

(4) The accentuation (^ 118) should be learned with the form. The follow- 
ing general rule will suffice for beginners : Tfie accent of the verb » as far from 
the end as the final syllable will permit. Those forms, whoso accentuation 
deviates from this rule, are indicated by a dagger (t)< 

(5) When the Paradigm is thus thoroughly learned, the pupil may first 
resolve the forms either of fiov\€^»f or any pure verb, into their elements, i. e. 
Personal-ending, Mode- rowel, etc. ; observing this order, \iz. fiov\(6ct» is, (1) 
first Pers., (2) §ing., (31 Ind^ (4) Fut, (5) Act., (6) from fiovKtiw, to advise; 
then he may arratge the elementary parts of the form, and in the following 
order: (1) Verb-stem, (2) Augment, or Reduplication, (3) Tense-characteristic. 
(4) Tense-stem, (5) Mode-vowel, (6) Tense-stem with Mode-vowel, (7) Per 
sonal ending, (8) Tense-stem with Mode-vowel and Personal-ending. E. g. 
What would be the form in Greek of the phrase, he advised himself using the 
Aor. of the Pres., /3ouXc<^, to advise? Answer: The Verb-stem is jBovAcv, 
Augment, i, tlius ifiovKtv j the Tense-characteristic of the first Aor. Mid. is a-, 
thus Tcnsc-stcm is i-fiovKtv-a ; the Mode-vowel of the first Aor. Ind. Mid. is a ; 
thus, i-fiovktv-tr-a'^ the Personal-ending of the third Pers. Sing, of an Historical 
tense of the Mid. is to j thus, i-fiovAe^-a-a-ro. 

Remabk. By making himself familiar with the above elements, the pupil 
ran construct from the root any form of the verb he mav wish. 

Digitized by 




[♦ 115. 



of the Principal 










S. 1. 








S. 1. 





fect I^ 




S. 1. 





Per/ //. 
Plpf 11. 

Aorist /., 


Aorist fl.y 

S. 1. 





S. 1. 

S. 1. 

fiov\€^-w,* I advise^ 
fiov\f6-€u, thou advisestf 
jSovAc^ci, Ae, sA«, ti advises, 
fiov\tv-ero¥, ye two advise^ 
8ovk€6-9ro¥f they two advise, 
fiovXf^fuPf toe advise^ 
3ow\e^eT€,* you advise, 
fiovKtv-ovci (y), they advise, 
i-^{f\€v-ov^* i was advising, 
4'fio6\tv9St thou watt advising, 
i'fio6Ktv-€{jf), He, she, it was adv. 
i'fiovKfv-^Toy,' ye two were adv. 
i-fiov\(V'4 T ij V, they two uxre adv, 
i'fiovKt^-ofitv, we were advising, 
i-fiov\M^ert, you were advising, 
i-fio{f\fv-oy,* they were advising, 

i3ovXci#-«0,* / may advite, 


$€-$o6\(ev-K-a, I have advised, 
fi*-fio6\fv-K-as, tJiou hast adv'd, 
fi€-fio6Kev-K-( ( v) ,* he, she, it has a, 
fi('$ov\t^K-ceroy, ye two have a. 
fit'Bovht^K-aroy, they two have 

$€'fiov\t{hK'tmty, toe have adv'^d, 
/9€-i3ovXc^ic-aTc, you have adv'd, 
fit-fiov\*^K-da' I {y), they h ave a. 

i-fi€-fiou\(v-K-tiy, I had advised, 
4-fie-fiovk€^K'€is, thou hadst adv. 
i-fi^'fiouXti-K-Uf he, she, it had ad. 
i'$€'$ou\(v-K-uroyf ye two had 

i'fie-fiovKev-K-e Irii y,they two had 

i-fit-fiov\fv-K-tifity, we had adv. 
i-^t-^ovKtihK'tirt, you had adv. 
4-$t-fiov\tv K-t<ray, they had a. 



i3c-/3ovAc^ic-i| Toy 



irt-^y-a,^ I tntpear, , 

^-irc-^v-eiv,' 1 appeared, 
i-^^Ktv-ff-Ot I advised (indcf.), 
i'$o^\€v-<r'as, thou advisedst, 
4-fio{>\€v-a'-({y), he, she, it adv^d, 
i-fiovKtv-ff-aroy, ye two advised, 
i-fiov\(v-(r^Tr}y, Uiey two adv'd, 
i-fiovXfi-a-afify, we adinsed, 
i-fiov\fv-ff'aT€, you advised, 
i-^vhtv-e-a V, ihvy advised. 

ire-^y-M, I may appear, 

0ov\f6^'W,* I may advise, 
$ov\f^-p * 


tAvK'OV, I left, 
t-KiiF-ts, etc. declined like Impf. 

\iir-w, etc., like the Subj. 

/SouXfiJ-o'-w,* / shall advise, 
like the Indie. Pros. 

> The iaflectitm of the 2d Terf. in all the Motlea and Parfulples, U liko tha*. of the Pcrf. 

Digitized by 


* 115.] 



M0DB8. 1 

Participials. | 





Particip. 1 

/9ovAcv-^«, let him ad. 
i3oi;Ae^-€Toi», ye tvoo ad. 

both advise, 
/3ovAcv-cT€,* do ye ad. 

/3ovA«^ *$oV\(6^xMra 
tiy, 3owA«t-oi4 
to G.i3ovAc^oyTOT 
advise, fiovKty-o^s, 

fiovXw4rwr«y, usoally ^wAei^din-w,* let them a. | 

fiou\€^-otfu, I might advise^ 


like the Imp. JPre«. 
vet only a few Per- 
fects, and such a^ 
have the meaning 
of the Pres., form 
an Imperative. 


to have 


G. -K-^TOSt -«C- 





Tt-^r^qu, I might appear, 

v4^y*, appear, 



fiovKtv-c-oAfu, I might advise, 
fiovhe^-ait^ or -«iof 
/3ouAe^<rfu,* or -€w(r) 




fhCXwa-oy, advise, 








Jtaving advisod, 

$ov\*v-ir-drcc<raif, nsaa 

lly 'edvTvp* 1 

xlir-oifUj etc., like the ()])t. 

A/ir-c, etc., like the 
Imp. Trcs. 



rt., both hi 

G. Syros, o^s. 

/BovAc^-<r-oi/u, / tcould advise, 
like the Opt. Impf. 
« The inflecUon of the 2d Pluperf. 


is like thatof the l«t Plopei 

etc. like Pr.Pt. 
the Ind. and Opt 


Digitized by 








of the Princtpia 





S. 1. 
• 2. 






0ov\€6-ofiai, Ideiiberate, or am 

jBovAcv-]! * 




fiov\*^-m fiai, I may de- 

fiovKfv^ * 











i-fiovktv6tkriv, I was deUber' 

i-fiovkt6-o V 





S. 1. 







/3c-/3oi;Xcv-fia i, Ihavedeliberttted, 
















4'fi€-fiov\€^fA 11 y, 2 had deUber- 




Aorist /., 

stem r 









i'$ov\€v^-d(iriy, I deliberated, 
i-fiouKe^a-w [(indefinite) 

i-$ov\tu-<r-d <r^iiy 
4-0ov\fv-<r-curde • 

Aonst 11. 




FuL Perf^ I S. 1 

i-Kiir-6fir}y, I remained^ like lud. 

$ov\€v-<r-ofMi, I shall ddiherate, 
like Pres. Indie. 

$€-fiouK€v-ir-ofiau, I shall have de- 
Uberaiedy like Pres. Indie. 

fit-fiouk^v-fUyos, 2, /may 
fit'fiovktV'fjJyos ^s [have 
fi€-0ovk€V'/i4yos p [delib' 
Be-fiovktv-fi^yv ^oy 
fi€'fiovkfv-fi4yca ^roy 
0€-fiovkw-fL4yoi ifuy 
fi^'fiouk^v/Upoi ^c 

fiwk€6-ff-^ II a If I may db" 
fiovk9^-jf * [/i&enoEte, 
$ovk€V'(rii ir^oy 
fiovkt^o'-u vrai 

kiTT-Mfuu, I may remain, 
like Pres. Sabj. 

Digitized by 


♦ 116.] 



Modes. | 

ParticipiaU. | 

i. c. 8al^.of Hb(.t«naeB. 




0ov\%v-ovj ddiberate^ 




to ddiher- 




deUbemUng, Ififiyf I might 

0ov\m{Miio [ddibenxte, 








fi^-fio^Ktv^o, deliberate^ 


/3«-/Bov\6^;^ttKroy, usual 



have deUb- 





wy,t having 


\j 0t'0ov\€^-edwy* I 

$€'fiov\tV-/JL4yOS flflVf I 

fi9-fiov\9v-tUyos ^fitlmCt 
0€'fiov\€Vfi4yos rfij [de- 
09'fiov\€V-fi4ya ^rp-oy 
09-fiov\€v-fi4yt9 d'fi'niy 
fi€-fiou\€Vfi4yoi tfrifuy 
fi€'fiov\€v-ii4yoi cftyTf 
0('$ov\fv-fjJyo. ^riaay 


0ov\€U'tr'alfAri /, I might 

$ov\t^<r-aio [ddiberatej 






0o6K^v-(r-aiy* ddiberate, 





to ddiber- 



having ddiber- 

povXtv-ir-daboMray^ usual 

Xj ^ovKtv-c-iabvy* \ 

Taic-oiiJirivJmiqhl remain^ 
like Opt. Impf. 

A«irov,t -cV3w, like Pres. 


fi4yfi, -dfuyoy 

0ov\€v-<r-oifi-nyjl m. have 


_wf, jij, -oy 

fuvos, -1?, -or. 


fi€-0ov\€v-a--oifiiriyf IslCd 
ddiberaie, like Opt. Imp. 



Digitized by 






of the PrincljU 


S. 1. 



P. 1. 



i'fiovXti-^-fiy, I was advised. 

Future I. 


fiovKtv-b^i-ff-ofiait I shall be ado. 
/3ov\cv-d^-]7> etc., like the 
Ind. Pres. Mid. 

fiovX^thh-Sk, I might have 
fiw\w^ps [been advised, 

jSovAcv-i^^c ♦ 



i-rplfi-Tjy, I uxu rubbed^ 
i^plfi-ris^ etc., like the first 
Aor, Ind. Pass. 

rpi/3-w, Itnayhave been rub*dt 
rpifi^St etc., like the first 
Aor. Subj. Pass. 



rpifi-^a-'Ofiot^ I shall be rubbed^ 

rpifi^t^'Xi, etc., like the first 

Fnt. Ind. Pass. 

Verbal Adjectives : jBovAcv^^s, -4, •6y^ adviaed. 

i 116. Remarks on the Inflection -endings, 

1. The personal-endings of verbs in -« are apocopated forms, as may be 
shown from the older conjugation in- -fu, and in part from the dialects (\ 220, 
1); thos, -/u in the first Pcrs. Sing. Ind. and Subj. Act. and -n in the third 
Pers. have disappcarcdj e. g. fiovKc^ instead of fiovXt^f-o-fu or /BovAc^^oifu, 
fiovXt6-tt instead of fiovX^^-t-rt (by the dropping of -fu in fiovXf6-0'fu^ the • is 
lengthened into », and by the dropping of -ri in /3ovAc^c-ri, c is lengthened 
into ci) j in the first Pers. Sing, first Aor. Ind. Act., y has disappeared, e. g. 
i$oiX€vaa instead of ifio6xtvaeaf \ in the second Pcrs. Sing. Imp. Act., except 
the first Aor., -^i has disappeared, e. g. fioiXtif-^ instead of $ovXt^9-^t ] but the 
first Aor. Imp. Act. has a different ending -oy, e. g. fio6X€v-ff'oy, 

2. The second Pers. Sing. Act. has the ending -v^a in the Common lan- 
guage in the following forms only: — 

ola^a, nosti, from the Perf. oI8o; fitia^a and fZrja^e^ Plpf of oUa^ 
^ipfia^a, Impf. fiom ^^i/, to say; litr^a, Impf. from tlui, to be ; pci0';^a, 
Impf. from c7fu, to ip. 

3. There is no special form for the first Pers. Dual Act, or for the fiist 
and second Aor. Pass.; the first Pcrs. PI. is used for this purpose. Comp. 
S 106, Rem. 2. 

4. The original form of the first Pcrs. PI. Act. is -/ucs (not -/uy). Comp. 
the Dialects, § 220, 6, and the Latin ending -mtu, e. g. ypd^>-o-fust scrib-i-mus. 

5. The original form of the third Pers. PI. Act. of the Principal tenf es was 

Digitized by 





Participials. ] 

i. e. BubJ. of the Hist, tonces. 




/5owA«w-^-€(ijF, / might be 
fiovKtv^-^lfis [advisedy 



)SovAc^-«^-i}Ti, be thou ad' 




iBovAcv-d^« [vised, 

to bead- 





Genitive : 




fiovXw^-^iflfity and -ufuv 

fiovXfxh^thiTt and -crrc 

fiovKid-^-^t * 

being advised. 



BovKfv^ri-ir'olfi'nyf I should 



be advised, etc., like the 


luyos, 17, -w 

Impf. Opt. Mid. 


Tpifi-tl7}y, i might be rubbed, 


rpifi-tis,^ etc.. 

Tptfi-flfis, etc., like the first 

rptfi-Ti^i, -4irr», etc., like 


like first Aor. 

Aor. Opt Pass. 

the first Aor. Imp. Pass. 

Part. Pass. 

rpifi-ft-a'o(firiy, I should Ite 



ni««/, etc., like the first 



Fat. Opt Pass. 

fiovKwrdos, -r^o, -r4oy, to be advised. | 

-yri] when r was changed into a, y was dropped {\ 20, 2), e. g. fiovKt^om » 
/SovXc^MTi =» /SovXc^ovo'i. On the irregular lengthening . of the vowel pre- 
ceding the y, see § 20, Rem. 2. 

6. In the first Pcrs. Sing. PIup. Act, Attic writers use, together with the 
form in -ciy, a form in -1}, which arises from the Ionic ending of the Plup. -co, 
e. g. ifitfiovXtlK-ri instead of -k-cu'. The mode-vowel ci in the third Pcrs. PI. 
is commonly shortened into c, e. £. ^/Sc/SovXcv-ie-c-cray instead of ^/ScjSovXc^k- 

7. The first Pers. Sing. Opt. Act. has the ending -fu in verbs in -«, e. g. 
roiSc^d jui, w€uM<r-<u-fu; but the ending -ijy in the first and second Aor. Pass., 
acconling to the analogy of verbs in -fu. This 7} remains through all the per- 
sons and numbers, tb^ugh it is often dropped in the Dual and PI., especially 
in the third Pcrs. PI. and then, €(7jfi€y = ufity, cfiyrc = ttrt, ttficav = eity, e. g 
wtuStv^tirifify and waiBtv^fifity, funiff^tifrrt and -^^rTrc, ^ayttri<ray X. H. 6. 5, 
25., wpoKpt^tiriaeaf Ibid. 34., wtfj^tiriffay Th. 1. 38, and (more frequently) 
'•^€ify {'€ity). 

8. The Attic Optative endings lyi', -ijy, -ij, etc., and the third Pers. PI. -o 
(rarer -ritray) which appropriately belong to verbs in -/a, are used with verbs in 
•«, in the following cases : — 

(a) Most commonly in the Impcrf. Opt. of contract verbs, e. g. rifjufriw, 

ptXolriyy fua-^oiriv ; 
(h) In all Futures in -<«, e. g. ^cofoiriy Soph. Aj. 313., fpoiri Xen. Cy. 3. 1, 

14, from the Fut. ^€aw, ip&; 
(c) Somewhat often in the second Plup., e. g. itnr^vyohiy S. O. R. 840^ 

wpotXuXvboltis X. Cy. 2. 4, 17., »firoi;^o/i| Ar. Acham. 940; 

Digitized by 



(d) In the second Aor. <rxo(riv uniformly {Ktrxov from Ixw) ', still, not gen 
crally in compounds, c. g. xapda'xoifu. 

9. The forms of the first Aor. Opt. Act. in -eios, -€t«(y), -tiay, instead of 
Kusy -oi, -CUV, have passed from the ^olic Opt. in -ei a, -etas, etc., into com- 
mon use in all the dialects, and are employed by the Attic writers more fm- 
quently than the regular forms, e. g. iBov\ci^-cias, -cie(y), -ctav. 

Remark. The second Pers. Dual Act. of the Historical tenses often ends, 
among the Attic writers, in -ijy instead of -ov, e. g. «iir«Tijv PI. Symp. 189, c, 
iirthiiiriffdrriy Euthyd. 273, e., ffonjv 294, e., iKeyirriv L. 705, d., iKouft0ini<r4r 
TTiy lb. 753, a. On the Dialects, see \ 220, 9. 

10. The Middle endings -a-ai and -co, when immediately preceded by a 
mode-Yowel, drop or (§ 25, 1), and then coalesce, except in the Opt, with the 
mode-vowel, e. g. 

/3ov\c^f(rai fiovXc^-c-cu = /3ov\ci^p 

fiovXt^-oi'tro jSovXcv-oi-o 

^i3ovXc^-<ro 4fiov\t^-t-o =» ifiovXt^v 

11. In tlie second Pers. Sing. Pres. and Fut. Mid. and Pass., the Attic writers 
use a subordinate ending in -ci, together with the ending -p, e. g. fiovKt^p and 
-€i, /3oi/\c^-p and -«, fitfiovXtio'-^ and -ci, /3ov\ctidV-n *^d "•*» Tpi^fiffp, and -««, 
irotp and -ci, 6\p and -c<. This form in -ci passed from the Attic conversational 
language, into the written language ; hence it is the regular form in the Come- 
dies of Aristophanes, but is avoided by the tragedians. Also Thncydides 
and Xenophon use it ; other writers, as Plato and the orators, employ both 
forms ; yet three verbs always take the form -ct, namely, 

fio^Kofuu iBoi/Xci (but Subj. fioikg) 

otofuu oUt (but Subj. ofrf) 

H^ofjuu Fut. 2^ci. 

12. Together with the endings of the third Pers. PI. Imperative Act. and 
Pass. '(roMToyf -drwray, -vbwrav^ the abbreviated forms -i^yrwis -^vratv^ 
'ff^ctyf are used; and since they are employed very frequently by Attic 
writers, they are called Attic forms. These abbreviated Imperatives of the 
Active Voice are like the Gen. PI. of the Participle of each tense respectively, 
except the Perfect ; and the Middle form -trdwy is like the third Pers. Dual, 

Pres. Act. fiov\€v4rwray and fiov\€v6rrvy, 

Perf " wncoi^hwreof " 'K^'iroi^6vrtcy (Gen. Part itnoi^irwy) 

Aor. I. " /SovXcvcreCrcMroy " fiovKtvcdyrwy 

Pres. Mid. fiov\€v4<r^<ray " 0ov\€v4ffdwy 

Aor. " ffKt^da^wreuf " cxtt^^wy. 
The Aor. Pass, ending -iytt»y or -^rwy, abridged from -^rcMroy, is found in 
PI. Legg. S56, d. wtfi^iyrcey, and lb. 737, e. Ztayt/ifidiTcey (according to severa] 

Digitized by 


} 117.] VERBS. -r-ATTie FUTURE. 143 

13. Besides the simple form of the Snbj. Pcrf. and the Opt. PIup. Act, a 
periphrasis, formed by the Perf. Part, and the Snbj. or Opt. of tlyai {U be)j &, 
cfqy, is very frequent, e. g. ireirai8(VKws £, etluoaverim ; 'KtvaiZtvKios ttriUf educa- 
vissem. Yet this form seems to denote a circumstance or condition^ more than a 
simple completed action ; comp. PI. Hipp. M. 302, a. ct iccKfii^KCtf ; n, f^ r«Tpc»- 
ulvosy ^ wfTcXfiyfidpoSf fl &W* 6riovp wtirov^ifS iKardpos Tifjuuv clTi), oh Kod b^6' 
T€poi aS rovTo wtv6y&otfity\ examples of the simple forms arc, &irciA^^, PL 
Kp. 614, a., (tX^^oMriy Polit 269, c, ifiwrmiKoi X. An. 5. 7, 26., KoraXfXolwoiey 
X. H. 3. 2, 8., i!woK€x»p^KOi ib. 5, 23., dnrpcr^icoi ib. 5. 2, 3., irciroi^KOi Th. 8, 
108., 4sfitMKoi€P ib. 2, 48. — The Imp. Pexf. docs not often occur in the Act., 
e. g. yiyott^t Eur. Or. 1220. 

14. The Perf. and PIup. Mid. or Pass, append the pcrsonal-endmgs to the 
tense-stem without a mode-vowel, and hence thej cannot form the Subj. and 
Opt. (with few exceptions, which will be further treated below, § 154, 9), 
bat must also be expressed periphrasticallj by means of the Participle and 
cTi'flu, e. g. wtTaiiwfi4vos £, c1i}i', educatus, sim, essem. 

15. The third Pers. Ind. Petf. and Flup. Mid. or Pass, of pure verbs ends in 
-vrai, 'MTo, e.g. /SfiSovXcwrcu, ^jSc/So^Acvyro ; but in mute and liquid verbs, this 
formation is not possible. Hence the Attic writers usually express this person 
periphrastically, by means of the Perf. Part, and c2<ri(i'), suntj licay, erant ; the 
older and middle Attic writers, however, sometimes use the Ionic forms -^rai, 
-&TO (instead of -rroi, -yro) ; the a of these endings is aspirated after the 
Kappft and Pl-mtitcs, and hence changes the preceding smooth Kappa or Pi- 
mute into the corresponding rough (comp. ^ 144) ; but this a is not aspirated 
after the Tau-mutes ; thus, 

TplfirWy to rvb, Perf. T*-Tpi/x-^Mu 3 T.rerpiip&Tcu (for rirptfivTai) Pip. irerplitAro 
w\4if^, to twiney W-ir\ry./MU " weir\4x&r(u ( " w4w\tiarrtu) iTfw\4x&ro 
T^TT-fl^, to arrange, r4'^ay-fuu « Ttrdxarai ( " r4rayirrm) irerdxiro 

Xo»f^C^f to separate, Kf-x<ipto-tuu " j«€X«pfWToi( " Ktx<^pairrat) ^<cex«p«aTo 
4p»€(p'^, to destroy, tl-<t>»ap-^ '' i^^ddp&rat (« fp^apyrm) i^t^dpltro. 

16. The two Aorists Pass, follow the analogy of verbs in -/«, and hence are 
not treated here. 

♦ 117. Remarks on the Formation of the Attic 

1. When one of the short vowels &, €, i, in the Fut. Act. and Mid. of verbs 
in -atty -ffoficuy from stems of two or more syllables, precedes «•, certain verbs, 
after dropping o-, take the circum flexed ending •£, -oS/uu *, because it was fro 
quently used by the Attic writers instead of the regular form, this is called 
the Attic Future, e. g. i\doff (usually iXa&vw), to drive, ihd-tr-u, Fut. Att. ^Ad, -$j, 
•^, -oTOV, -dficv, -arc, -£<ri(y) j rfX^w, tojinish, Tt\4-ff'V, Fut. Att. rcXA, -c«j, -c*, 
•«i7W, -oD/iO', -««Te, -owri(v)\ rf\4'<r-ofuu (rcA^o/uu), I'tkovfuUf -ci, -€«toi, etc.; 
KouS(«t to carry, Fut. Kofd-tr-ce, Fut. Att. KOfuS, -leis, -itT, -uTrwy -ufvfuy, •icTrc, 

Digitized by 



tovai{u) ] KOfuovfuu, -icc, -icTrcu, -lo^fit^oy, etc This Fat. b inflected like the 
forms of contract verbs. 

2. This form of the Fut. is foand only in the Ind., Inf., and Part. ; nercr in 
the Opt., thus, T€A«, rcX«<v, Tt\&v ; but T€\4<rotfu, The verbs which have this 
form are the following: (a) ixdeo (iXaOvu), to drive; rc\^», to finish; Ka\4w, 
to call; and, though seldom, ixdeof to grind;' — (b) all verbs in 4(w (character. 
8) i — (c) a few verbs in -^f a, very generally $ifid{u ; — (d) of verbs in fu^ all 
m-dyyOfii and also &fi^i4yyvfitf to dothe(iLf»/pM,'Uis, etc,). A few exceptions 
to this Fut. are found even in the Attic dialect, e. g. ikdrw X. Cy. I. 4, 20., ^A^- 
rtirrof X. An. 7. 7, 55., r^Kiirowrw Cy. 8. 6, 3., KoX4eus 2. 3, 22., voftlffova-t 3. 
1, 27. (according to the best MSS.) ^^rj^ta^t, Isae. de Cleonym. hered. 4 51. 

i 118. Accentuation of the Verb, 

1. Pkimabt Law. The accent is drawn back from the end of the word 
towards the beginning, as far as the nature of ^he final syllable permits, e. g. 
fio6\tv€f /SouAc^/uu, fioi\€wroVi wawroMy rin^oy, but /SovAci/cis, /SovAc^ix. On 
the ending -cu, see § 29, R. 6. 

2. This law holds good in compounds, o. g. ^/pe irp6s^ptf ^Oyc fic^ciryc, 
Aclirc iar6\uw€ \ also in words in the Subj., when they are not contracted, e. g. 
teardo'x^f KordurxpSj icoriCtf'xay/tcr, iwUnnt, iwUnrns (but ityafiA, iarorrw, SiaSA, 
vapaZSt, hfofiufj^yf etc., on account of the contraction, iyafidu, iu^afidtffuy, etc.). 
Still, this rule has the following exceptions: (a) the accent cannot go back 
beyond the syllable of the preceding word, which before the composition, had 
the accent, e. g. iar6Sos {it,w6 the preceding word being accented on the ultimate), 
^fjarp6is, Mffx^s, iwtBes (not &iroBos, <rtJ/ATpoM, irurx^s, (riSts) ; (b) the accent 
cannot go back of the first two words of the compound, as in the examples 
just quoted, and also trvyiK^os, wap4yS*s (not a^yttSos^ but like l/c8or; not 
vdpci^r, but like tv^i) ; (c) the accent cannot go back of an existing augment 
(this holds of the Impf., Aor.," and Plup. as well as of the Pcrf.), e. g. «^potc7x«r 
like tlxoy, wtxpitrxoy like taxov, ^inyoy like ^v, i^ny like ^y (not TpJf(ix«r, 
wdptiTxoy, Hnyoy, fM i so also irposiiKot like fiKoy, iartipyoy like flpyoy, but 
Imp. iircipye, also it^uKToi, h4>ucro, like r«rroi, Xkto, 

Ejcceptiona to the Primary Law. 

3. The accent is on the tdtimate in the following forms : — 

(a) In tho Inf. second Aor. Act. as circumflex, and in the Masc. and Neuk 
8ing. Part, of the same tense as acute, e. g. Anrciy (from AtWciy), AirdSv, -^y; 
and in the second Pers. Sing. Imp. second Aor. Act. of the five verbs, tiW, 
^a;^/, tip4j Aa/3^, and lU (but in composition, &rcnrc, it,ir6\afitf &ircA;^c, cfnSc). 

(b) Also in tlie Imp. second Aor. Mid. as circumflex, e. g. Xa&ov, ^v (from 

Eemark 1. In compounds, the Imp. (not Participials) of the second Aor 
Act. draws back the accent in all verbs according to the primary law, e. g. 
^K^oAe, l{cA<&c, $K9oSf MoTf, it,ir6SoSf ix^Sorc, /bccT<i8os, firr<£$0Tc (yet not &To8af» 

Digitized by 



fi^rafBo5, see No. 2), bnt iKfioKtiPy infiaX^v, iKKaruy, i^tX^y, etc. Bat in the 
Imp. Sing, second Aor. Mid. of verbs in -w, the circumflex remains on the 
ultimate in compounds also, e. g. iK0a\ov, i^ucou, ^xXtrov, /irtAo^oO, &^A.oi/, 
ipfwyKW] so in verba in -/ui, when' the verb is compounded with a monosylla- 
bic preposition, e. g. wpoSoVf iy^ov, iufrnv ; yet the accent is drawn back, when 
the verb is compounded with a dissyllabic preposition, e. g, i,v6Sov, Kard^qp, 
avS^ov] but in the Dual and PI. of the second Aor. Mid., die accent is in all 
cases drawn back, e. g. iKfidKftr^f, i.wo?Jifi€a^€, irp6So<r^f, Mta^e, (Su^tc^^ 

(c) The acute stands on the ultimate in all participles in -s (Gen. ^or), con- 
sequently in all active Participles of verbs in -/u, as well as in those of the first 
and second Perf. Act. and first and second Aor. Pass, of all verbs, e. g. fiffiov 
XfVK^s (Gen. -^oy), ire^wSj (Gen. '6Tos)y0ov\fv^ts (Gen.-^KToj), rvwfis (Gen. 
'4irro$), Icrrds (Gen. -dtrros), rAfts (Gen. -^woy), 9iio6s (Gen. -<Jin-os), Z€uey6s 
(Gen. 'Wros)y iuurrds, 4k^Is, irpoMs, Gen. ^teurriiyroSf iic^4rros, irpoS6rros» 

BcM. 2. The first Aor. Act. Part., which is always paroxytone, is an excep- 
tion, e. g. wgiSf^ds, Gen. wcuS^^treofTos. 

(d) In the Sing, of the first and second Aor. Subj. Pass, as circumflex, e. g. 
flovAcu^w, rfu0& (w being contracted from -4w), 

4. The accent is on the penult in the following forms : — 

(a) In the Inf. of Perf. Mid. or Pass., of first Aor. Act. and second Aor. 
Mid.; also in all infinitives in-Mu, hence in all active infinitives according to 
the formation in -/ai, as well as in the Inf. of first and second Aor. Pass, and 
of the first and second Perf. Act. of all verbs, e. g. rrrt/^cu, /3c/3ov\«Mr^ai, 
rerifi^ff^cu, ve^iX^tri^ai, fUfiurdMr^cu'j — <fnf\d^cUf $ov\twratj ri/i^ircu, ^lA^ircu, 
uur^cMTiu ; — AiTcV^ai, iicdw^cu^ SutZ6<rdcu ; — lardycu, riStivai, 1iiifi6ytUf 8cifcKi^y«u, 
ffT^vtUt ^Ktrritycu, dclyoi, iic^lycut 9owai, fieraiovytuj — fiovK€vdTiyaij Tpifiriyai] 
— fiffiauKfVKiyai, AcAoiir^ycu. 

(b) In the Participle Perf. Mid. or Pass., e. g. fi€0ov\tvfi4yoSf -iiiyri^ •fi4yoy, 
Ticrtfnifi4yoSy wttptXrifUyos. 

(c) As circumflex in the Dual and Plu. of the first and second Aor. Subj. 
Pass., e. g. /SovXcvdw/tcv. 

BcM. 3. The three corresponding forms of the Inf. first Aor. Act., Imp. 
first Aor. Mid., and the third Pers. Sing. Opt. first Aor. Act^ when they consist 
of three or more syllables, whose penult is long by nature, are distinguished 
from one another by the accent, in the following manner : — 

Inf. 1st Aor. A. /SovXcvo-cu, Imp. Ist Aor. M. fiodXtwrat, Opt. 1 st Aor. A. fiovkt^ai, 
roiriffcUf wolri<r€U, voiiiirau 

But when the penult is short bv nature or long only by position, the Inf. 
first Aor. Act. corresponds with the third Pers. Sing. Opt., first Aor. Act, c. g. 
'^xAfyu] but Imp. first Aor. Mid. ^^Ao^ai. 


Digitized by 


146 VERBS. SYLLABIC AUOKENT. [M 119, 120. 

* 119. Further n;iew of the Augment and Redu- 

• 1: After the general view of the Aiigmerrt and Eeduplication 
(i 108, 3), it is necessary to treat them more particularly. 

2. As has been already seen, all the historical tenses (the 
Impf., Plup., and Aor.) take the augment, but retain it only in 
the Ind. There are two augments, the syllabic and temporal 

$ 120. (a) Syllabic Augment, 

i. The syllabic augment belongs to those verbs whose stem 
begins with a consonant, and consists in prefixing^ci tp the 
stem, in the Impf. and Aorists, but to the reduplication in the 
Plup. In this way, the verb is increased by one syllable, and 
hence this augment is called the syllabic augment, e. g. fiw 
Xeixi), Impf. l'pov)uvoVy Aor. €-)8oi;Xcu(ro, Plup. e-jSc-jSovXewcoy. 

2. If the stem begins with p, this letter is doubled when the 
augment is prefixed (i 23, 3), ie. g. pwrrw, to thrown Impf. I^pi'moy, 
Aor. ippul/a, Perf €ppi<t>a, Plup. €ppC<f>€w, 

Bemark 1. The three verbs $o6\ofiaiy tomU; ^vvanat, to be able; and 
u4\\w, to be about to do^ to intend^ among the Attic writers take i}, instead of c, 
for the augment ; still, this is found more among the later than the earlier 
Attic writers, e. g. dfiouk-fi^/ and ^/3ovA.^d7}i' ; iSvydfiriv and iiSvydfiriy, ifvriibriw 
and iiivv^f^v 0)ut always i^uyda^riv) ; ific\Xov and IjficWou. The Aorist is 
very seldom ^ft/AAijo-a (comp. X. H. 7. 4, 16. 26). 

Rem. 2. Among the Attic writers, the augment c is often omitted in the 
Pluperfect-, in compounds, when the preposition ends with a vowel j in sim- 
ples, when a vowel which is not to be elided precedes, e. g. &ra/3c/3i^icci, X. An. 
5, 2, 15; KaTaB^pafi4iKttray, X. H. 5. 3, 1 ; icaTaX^\«vTo, X. Cy. 4. 1, 9; ivflvm 
rewT^ifcij^Th. 4, 90; ol avp^Kot ytyivnvTOy X. Cy. 3. 2, 24 (according to the 
best MSS.) ; but in the Impf. and Aorists, the syllabic augment is omitted 

' According to analogy, we may suppose that c is prefixed to all verbs in the 
Buginented tenses, whether the verbs begin with a vowel or consonant. If the 
verb begins with a consonant, « appears as an additional syllable, e. g. t-^par- 
nov^ but if with a vowel, e is assimilated with tliat vowel and lengthens it, if it 
is not already long, e. g. Jkyot, Impf. tceyoy = ^ov ; 4^4\tc, Impf i€^f\oy — 4J^e- 
\ov ; hxiKKwy Impf. Uk^Wov = &Kt\Kov. If the word begins with a long vowel, 
it absorbs e, e. g. ^xA^KVy Impf. i^iKturKov = fiXaffKov ; 03^i(»^ Impf. i^i(ov == 
ib^i(ov. When the verb begins with «, the augment c is sometimes contracted 
with this into «, e. g. *1xovy instead of ^xo^- 

Digitized by 


H 121, 12X/.] VERBS. TEMPORAL AtJOMENT. 147 

onlj in the lyric parts of the tragedies, and here not often ; in the dramatic 
portions it is rarely omitted, and only in the speeches of the messengers (^o-cis 
Ay^cXura/) ; also at the hegimiing and middle of the trimeter, and likewise at the 
beginning of a sentence, and even in these cases bnt seldom. The Impf. 
XprjVf which, together with ixpV^f^ iised in prose, is an exception. 

* 121. (b) Temporal Augment, 

The temporal augment belongs to verbs, whose stem begins 
with a vowel ; it consists in lengthening the first stem-voweL 
This, is called the temporal augment because it increases the 
time, e. g. 



\ i|, e.g. "a^o^ 

Impf. ^v 

Perf. ^x« 

Plup. ffxftt 



ij, " ^X1rff• 

« ffXlTifoV 

« liKwuca 

** ^\irlK€ty 



r, " 'IicrreA* 

" TicA-fuoy 

** 'ac^fvira 

" 'OcrrciJjfw 


«, " byuKiw 

" &fd\ovp 

" dF/i(Xi}Ka 

" &lllX!hKW 


V. " 'W(» 

« "vfipiCoy 

« 'u/SpMca 

" 'O/^priTfiK 



p, « afp/« 

" ?/>ouv 

" fpiJKa 

" p'^wii' 



i?u, " cStKiw 

" i7(;Xouy 

" riCKriKa 

" nbK'hK€w 



tf, " oiinlO» 

" (ficn(oy 

" ^«TMfa 

" ^Jirr/icca'. 

Bemabk. Verbs which begin with if, r, C, «, ov, and c<, do not admit the 
augment, e. g. ^rriCoftai, to be overoome, Impf. ^Tr«&fii}y, Ferf. JSmf/ioi, Plnp. 
ijrrhf-V^] 'iir^ctf, to |>re», Aor. "tircM-a; 'v«r^«, to lull to deep, Aor.^vwawa; 
w^eX^w, to benefit^ Impf. (v^/Xcoi^i o&riCCof ^ uvutu/, Impf. oifTaCoi^; cficAf, 
to yield, Impf. cTicoi^, Aor. cZ|a; tUdCm, to Ween, is an exception, which among 
the Attic writers, though seldom, is augmented, e. g. dkaCoi'y ctcoo^a* ^arfuu, 
seldom fKa(oy (e. g. Th. 6, 92. fkaCor* in the best MSS.), fitaira, ifieuirtuu. 
Also those rerbs whose stem begins with cv, are nsnally without an augment, 
e. g. ^ifx'fuuj to supplicate, thxofititf, more rarely n^x^M^'^* ^^^ 1^^- i|^/mm (not 
cSt/uu) j c^^Mitf, to find, in good prose, always omits the augment 

f 122. ii^e97tarA;5 on the Augment, 

I. Verbs beginning with & followed by a vowel, have d instead of 17, e. g. 
Sim, (poet), to perceive J Impf. "dToy ; but those beginning with d, ow, and 01 fol- 
lowed by a vowel, do not admit the augment, e. g. *di}8(^ofiai, to have an vn- 
fieasant sensation, Impf. ^arjZi(6ftr}y; avalw, to dry, Impf. cJiaurov; olaKiCce, to 
tteer, Impf. oicUiCov; also iLydXicKw, to destroy, though no vowel follows d, haa 
M^M^ra, iyiXuna, as well as &i^X»(ra, dv^AwKo. But the poetic &c(8« (prose 
fSct), to sing, and iiaffce (Att firo-ai), to rusA, take the augment, e.g. li^iSoy (prose 
^8dy), ima (Att. ^|a) ; oKd/mu, to b^eve, 4^iii\v^ etc. does not belong here, sinot 
the • following 01, is not a part of the stem. 

Digitized by 



2. Some verbs also beginning with ot and followed by a consonant, do not 
take the augment, e.g.oiKovp4vfto guard tiie house^ Aor. o^oiJpijo-ci ; aiA(e», ia 
tmell of wine^ Impf. oiyi{oy ; olv6», to intoxicate^ Ferf. Mid. or Pass. ohnMuii^os 
and <^yufJi.4yos ; oi<rrpdiu,to maJceJUrious^ Aor. oXtrrpriaa. 

3. The twelve following verbs, beginning with c , have « instead of ij for the 
augment, viz. idw^ to permit, Impf. ctivv, Aor. cfmra; i^iC<«t to accustom (to 
which belongs also ^oo^ to be accustomed, from the Epic H&w) ; eXaa, poetic 
Aor. (stem *EA), to place (in prose only, Part. Aor. Mid. i<rdfJityos and tlcdftfyost 
ettabUsfung, founding) ; k\tfffft»,to wind; cXkaj, to draw; Aor, tVodkra (stem 
*£AKT); ^tKoy, to take, Aor, (stem *EA) of a^»; cirouai, to follow; ipyd- 
(ofiaiftovjork; tpittt, kp'r6(ti^to creep,togo; iffTtdeo^ to entertain; tx^n^ 
have (on the Epic cT/uai, see § 230). 

4. The six following verbs take the syllabic, instead of the temporal, 
augment: — 

Ikyyviii^ to break, Aor. Ifa{a, etc. (§ 187, \), 

iiKlffKOfiatt capior, Perf. iiXuKa and 4}Xi#ica, captus sum (§ 161, 1). 

aySdyctfto please (Ion. and poet.), Impf. joyScu^y, Perf. coSa, Aor. l&Sar 

(§ 230.) 
oup4wf mingere, io6povy, iovpriKa. 
&^4», to push, i^^vy, etc. (sometimes without the augment, e. g. 9i»dotWo, 

Th. 2, 84 ; i^wrdriaay, X. H. 4. 3, 12 ; fi^ei, PI. Charm. 155; c). 
uy4ofiai,to bug, Impf. 4vyo6firiy {uyoifjiriyf Lys. Purg. Sacril. 108. § 4; i^ 

vovvTo, Aeschin. c. Ctes. c. 33; iyrevvciro, Andoc. p. 122.), Aor. ietyrfadr 

fitly (see however § 179, 6.), Perf i^yrjfuiu 

5. The verb ioprd(w, to celebrate a feast, takes the augment in the second 
syllable, Impf. i6pra(oy. The same is true of the following forms of the 
Plup.n.: — 

EIKA, second Perf. toiKtt, lam like, Plup. iifxtty. 

HKirofuUt to hope, second Perf. IbXira, I hope, Plup. i^Ktrtiy.}^ 

EPra, to do, second Perf. Ibpyo, Plup. i^pytiy, y 

6. The three following verbs take the temporal and syllabic augment at the 
same time, the Spiritus Asper of the stem being then transferred to the c of 
the augment : — 

6pdoo,to see, Impf. k^ptoy, Perf. k^poKa, k^patuu, 

kyolyt»,to open, Impf. kyi^oy^ Aor. hyitp^a (Inf. ianS^cu), etc. 

l.KivKOfiai,iobe taken, Aor. kiiXny (Inf. hxAyaiy 6), and fiXmy, 

k 123. Reduplication. 

1. Reduplication (} 108, 4) is the repeating the first conso- 
nant of the stem with c. This implies a completed action, and 
hence is prefixed to the Perf.,^ e. g. Xc-Xuko, to the Fut. Perf., 

* Strictly, we may say that the first letter of all verbs is repeated in the 
Perf, whether the verb begins with a vowel or a consonant. When the conao* 

Digitized by 


» 123.1 



e. g. Kc^KtHTfirjcofuu (from icoo-/xeu>), and to the Plup., which, as an 
historical tense, takes also the augment c before the reduphca- 
tion, e. g. ^-/?€-)8ouAcvK€ti/. This remains in all the modes, as 
■well as in the Inf. and Part 

2. Those verbs only admit the redupUcation, whose stem 
begins ixrith a single consonant or with a mutQ and liquid ; but 
verbs beginning with p, yy, yX, px,^ take only the simple aug- 
ment, except pXdima pipXoufxi, l3XcurffrrjfA€<a P€pkaja'^fuiKay and 
fiXaurravQi PtpXdtmfKa and ipXaaTrjKa, e. g. 

A.^, to loose, 
3^, to tacrifice, 
^vTvUt, to plant, 
XoptCcff to dance, 
ypJu^y to write, 
kXiam^ to bend down, 
Kp(>w, to judge, 
wtf4w, to breathe, 
^kdm, to bruise, 
film-Wf to throw, 
yiwpi(», to make known, 
fi\Mct6», to be skthfid, 
7\^^, to carve. 

Perf. Xi-Kinut 

" r4-bwca(S2\,2.) 
'* Vff-^ffvra (i 21, 2.) 
" M-x^pcvKa (i 21, 2.) 

" ir4-w€VKa 

'* rl^XoKtt {\ 21, 2.) 

Hffupa (§ 23, 3.) 



Plnp. i'XfX^KW 
" i-yypiip€i9 

" 4'Kf-ltptK^Uf 

" i-yimpUtiy 

3. Besides the verbs just mentioned beginning with p, yi', i3A, 
yX, the reduplication is not used, when the stem begins with a 
double Xsonsonant or with two single consonants, which are not 
a mute and liquid, or with three consonants, e. g. 

CdX^, to emulate, Ferf. i-C^\»Ka 

Plnp. i-(rtKAKMi9 

^€p6€f, to entertain, " l'^4ywca 

«• I^Crrfwor 

^4i\XM,to8ing, " Hifm^xa 

'* ^-^^Ujtciy 

mettpm, to sow, *' f-araptca 

KriCto, to build, " r-nrura 

« #.itr(K€iy 

vr{^am,tofold, " r-«Ti»xa 

*» l-«T^W 

" i-crpwrrrtiK^i^ 

nant is repeated, t is joined with it in order to vocalize it If the rerb berini 
with a Towel, the rowel is doubled and the two coalesce, if the initial rowel is 
short, and thus fonc a long rowel ; but if the initial rowel is long, it absorbs 
the other, e. g. 

fryw, Perf properly JSmx'' = ^X« 

Sometimes when the rerb begins, with c, the double f^ instead of coalescing 
into -i|, is contracted into -cc, c. g. 4dw, Peif. ftouca, instead of ffaira. 

* Words beginning with these letters are excepted on account of the didi 
cnltr of repeating them. 


Digitized by 



Bbmabk 1. The two verbs fiifiyfiffKv (stem MNA), toremindy and icrio- 
ftai, to acquire^ thoagh their stem begins with two consonants, which are not a 
mute and a liquid, still take the reduplication, ^^-/un^/uu, K4-icrfifMif i-iu-fiy^iiPf 
i'Kt-KT^firiv. The regular form limj/Ltat, is Ionic, but it is found also in Aesch. 
From. 792, and in Plato with Ki-icrnfuu] likewise in Th. 2, 62. TpostH-nifUpm 
(as according to the MSS. it must probably be read, though elsewhere, Th. 
always uses k^mtii/mu). Perfects f )rmed by Meti^&esis or Syncope, are seem- 
ing exceptions to the roles of rednplication, e. g. 8cd/<)|ica, v^a^uuy etc. (§§22, 
and 16, 8.) 

4. Five verbs beginning with a liquid do not repeat this 
liquid, but take ct for the augment : — 

\a/AfidtW9 to take^ Perf. ctXif^ Plnp. ciX^ciy 

XtefXjiiWtloiibtainy " eXXiyxa "" Mtk^tof 

\4y»itnfXXiyWftoc]U6Ct, ^* ovKciXoxo, <niveUc7/iai ^ cw^ixix^"^ 
'PEO, to aay^ " ctpqica " eipi^ittfy 

ftfipofuu, to ofltoin, " elfMfiTai (with rough breathing), it is fated. 

Bem. 2. The regular reduplication is sometimes .found in the Attic poets, 
e. g. XcX^fi/M^^a, ^vW€\eyfjL4yoSy also in Xen. hrtKeKeyfiivot occurs, Cy. 3. 3, 41 
(Altorf, it,iret\tyfi4yot)y and iic\t\4x^ait H. 1. 6, 16. — AiaX^70fiai, to convene, 
has Peif. 8i€/Xc7/<af, though the simple \4yv, in the sense of to say, always 
takes the regular reduplication, \4Keyfuu, dictus sum (Peif. Act wanting) 

j 124. Attic Reduplication, 

1. Several verbs, beginning with a, c, or o, repeat, in the Peif. 
and Plup. before the temporal augment, the first two letters of 
the stem This is called the Attic Reduplication The Plup. 
then veiy rarely takes an additional augment; e.g. SuofHapvKTX)^ 
X- An. 7. 8, 14 ; so i7K-i7Kd«v, but sometimes ojajKoeiv. 

2. The verbs, which in the Attic dialect have this reduphca- 
tion, are the following : — 

(a) Those whose second stem-syllable is short by nature :—• 

ii\4», •«, to grindy ^M^> '^> ^ vomit, 

(dX-^AcKa) &\-4Xe0>MU ^fi-^/icira ifi-iifuff/uu 

(&\-)|\/icciy) &\-7i\4<rfuriy 4fi^fi4Kti¥ ifi-fifi4<rftfiy 
&p6»f -«, tophttgh^ 4\dw {iXm6vw)y to drive, 

'OMOfi, 6firvfu, ip gweoTy *OAEA, iXKviu, to destroy y 

ifji'^fuuca ofi-^fjuHTfuu ^VcSXexa Perf. II. (JX-evAa ('OiUl) 

6iiH0fi6K€iy ifi-»fi6ffti.'ny 6\'9f\4K€iff Plup. IL 2x-c$\cxv 

Digitized by 



iKiiyx^y ^^ convince^ ipirru^ to dig, 

(iX-^4^c7xa) iK-^ryfuu 6p-^pvxa ip-^pvyfuu and Apvyfuu 

( A-ilX^yXCiF) iK^K^/iriv hp-wpix*^ 6p-»p^firiv an* otp^firiy, 

Further: ixttra-t^f towind^ (^A.-^Aixa)} ^^-^A-i^^uu (the rough breathing be- 
ing rejected), and in good usage among later writers, cIXi^/mu ; 5C»(*OAfl), 
fotrndLfU-wia; ^ipta (*ENEKn), to can^r, ^k-^^oxo, ^K-^i^ey^icui iffbiio (*EAa), 
Coeaf, ^8-^8oica, &^wiuu\ iyu, to lead, Perf. usnallj 1ix»\ ^T^^xa (instead 
of iy^fryoxth so as to soften the pronunciation) is later, and is rejected by the 
Atticists as not Attic, though in I^ysias ; but Perf. Mid. or Pass, always ^fMiu. 

(b) Those which in the second stem-syllable have a vowel 
long by nature, and shorten this after prefixing the reduplication 
(except ip€&o) : — 

&Xe(ft», to anoint, ixo^m, to hecWt 

'EAETBfl, fyxo/itUf to come, iptiSct, to prop, 

VA^Au3a ip-4ip^iKa ip^pttfffuu 

iK^^fUf ip'UptiK^iv ip^ptlfffiiiu 

itytlpm, to coUed, ^cfpw, to icake, 

ierhr^pxa ky^piMi (iy^pKa) iy^ytpfiat 

ieTTTtipKW i^rmhm^ (irm^pKw) 4y"ny4pfifir, 

So from iytlpct comes the second Perf. iypfryopa (on account of euphony 
instead o(iY4r/opa), luxike, second Plup. Act iypfrY6p9ty, I awoke. 

Rexark 1. The forms included in parentheses are such as are not found 
in good Attic prose. 

Bem. 2. The verb &7W, to lead, forms the second Aor. Act. and Mid^ and 
pip»i to carry, forms all the Aorists with this reduplication ; here, liowever, the 
reduplicated vowel takes the temporal augment, and that only in the Ind., and 
the vowel of the stem remains pure : — 

Ay 9, to lead, Aor. IL Hiy^eyoy, Inf. iyaytiy, Aor. 11. Mid. fiyarY6firiv ; 
^ 4pm, to carry (stem *ErK), Aor. IT. 4iyeyKw, Inf. ii^eyKtlv, Aor. I. lly-eyKo, 
Inf. iyiyKM, Aor. Pass. lir-ix^V^* ^^* ^y-^X^^o*- 

i 125. Augment and Reduplication in Compound 

1 First rule. Verbs compounded with prepositions take the 
augment and reduplication between the preposition and the 
verb ; the final vowel of prepositions, except irtpC and vpo, is 
elided [♦ 13, 2, (a)] ; irpo frequently combines with the augment 
by means of Crasis (♦ 10), and becomes vpov', Ik before the 
syllabic augment is changed to if (H«^, 3 ) ; and iy and <rvp 

Digitized by 


152 VERBS. REMAEKS. [f IStt 

resume their v which had been assimilated (♦ 18, 2), or changed 
(i 19, 3), or dropped (20, 2), e. g. 

iaro-fid^XM, to throw from^ Im. kw-4fia/iXof^ Pf. iaro-04$\nKa Pip. &ir-c/3c/3\^fcear 

w€pi-fidWu, to throw aroundy wtpi-4fiaXXov w(pi'fi4$\riKa Ttpt-^fitfiX^K^m 

( vpo-^fiaXXoy wpo-fi4fi\fiKa vp<h€fi0Kfym0- 

wpo-fidxx^,tothrow before, \^^cfiaJJioy wp^fi^fiXriKa wpoifi^fiKiiKu, 

iK-fidWu, to throw out, i^'4fia}i\ou iK'fi4fi\iiKa i^-tfitfiKfiittuf 

rvX-X^Ya#, to collect together, <rvt^4Ktyoy (rur-c(\oxa avy-ttXSx^"^ 

ov^^brrwf to throw together, avy-^^^nrroy ovy-4^fi^ avif-tp^(<^v 

iy^iyyofuu, to be in, ht^iyv6/iii¥ iy^4yowa iw€y9y6v9W 

4f»rfid\Xw, to throw in, 4ih4^aXXo¥ 4fi-fi4fifiiiKa 4ytfi€fiX:fycfi^ 

av^KtvdCu, to pack up, irvy-ttrM^Coy 9vy^a'Kt4aKa ffw-tirKtvdKtitf. 

2. Second rule. Verbs compounded with fius, take the aug 
ment and reduplication, (a) at the beginning, when the stem 
of the simple verb begins with a consonant or with 17 or lo ; (b) 
but in the middle, when the stem of the simple verb begins 
with a vowel, except 17 or w, e. g. 

ivs-rvx^t^t to be unfortunate, i-ivs-r^xovp it-Jivs^ixiiKa ^c-Svi-rvx^cir 
9vs-^ew4»f to make ashamed, d-ivs-^ow 8c-9vs-^in|Ka i-ie-iyftnHiKtv 
Svs-ofMtfT^, to be dispkated, 8vt-i|f>4oTouy Svyiip/oTiiica Sv^-qpctfri^icfiy. 

Rbxabk 1. YeibB oomponnded with tl may take the augment and redupli- 
cation at the beginning or in the middle, jet they commonly omit them at the 
beginning, and €htpyer4w usually in the middle, e. g. 

cWwx^w, to be fortunate, Impf. ifb-rix^ovy but commonly c^-r^xc^r 

^*-9tx^<*^"'^i to feast well, " c&-«X'4^^>' 

ci-cp7CT^(tf, to do good, " f{hripy4rfoy, but commonly c^-cpy^coy, Peril 

€{Hripy4rnKa, but commonly cfr-cpy^ica. 

3. Tliird Rule. All other compounds take the augment and 
reduplication at the beginning, e. g. 

fjiv^o\oy4w, to rdatVt i/iv^xAytop u^-ftu^K^Ka 

olKoiofi4vf to build, ^KoZ6/itov ^ieoS6fiiiKa, 

Thus vaf^tiatdioficu (from xapptiffiay and this from irop aad fin^u)^ to speak 
openly, Aor. i-vaj^^auurdfAJiVf Perf. ire^af^iafffieu. 

It EM. 2. 'OSoroi/w has the Perf. &BoTrroniir^att X. An. 5. 8, 1. Lycuig. c - 
Leocr. § 139, has /wiroTrrp^ieey. 

} 126. Remarks, 

1. The six following words compounded with prepositions take the augment 
hi both places, viz. at the beginning of the pimple verb and before the prepost- 
tloQ : ^ 

Digitized by 


i 126.] VEBBS. AEHARKS. 153 

itfjar^xof/Mt to dothe on£s adf, Impf. 1iftxttx^fi'n''i^ or i/iircix- Aor. iifortcx^ffli^ 
h^xofuut to endutt (not &i^»), ** ^ix^ixify " ^yc<rx^/ii)y 

Itfi/^eyvofw, to be toiosTtoifi, ** iiii/^^tyviovp and 1ifi^iyy6ow 

i9opi6«tj to raise up, " Ijyipdovy Ferf. ^v^p^xa " ^ycifxl^tf-a 

livxA^, to fRO^ " ^i^XA<>vy " ^vfl&x^^*<* " Wx^n*'* 

va^iy4», to riotf " iwapifyovy " irtrap^ynica " hrapiifyiia'a, 

2. The analosj of these yerhs is followed hy three others, which are not 
compounded wim prepositions, but are derived from other compound words, 

Zuardu (from dUuTa,food)y (a) to feed, (h) to be a judge, Impf Hi^y and 
Sofrctfr, Aor. iZvArriffa and Zajrjiffa \ r&d. Z^vjrriKa \ Impf. Mid. Zi^fT^fiTip 

iuuan^tt, to serve {from Ztdteoyost servant), Impf. &niK6yovp and Stific^yovi^, 
Ferf. MniK6yfiKa 

iifi^fiirr4» (from AM«I2BHTH2), to dispute, Impf iiyu^ir^ow and ^^i^- 

5. Exceptions to the first rale. Several verbs compounded with prepositions, 
take the augmeflt before the preposition, since thejr have nearly the same 
signification as the simple verbs, e. g. 

hit/pvypo4w (wo4w), to be uncertain, Impf. ii/i^tyr6ovp, or iifi^tyy6ovp (No. 1) 

iftilpUtnnfiu, to dothe, Aor. ^fi^taoj Ferf lifjupltafuu 

ivUrra/uuj to know, Impf. ^urrdfiriy 

iiptiifUj to dismiss, *' i^iovy and ii<piovy, or ii<pUiy [^ucm 

iuAl{e», to set, " 4Kddt(ow (old Att. also Ka»t(oy), Ff kckiC- 

Ka&4{ofuu, to sit, " ^Ka^cCiJ/iili'and Ka&t(. (without Aug.) 

gibfifuu, to sit, " ixa^finy and Ko^fATiv 

Ko^i^Bw, to sleep, " ^icdt^cvSoi', seldom KoArfi^v, 

4. Those verbs are apparently an exception to the Arst rule, which are not 
formed by the composition of a simple verb with a preposition, but by deriva- 
tion from a word already compounded, e. g. 

^MiKrioS/uu, to oppose one^s self to (from ivayrios) Impf ^wb^w^/aijv 

iarrauclet, to defend at law I " iiyrthKos) " iiyraiKouy and ^Krf8(iwur 

imfioXlw, to hit upon { " iumfiok'ff) " iimfi^Kovy 

iforopdm, to gain by traffic ( " i/ivopfi) " ^fKwifwy 

4farf96tff, to estabitsh { ' *' |/uirff8os) " iiforiiovy, 

6. Many verbs, however, which apparently are formed only by derivation, are 
treated, even by the best classical writers, as if they were compounded of a 
simple verb and a preposition. Thus, rroftayofjJw, wafniy6fu>vy and xap9y6iumyf 
xap7iy6fjai<ra, Ferf waDaytySfiriKa, although it is not from irapd and hvoiUta or 
yoii^, which two verbs are not in use, but from the compound -Kopdyoftos } so 
further, dyxflp^ (from *ErXEIP02), to take in Hand, Impf. iytx^ipovy-, iTi^v 
fi4e» (from 'Eni©TM02), to desire, Impf hre^fiavy\ ivdvfi4ofiat, Aor. iytdvfi'h 
dijK, Ferf iyrt^firi/ieu', Karriyopiu (from Korhyopos), to accuse, Impf. Korrry^ 
pwy, Ferf KamrySpriKa', trpobvyLoviiai (from -rpit&vfwj), to desire eamecuy, 
impf wpob^fu>6fjLriy and rrpo^fwifirjy, so ^-yicw/iMiffiy, wpo4fnirf^€iy, iytSpt^uf^ 
iKKktivtd^fiy, inrowTt^tiv, itrvrifi^Uiv, ifuf>ayi(fiy, ervytpj^Ty, etc. 

» So PI. Fhaed. 87, 6, ncoorclin«r to most and the best MSS. 
* Eur. Med. 1128, and Aristopli. Tbesm. 165. 

Digitized by 


154 ve:ibs in -cd. — deeivation of tenses, [ti 127, 128 

Formation of the Tbnses op Vbbbs ih -c». 

♦ 127. Division of Verbs in -w according to the 

Verbs in -© are divided into two principal classes, accord- 
ing to the difference of the characteristic (§ 108, 5) : — 

L Pure verbs, whose characteristic is a vowel ; these are 
again divided into two classes : — 

A. Uncontracted verbs, whose characteristic is a vowel, 
except a, €, o, e. g. TratSev-o), to educate; Xi;-g>, to loose f 

B. Contract verbs, whose characteristic is a, €, or o, e. g. 
rifid-G}, to honor ; <f>t\i'a)j to hve ; fiur^o-o), to let ovi 
for hire, 

II. Impure verbs, whose characteristic is a consonant; 
these are again divided into two classes : — 

A.. Mute verbs, whose characteristic is one of the nine 

mutes, e. g. 'keiir-to, to leave ; ttTUk-o), to twine ; ireC^'O}, 

to persuade ; 
B. Liquid verbs^ whose characteristic is one of the four 

liquids, X, /Lt, v, p, e. g. arf/iXK-a), to announce ; vifi-to, 

to divide ; ipalv-ay, to show ; ^^elp-to, to destroy. 

Behask. According to the accentaation of the first Fers. Fres. Ind. Act., 
all yerbs are* divided into : — 

(a) Barytones, whose final syllable in the first Fers. Fres. Ind. Act. is not 
accented, e. g. A^, irX^ic-«, etc, 

(t) Ferispomena, whose final syllable is circumflexed in the first Fers. ; thestt 
ue consequently contract verbs, e. g. ri/u», ^iX£, /uivjMfc 

h 128. Derivation of Tenses, 

All tenses are formed from the stem of the verb, the inflection-endings men* 
tioncd above (§113), being appended to this. The Frimary tenses only have 
a distinct tcnsc-characteri^tic (§ 110); this is always wanting: in the Fres. 
and Impf., the modc-vowcls and personal-endings being snfiicient; hot the 
Fres. and Impf. very frequently strengthen or increase the pure stem, e. g. 
rdTcr-w (pure stem TTn), ofJuxfyriiaKu (pure stem 'AM APT) j the Secondary tensea 
never admit such an increase, but are formed from the pure stem, and withoat 
the tense-characteristic ; yet, in certain cases (§140), they admit a change of 

Digitized by 



the stem-vowel. Hence, certain tenses, which are formed from a common steoii 
may be distinguished from each other and dassed by themselyes. Tenses, 
included in such a class, may be said to be derived from one another. The 
principal classes are the three following: — 

L Tenses, which may strengthen the pure stem. These aro the Pies, and 
Impf. Act., Mid., or Pass., e. g. 

(pure stem TTII) r^-rte r^-r-ofuu 

9-Tvw-T-oy i-rwr'6fi'r}y, 

II. Tenses, which have a tense-charaeteristic. These are the Primary 
tenses, e. g.- 

(a) T'vcsl Perf. and first Plup. Act., e. g. (W-^po^ita) v^-fpcuca, ^irt-^pd- 

(b) Perf. and Plup. Mid. or Pass. These do not have the tense-charac- 
teristic; from the Perf. Mid. or Pass, the Put. Perf. is fnrmed by 
rejecting -fjuu and annexing 'troyuai^ e. g. rd^rvfi-fuu (instead of r^rvr- 
fuu), irf^ifififiVf rhv^oixoi (instead of rtriwofuu). The Perf. has 
a short vowel, but the Put. Act and Mid. a long vowel, e. g. A^, 
xJKfheoj \4\vfuu9 Xtffu, kiffofuu, 8^«, 8^8i7ira, 94iffuu, 8^«, ^fiaoftai ; 
so the Put. Perf. has a long vowel, e. g. XcX^o/uu, 8c8^(ro/uu j 

(c) First Put. and Aor. Act. and Mid., e. g. ri^ r^ofuu 

(d) First Aor. and first Fut Pass., e. g. i-ri^-^w rv^-^ofjuu, 
in. Tenses, which aro formed from the puro stem without a tense-character- 
istic, may yet, in certain cases, admit a change of the stem-vowel. These 
are the Secondary tenses, e. g. 

• (a) The second Perf. and second Plup. Act. e. g. r^-riJir-a, ^-Te-r^«ijf j 

(b) The second Aor. Act. and Mid., e. g. l-X&d-oy, i-KS^^TtP from Xa^* 
3^[r» (puro stem AA6) ; 

(c) Th9 second Aor. and second Put Pass., e. g. i-r^w^tff rvr-^aofiou 

4 129. I. Formation op the Tenses op Pubs Vbbbs. 

1. In pure verbs, both Bary toned and Perispomena, the 
tense-endings are commonly appended to the unchanged chai- 
acteristic of the verb, e. g. povXev-trto, /Jc^ovXcu-Ka. Pure verbs 
commonly form no Secondary tenses, but only the Primary 
tenses ; the Perf. with k (ko), the Fut. and Aor. with a and 3 
(<rci), o-o, ^Tjv, Si^a-o-fiat), Pure verbs, however, are subject to the 
following regular change in the stem : — 

2. The short characteristic vowel of the Pres. and Impf, is 
lengthened in the other tenses, viz. 

I into 7, e. g. foivtwt to be angry ^ fiTipi-tru^ ^-/x^Wtf-o, etc. 

•. * w. " icm\6^ (w commonly long), to hinder^ KvXiHrw, K^-KAxUfuu^ etc. 

Digitized by 



< into fi, e. g. ^iX^-» (^iAw), to love, ^<\^o'», 1rc-^'(\1^Jra, etc. 

o '* », " fJMr^6^ {fuff^)j to let out for hire, fuc^^^tOf fu-fdffbtMtOf etc 

a " i|, " Tifi&'fit (rifiw), to Aonor, rt/iii'ao», rt-rlfiffKo, etc. 

Remark 1. & is lengthened into d, when c, i, or p precedes it [comp. 4 411 
I. (a)], e. g. 

ii'U, to permit, M-o'», cfo^a, cKcuca, efo/mt, tidditif ; €<mJt-», to entertom, Itfrii 
0-(» ; (pup&-Wf to steal, <^pi-<r» ] bat iyyud-w, to give as a pledge, iyyu^cct ; 0oim^ 
to call out, fiofi<rofuu, ifi6fi<ra (like iyJiSri), 
The two following imitate those in -ci«, -tdu, -/mU», viz. 
&A,oi-», to strtike, to <Ares^ old Att Fat. ii\oiHm *, but usoallj ^Uo^^m; 
iiKpoi-ofiait to hear, Fat. iuepoiffoftat, Aoc ^mpodoi^ir (like* ^pda). 

Rem. 2. The yerbs xp^"f '^ 5^^ ^^ oracle; xp^^f-^h'^*'^! ^^^ rirpiw 
to &or6, though /> precedes, lengthen a into i;, c. g. xp^ofjuu, rpfyrv. 

* 130. Formation of the Tefises of Pure Verbs with 
a short Characteristic-vowel. 

The following pure verbs, contrary to the rule (} 129, 2) re- 
tain the short characteristic-vowel, either in forming all ihe 
tenses, or in particular tenses. Most of these verbs assume a 
o- in the Perf Mid. or Pass, and first Aor. Pass., and in the 
tenses derived from these, and also in the verbal adjectives ; 
such verbs are designated by : Pass, with a-. 

(a) 4u, 

Xpin, to sting. Fat. xp^cw, Aor. %xpi<ra^ Inf. xp^aai. Pass, with ir; (bat XP^*> 
to anoint. Fat. xp^ffut Aor. txP^^ I^* XP*""""** ^o^^* ^d* ^XP*^^'7''» Perf 
Mid. or Pass. Kixpi-o-tuu, KcxpurJ^cU) Aor. Pass, ixp^-v^^i rerbal adj. 

Remark 1. Irafot, to peroeive, of the Ionic dialect, belongs here {\ 230). 
The poetie &t(w is foand only in the Pres. and Impf. C'cuok, § 122, 1). 

(b) -tw. 

1. *Avtu (also old Att. iaSru) to complete, Fat. hybaw] Aor. Ifyfjceu Pass. 
with <r. 

i.ptw (also old Att. iLptrm), to draw toater. Fat. ttpttru] Aor. IfpCtreu Pass. 

with <r. 
f(l^e»(0), to cfose, e. g. Me eyes, Fat. fivaot, Aor. ^ftSo-aj but Perf. it/fiuica, to £s 

c/os<?</, to be silent. 
Krtw{ii), to spit, Fat. Trrtow, Aor. ^irrvcro. Pass, with <r (^irT^-<r-3t7v), verbal 

adj. irrv-(r-r6s. 

2. The following dissyllables in -tw lengthen the short characteristic-vowel 
in the Fat and Aor. Act. and Mid. and in Fat. Perf. Mid., and 8^ also in th« 
Perf. and Flap. Act. ; but they resume the short vcwel in the Perf. and Plsp. 

Digitized by 



Act (except 8^), Mid. or Pass^ in the Aor. and Fat Pass.,, and in verbal 
adjectiTes: — 

S^», to wrap up^ Fat 8d<r« Aor. l^wra Perf. MOxa MCfMi Aor Pass, iitdiiw 

Rkm. 2. The doabtfal vowel v is commonly osed as long in the Pres. and 
Impf. by the Attic poets: bat in prose it mast be considered as short; hence to 
be accented /«ve, vi^c, xZc, etc., and not fwc, vrSc, Kvt, etc. 

(c) -d«. 
rcA.^», to laugh. Fat ytXiirofuu (seldom 7cA&r«); Aor. iyixium, Faas. 

with a. 
^X(£» (asaally ^Ao^yw), to drive, FuL ^xd<r» (Att ^X»), etc. See § 158, 3. 
^X<(«, to 6ruue, ;^X^«, etc Pass, with <r (T^Xa-<r-fuu, £&Xc(-<r-di}K). 
«X<(«, to bredb, icX^», etc. Pass, with v (KiKKoHr-itax, ixXd-a-dnf^). 
X aX<(«, to /bosen, xo^^w* etc Pass, with o- (^x^^'^''^'')- 
9a/ii(» (asaallj 9a/id(»), domo, Aor. ^Sc^a^o. Pass, with <r. 
W9pdwf to transport, to sell, Fat vcp^w; Aor. Mpiffa\ Perf. vcv^pSxa (bnt 

vc/mCm, to ;xu8 oi«r, Intrans., Fut rtpirw ; Aor. Mpdott). These seven 

verbs have a liqaid before the characteristic-vowel a. 
vwdv, to draw, criiffw, etc. Pass, with o (iinrd-v-^ni^). 
trxdw, to loose, to open, irxdirv, eto. 

(d) ^. 

1. Al94ofiat, to reverence. See § 166, 1. 
iiK4o/iat, to heal, hxiaoitaij iiKwdfoif, Perf. Mid. or Pass. f|icc-0'-/uu ; Aor. Pasa. 

. Ax ^«, to grind, to beat, Ax^fr-w, Att., yet seldom &Xfi ; Aor. 4{X««-a ; Perf Mid. Of 

Pass. iLKhXtfffuu (^ 117, 2, and 124, 2). 
iipic4u,to suffice, etc Pass, with v. 
ill 4m, to vomit. Fat. ^tf^», etc. ; Perf Act ifji4ifuKa ; Perf Mid. or Pass. 4ii4iiuv 

fuu (♦ 124, 2). 
C4w, to boU (asoally intrans., and (4ytnffu, nsaally trans.). Pass, with v, 
1 4m, to scrape. Pass with «■. — vf X 4m, to accomplish. Pass, with o- (4 ll7, 2). 
rp4m, to tremble, -wm, etc.; verbal adj. Tpt-^^6s, — X^^> ^ P^^^' S<^® ^ 1^) 

Rem. 1. 
S. The following hove in some tenses -the long, in others the short vowel:— 
alv4m(m Attic prose ivaiv4m), to praise. Fat tdv4irm ; Aor. ^yc<ra; Perf jfytKa) 

Aor. Pass, {^i^^k; Fat. Pass, euvtb^o/uw, verb. adj. alvtrSs, -r4os', bat 

Perf Mid. or Pass, fntfim. 
a lp4m, to choose, Aor. Pass. •ip4^¥ ; also jjip^idriv ; alp4icrm, fpnKa, fprifJuu, 
yafi4m,to iiuzrry,'Fut 70, i»; Aor. ^/ca*, Perf 7e74f(nK>} Aor. Pass. iyaft4idnw 

(I was taken to wife). 
94 m, to bind, 9iiam, Vhica, i9r}<rdfiffy ; bnt idh^KO, S^c/mu, 494^iiy', Fat Pei£ 

SfS^o-ofuu is commonly ased for 8«d^0'o/ia< (the latter is used by Dem. and 

later writers) 


Digitized by 



caX^fl», to colly Fut. Ka\4ff»j Att. KaX& (§ 117, 2) ; Aor. indXttrai P^if. AcL 

ic/icAtrwa; Perf. Mid. or Pass. KiicKiifuUi lam called; Fut. Perf. iccicA.^o'ofMi, 

I shall be called; Aor. Pass. inXi^p] Fat Pass. jcAn^^o/uu ; Fut. Mid. 

KoXovfMt ] Aor. Mid. iKoKeaifiriv. 
wobim, todesircy vo^/iro/uu, L^rs. 8, 18, PI. Phoed. 97, a. ; iv6bwa^ Isoc. 4, 122. 19, 

17; elsewhere, -^rod^a-Uf iv6dri<rai Peif. Act vnrS^ica] ircv^&a^/uax *, Aor. 

Pass, iro^icrdiiv- 
woy4w, laboro, Fat iroirffffWy etc. {to work) ; Tov4tn» {to be in pain)] Perf. v<n^ 

vriKa in both senses j Mid. and Pass, always hare ti, e. g. irovrjtrd^JiP and 

irotrfidiiy, Perf. ircir(Jn7/Mu, 

Kp6w,to plough, Fat &p^», Aor ffpofra; Perf. Mid. or Pass, itpiipofuu (4 l^i, 
2) ; Aor. Pass. iipSdrir. 

♦ 131. Formation of the Aor, and Fut. Pass., and 
the Perf,, Pluperf Mid, or Pass, with <r. 

1. Pure verbs, which retain the short characteristic-vowel in 
forming the tenses, in the Aor. and Fut Pass, and in the Perf. 
and Plup. Mid. or Pass, (also in the verb, adj.), unite the tense- 
endings Sffv, flat, etc. to the tense-forms by inserting a- (i 130), 

•^ «• 

rfXc-<r-d^o/tiat i-r^TtKi-ff'/iriy. 

2. Besides these verbs, several others also, which either have 
a long characteristic-vowel in the stem, or lengthen the short 
chaiacteristic-vowel of the stem in forming the tenses, have the 
same formation, viz. 

&Ko^», to hear, Aor. Pass. iiKo^-driv, Fat Pass. &icov-<r-dVoMat, Perf Mid. 
or Pass. ^Kov-ff-fuun Plup. ^Ko^-fiiiy] ivaito^to IdntUe; jccXc^m, to command; 
the Deponent SioirafMuccAc^oftai, to arouse; xyalw, icy^, to scratch (KiKvat'C-iJMt^ 
tciKyii^'ftai, ixyai-a-^yf iKv^-^v) ; itvXfw, to roU; Xc^«, to stone (Ac^-di|r, 
Perf seems to be wanting) ; {^«, to scrape; valv, to strike; wa\al«, to torestk 
{imXtd-ir-drir) \ irXcov, to sail; vpiwf to saw; wraluf to strike against, to stumr 
ble; Palm (poetic), to destroy ; ctlw, to shake; 0», to rain, Aor. Pass. (f-r-di|r, 
I was rained upon, Perf. Pass. S-c-nai {iifw-a-fitvosj X. Yen. 9, 5), Fut Cvofuu 
(instead of i^-o'-d^-o'-oftai) ; ^p4w, to send (only in compoands, e. g. c»9-^.» 
^K^., to lead in), Fut. 4>p^<rw, etc., Aiid. ^p/fyrofuu, Aor. Pass. i<ppfi'<r-^y ', x^^» ^ 
heap up {K4xm-<r-itcuj ix^'^'^) > XP^^f^ 9^^ ^'^ orade {KexFT^-Mo** ^xfh^* 
hipff ^ 129, Rem. 2) ; xp^»* ^o anoint [§ 130, (a)] ; ^a^w, to touch {ii^coMf-ftM^ 

Digitized by 



3. The following vary between the regular formation and 
tliat with <r : — 

y e ^ «, to cause to taste, Mid. to taste, to enjoy , Perf. Mid. or Pass. yff€Vfuu (Earip.); 

bat Aor. Pass, probably iyti-c-driy, Comp. ytvfia, but ywff-riov, 
ZpdcottiiTdo, Fat. Spio-v, etc. ; Perf. S^Spcuca; Perf. Mid. or Pass. UZpa^uu and 

Z49fm-ff-fuu (Th.) ; Aor. Pass. iBpdffdiiy (Th.). Verbal adjectire 9pa-<r^6st 


^pa6», to break in pieces, Perf. Mid. or Pass. T4^paW'fUtt (Plat ri^pav/uu) ; 
Aor. Pass. 4dp«6^-^y. Verbal adjectiye ^paiMr-r6s. 

K\alw, Att. kXAuj to \oeep, Perf. Mid. or Pass. «e^icAav/uu and KitcXxuMr-fuu. 

jr Ac f C0, to skitt, Perf. Mid. or Pass. k/irXccfuu commonly, K^Kktt-tr-fuu Aristoph.;. 
K4K\r}yucu Tragedians, Tha., sometimes PI., rarely Xen. ; Aor. Pass, ikkii- 
tr-^p^ Attic iKKif-^-^ (Th.) ; Pnt. Pass. jeX«-<r-d^<ro/*«. Verbal adjcctlTO 
K\€t-<rT6s, K\y-crW6s* 

iroAo^tf, to maim, Perf. Mid. or Pass. KtK6\ovfiM and K€K6\ov-<r'fuu ; Aor. 
Pass, ixokoi-a'dw ^^^^ iKoKov^y, 

Kpo^Ufto strike upon, Perf. Mid. or Pass. K^Kpoufuu and (seldom) KiKpov-v-iwi 
(X. H. 7. 4, 26) ; Aor. Pass, ixpol-^-^y. 

p4wjto heap up, Fnt. rfiaw, etc ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. y4tnifuu (yiyrt^-iuu doubt- 
ful) ; but Aor. Pass, irfi-a-briy CArrian). Verbal adjective yrrrSs. 

viw (collateral form rfii^Y to spin, Perf^ Mid. or Pass. y4vn-<r-iua\ but Aor. 
Pass, iy^i^y. Verbal adjective vrrrSs, 

ifdut to rub, Perf. Mid. or Pass, ^1|flal and iiptf^-fuu; Aor. Pass, ^t^^f and 
h^'tr-^y (instead of which the Attic writers use f^ir/ty/uu, iy^f^tX^vy from 

4. The following verbs assume o- in the Aor. Pass., but not 
in the Perf. : — 

piiurfiffit» (BSNA-A), to remind, Pf. /jJftvrifuu, I remember, A- P. iiurlf-cr-^y 
wr4w^ to bhw, Tirpviuu (poet.) hryivc-^y 

Xpdoiuai{xp»l^^)j Tito^ KixptiMi ixp^-^y 

Ttdm^ to cause to cease, to finish, vhrovjim iwa6-ir-^y 

and ^ira^K, vaMicroiM. Ion. and Th. Verbal adjective voof-v^ios. 

5. The foUowing verbs, though they retain the short charac- 
leristic-vowel in the Perf. and Aor. Pass., do not assume cr: — 

8^, dim, \{w [4 130 (b), 2], ixJM [S 130 (c)], cu'Wtf, €dp4w, 8^» [§ 130 (d), 2], 
itp6w [\ 130 (o)], x^« [§ 154, Bern. 1], vt^u, to excite (i 230) 

Digitized by 





A. Uncontracted Pare Verbs. 
i 132. (a) without a- in the Mid, and Pass, 

mX«.», to hinder. ACTIVE. | 






KmKb^w Aor. 

dK^iXA^ 1 








KmKt^ofuu 1 Aor. 

^ 1 


Aor. U-jwX*.di»r 


KWkvb^OfUU, 1 

♦ 133. (b] 

1 with a- tn the Mid. and 

Pa**. (§ 131). 

Perf. S.l. 

Mid. 2. 

or 3. 

Pass. 1. 

Ind. D.2. 


P. 1. 








Kf-KiKtv-ff-fi^yoi fl<rl{y) 








KC-JCf XcV-0'-/i^Ol 2 

K or jec-frfXc^<r^y] 

Pass. I' 
Ind. ^• 

4'Kt-K€\tv-<r'fA7iv D. i'K€-Kt\€^c-fi€^y P. ^irc-KcXc^-/ucda 


M'K€\€\Mr'liiyos c^iyr 

Aorist Pass. i'K€\t^ff-^p Future Pass. xtXevir'^aofuu, \ 

B. Contract Pare Verbs. 

k 134. Preliminary Remarks. 

1. The rharacteristic of contract pare verbs is either a, e, or o (§ 127) ; these 
arc contracted with the mode-vowel following. The contraction, which is made 
according to the rales stated above (§ 9, 1.), belongs only to the Pres. and 
Impf Act. and Mid., because in these two tenses only is the characteristic- 
vowel followed by another vowel. The Paragogic y in the third Pers. Sing. 
Impf Act. disappears in the contraction. On tlie tense-formation, see \\ 

Digitized by 



S. The contract fonns of verbs in -du in the Indicative and Subjunctive are 
the same ; contracts in -^m have the same form for the second and third Pers. 
Sing, in the Indie. Opt and Subj. viz. -ots, -aZ, 

3. The contracted Infinitive of verbs in -^, which, in our editions of the 
classics, is more commonly written with an Iota Sabscript, is without that letter 
in the ancient inscriptions, being contracted finom •€wy, e. g. ri/iay, not rifM^y, 

4. If only one syllable follows the parenthesis in the paradigm, the termina- 
tion of theTuncontracted form is the last syllable in the parenthesis, and the 
syllable after the parenthesis is the termination of the contracted form, e. g. 
rifi{dr^)A = rifidttf ftf^t T^i{d'9tp)ap 8= ri/tdtw, rtf»t»] but if more than one 
syllable follows the parenthesis, the syllable, or syllables, after the last hyphen 
is the common ending of the contract and uncontrocted forms, the uncontracted 
word embracing all the letters of the form except the vowel after the ynnac 
dMsis ; the contmct, all withoat the perenthesiii 


Digitized by 




[i 13d 

♦ 135. Paradigms of 



i5 £ 


Cliaracteristic a. 

Characteristic f. 

Characteristic o. 

S. 1. 













Ti|»(it-«)«, to Aonor, 


^iX(^)d, to fowf, 



%ta»{6-w)&. to let. 










Ti/i((i-i,)«-roy . 










P. 2. 


Tifi(^-c )a-roy 


Ti/A(a-^)(iTOMray, or 





or fiurd{o-4)o^yrtnf 











Imp tr feci. 


S. 1. 







Mji*(<£-«)a-Toy j^^«X(A€)cr-Toif 
^Ti/i(a-^)<{-TT7J' ^^MXJf-^jer-TTiK 
<TifiU-o)«-fic*' '4(^iK{4-o)ov-yLty 
4rifi{ d-€ )a-T€ ' 4<pi\{ 4-f )f 4-tc 




Digitized by 


♦ 135.] 



Oontract Verbs, 




Present. I 


Characteristic, a. 

Chflructcrisstic t. 

diaracU^ristic a. 










TitA { a*6 }^'fl€l^9V 



Tl^ftlrf jS-ff,^0|^ 



^<rd( fi^c )oihff^ov 

T ifi{ar6ll^jfAti^fi 

ipiA f'ci)0^'^tda 

^ffQitt-6 fo^^tSAa 




iwT^{d'o] tv-rTat 

Ti^(i-o3)£-;4ai ^ 


fi4ffSi{ ^m }m-fiai 







ftK 4-n)v-Tta 





q>iA t-^l^^e^ai' 




fi w^ ( iiHi7 ] m-a^nv 

Tifi{ d-Tf ja-ff^oi^ 







T*^i(£'T?)a tr^* 



^iff^M-ig (&Mr3f 



fu^Si ( ^-u )(v-ifTai 

rifA{d-ov\at ' 









Tifi^ a-Zjd-a'.Sfw*' 


fite^l &■ i ) &^-iT2t6tv 




TiftiBi-<}i£'tf^aMTaj', or 

ptkit-iUt'C^tifway, or 

fi.iiF^{th4]oit-w^»tray^ or 









^^^ ( W )fl i^jucfar 



^urd ( a-a ) oi^-^i fBTj 


^lA i f - J Jolfi'-^ei'iii/'' 


Tif£\ a-Q jiif-fiirc^ 

^tA f « -4» ) oi^jU litfov 

^urd ( o-o ) (ru-^^j#i^ 


^iA( **o Joi^jtt/njf 

juurd ( o-o J ou-jMC I'lj f - 

Imp€r_fect. 1 



l^lTi^ { D'tf ) od^^Tf »' 




irtfii i-r }a-ra 




I'^tA { *-(S )o{»-^e^0K 



ifiictl^ld-'* joT^'iff^otf 



/^Off"^ ( «-* ) oi^'fT^TJV 






#^icrd{^f jot^-irdf 

4f^i/j.l! i fao^vTo 



Digitized by 




H 135 




Cbatncifiifltie a. 

Qmnderiiitk v. 

CliftTiicterb^e g^ 







P. 1. 


a L 



P. I. 













F. pr 



} ifO^iibUM 

ifiHT^^^ffW 1 

Vvr] m\ ad j 1 1 1 i v c ^i fit^n' 

rioi^ -ria^ -Teoi', ipofpa-HiiS^ -r&, ^MTi 

f 136. TTirA short Vowel 



Characteristic «i. Characteristic c. Characteristic o. 







(nr( (£-»)», to draWf 


rcX(/-»)w, to com- 
iriK{ §^t^)avplpletej 

iip{^)&f tophugk, 







I i<TrA'<r-biiv 

I irtKi'ff-^ytv \ ^p6^p 


Verbal adjectives : ova-o'-T^os, -r^o, -Wwu 

Digitized by 


♦ 136.] 





Imperfect. 1 

Characteristic a. 

Characteristic e. 

Characteristic o. 



Ttii{aroi if^^diir 



















1 Future, I rifiT^cofuu <t>updH<rofJuu | ^i\rt^aofuu \ fua^wd^ofuu 

^i)-T^}, -T^a, -reW, fUff^»-r4os, -^ia^ ■^4ov. 

in forming the Tenses. 


- Characteristic a. 

Characteristic c. 

Characteristic o. 



T€>^ 4'0)o^lUU 









SIVE. 1 

1 Future, | ffva-a-H<royLOii \ Tt\€'ff'»4iffofiat | iipod^onu 1 

TcX€-<r-T^os, '4a, '4oy, iifXhr4os, '4a, -4oy, \ 

Digitized by 



Remark. On the formation of the Ferf and Aor. Pass, with o-, see §§ 1901 
131 ; on the omission of the <r in iifyfipoficUf hp^^j see ^ 131, 5 ; and on the Atti% 
. KednpUcation in i^pofuUf see ^ 124, 2. The further inflection of fcrwa-c-fioit 
iffT^-if'firiy, reriKt-o'-fuu, ^rcrcX^-<r-/Ai}K, is like that of KtK4x.€v-<r-fuu, ^ 133. Oo 
the Attic Fut., rcX/irw = rcA£, -tts, etc., rt\i<rofuu == TeXoD/iai, rcXp [«?], 
etc., see § 117. » 

♦ 137. Remarks on the Conjugation of Contract 

1. The Attic dialect omits contraction only in the cases mentioned under 
4 9. Rem. 3 ; but verbs in -4m with a monosyllabic stem, e. g. vX^, to aaU^ a Wi is 
to bioWf ^4»f to run, etc. are uniformly uncontracted, except in the syllable -« 
(from -ff« or -ec), e. g. 

Act. Fr. Ind. tX/», irXciv, irXc7, irX^o/icy, vXcTrf, w\4ovtrt{y)t 

Subj. vX^tf, irX^ps, w\4pf vX^w/acf, vX^iyrc, r\4cta't{r). 

Imp. vXfi. Inf. «-Xciy. Fart. irX^fltfy. 
Impf Ind. iTvXcoy, ^Xcts, lirXei, ^vX/o/ucr, ^Xtrrc, fvXcor. 

Opt. w\4oifiifV\4otSt etc. 
Mid. Fr. Ind. w\4ofiatf irX/p, irXcircu, irXc((fici^oy, irXcMrdoy, etc 

Inf vXcurdoi. Fart. vXc^jucvos. Jmpf. ivX^ifiriy. 

2. The verb B4u,to bind^ is commonly contracted' in all the forms, particu- 
larly in compounds, e. g. rh Sovv, rod JiovyroSf BiaBovftai, K€er4Bovy. But •Sci^ U 
is neoeasaryy and 94ofiaif to need, follow the analogy of yerbs in -eiw, with a 
monosyllabic stem, e. g. t^ 8^oy, 94ofMu, Sctb-^ou ;• uncontracted forms of 94ofuu 
occur, instead of those contracted into -c i, c. g. 94€rtu, Utcdcu, iUero, Xen., 
and sometimes also forms of other rcrbs belonging here are uncontracted, e. g. 
firXcfv, X. H. 6. 2, 27 j irx/ci, Th. 4, 28 ] <rw4xt€v^ Fl. Rp. 379, e. 

3. Several verbs deviate in contraction from the general mles, e. g. 

(a) -ac, -a€i, -op, are contracted into i) and -]7» instead of into -a and -f, e. g. 
f (c£-«^ «, to live, 0f, -0, -inroy, -fire, Inf fiy. Imp. fi|, Impf ffw, -^i, 
-i|, -^oir, -^nyv, -^e j — v f i y (^ - ») «, to Aun^er, Inf veii^y, etc. ; — d i ^ 
(^-w)ctf, to fAtrsf, Sii^r, etc. Inf Sn^r; — jry (<(-)«, to acratck, Inf jcriir; 
— <r/A(£(-o)£, to smear, Inf (Tii^Kj — ^(d(-«)«, tonifr. Inf. ^r; — Xp{^'o) 
S-fiai, to use, XPV* TCPV*"^ xP^^i^i ^^ &iroxp«/ia<, to have enough, 
&irox^<rJ^ai ; — b.ic6xp^ (abridged from iaroxpp), it suffices, Inf iaroxp^i', 
Impf ivtxpri ; — X P (^ **»)**» '^ ^'^'^ **** orocfe, to prophesy, xPV'f XPV* xrf»'- 

b) -00 and -oc are contracted, as in the Ionic, into -«, instead of into -ov, and 
-<Jj7 into -^, instead of into -oT, e. g. fiy{6-w)&t to freeze, Inf ^rywF 
(Aristoph., but ^tyovVf X. Cy. 5. 1, 11), Part. G. piyStrros (Aristoph., but 
^lyovvTwv, X. II. 4. 5, 4), and piySiffa (Simon, de mulier. 26), Subj. ^17^ 
(Fl. Gorg. 517, d.), Opt. ^17^ (Ilippocr.). 

Remabk 1. The Ionic verb lZp6w,to sweat, corresponds in respect to con* 
traction with ^iy6u, to freeze, though with an opposite meaning: t^p&at^ 
j^pqJifK, HBp&tra, cSpwrrcs. 

Digitized by 



4. The following things are to be noted on the use of the Attic forms of the 
Opt. in -i|y (^ 116, 8), viz. in the Sing., especially in the first and second person, 
'of verbs in -4u and -4^, the form in -olriy is far more in use than the common 
form, and in yerbs in -ctw it is used almost exclusively ; but in the Dual and 
Pi. the common form is more in use! The third Pers. FI. has always the 
shorter form, except that Aeschin., 2, ^ 108, Bekk., uses Boieoliivay, 

5. The verb Xo ^», to uxuA, though properly not a contract, admiu contrac- 
tion in all the forms of the Impf. Act. and of the Prcs. and Impf. Mid., which 
haTO -c or -o in the ending, e. g. fXov instead of Ixovr, ixov/ity instead of ^Ao^ 
ofuy. Mid. Xovftat (X^ci, Aristoph. Nub. 835. according to MSS.), Kovtm, etc, 
Imp. Kovt Inf. Xovc^ai, Impf iXo^firiy, iXov, iXovroj etc., as if from the stem 
AOEa ; still, uncontracted forms are found, e. g. Xo^o/mu, ixoiwro (Xen.). 

Bbm. 2. On the change of the accent in contraction, ser § 30, 2. 


♦ 138. General Remarks. 
Pure and Impure Stem. — Theme. 

1. Impure verbs (i 127, 11) undergo a variety of changes in 
the stem. In the first place, the stem of the verb is strength- 
ened : — 

(a) Either by an additional consonant, e. g. t^-t-», stem TTn ; i€pd(-Wj stem 

KPAF; ^p^fa, stem «PAA ; and even by inserting an entire syllable, c. g, 

oftapr-Ay-c^y stem 'AMAPT ; 
(h) Or by lengthening the stem-vowel, e. g. ^c^y^, stem ♦TT; X^-«», stem 

AAe; T^K-w, stem TAK ; 
(c) Or Secondly there is a change of the stem-vowel in some of the tenses ; 

this change may be called a Variation (§16, 6), e. g. irX^irr-M, ^-KXAir-iiy, 

K4-k\o^a\ comp.- Eng. ring^ rang^ rung, 

2. The original and simple stem is to be distinguished from 
the strengthened stem ; the first is called the pure stem, the 
last, the impure. The Pres. and Impf. commonly contain the 
impure stem ; the Secondary tenses, when such are formed, and 
specially the j§econd Aor., contain the pure stem ; the remaining 
lenses may contain either the pure or the impure stem, e. g. 

Pres. T^-T-», to strike, Aor. II. Pass. < - t dir-ijv Put. Act. rtn^w {r^r-cu) 
" Kttir^, to Uave, " Act. f-Xlir-ov " " Xc/^ (Xc<v-<r«) 

*' ffipdC-w, to kill, '' :Pa38.i'tr<p&y'ny *' " ctpd^tt (atfuLy-^w) 

** ^y-w,to8how, ^ " i-^&y-iiy " Mid.^av-ovfuu 

** f^lp-Wf to destroy, ** " 4'<p»&p-7iv '' Act. ^^c/>-w. 

Digitized by 



3. When a form of a verb cannot be derived from the Prea. 
tense in use, another Present is assumed ; this assumed Pres. 
may be termed the TJieme (Sifia), and is printed in capitals, 
to distinguish it from the Pres. in actual use; thus, e. g. ^cvyw 
is the Pres. in use, ^YTQ is the assumed Pres., or the T/t^fne, 
designed merely to form the second Aor., l-^v/-ov. 

J 139. Strengthening of the Stem. 

1. The stem is strengthened, first, by adding another conso- 
nant .to the simple characteristic consonant of the stem, e. g. 

Tinrrm (ri/r), to ttrikAy Aor. II. Pass. i-rtiC'^v 

rdrrot (ray), to arrange, " " i-riy-rip 

KpdCu (Kpay)j to ay, " Act. (-Kpiy-of, 

2. Yet the strengthened stem is found only in the Pres. and 
Jmpf ; in the other tenses the simple stem appears, e. g. 

Pres. riwTtt Impf. Ihwrop Aor. 11. Pa9% hlhrnv Fat rin^ (t^o-m). 

Rbmabk I. The characteristic of the pmv stem, e. g. t in TTIl-a is cidled 
the pare characteristic ; that of the impare stem, e. g. vr in r^ntr-n^ the impare 

3. The stem of many verbs is strengthened also by length- 
ening the short stem-vowel in the Pres. and Impf ; this short 
Towel reappears in the second Aor., and in hquid verbs, in the 
Put. Thus, 

& is changed into i} In mute verbs, e. g.(t'K9L^'Ov) \4^ 

& " ou in liquid verbs, " (^Jkp-w) ^ahm 

« " « in liquid verbs, " {^»€p-v) ^f(p« 

t " ft in mate verbs, " (4f-\«ir-oy) Xthr^ 

t " Tin mute and liquid verbs, " {i-rpffi-iiy) rpifiot 

" w in mute and liquid verbs, " (i-itptynw) ^f4iyt» 

» " eu in mute verbs, " {t-^by-ov) ^^. 

Bbm. 2. This strengthening of the stem distinguishes the Impf Ind. and 
Opt from the same modes of the second Aor. ; likewise the Pres. Subj. and 
Impf from the same modes of tlie second Aor., e. g. lirpafoK Upayov^ Kpd{ottu 
icfkiyayu, i€pd{tt xp^y^, Kpd(t Kpdy*\--(\*t!rQV t^vov, \€lvot/u Xhot/u^ X^in 
Khnff Xerrc AiWf . 

Digitized by 



♦ 140. Change or Variation of the Stem-vowel 

1. The change or variation of the stem-vowel [^ 138, 1 (c)], 
occurs only in the Secondary tenses, with the exception of a 
few first Perfects. 

2. Most mute and all hquid verbs, with a monosyllabic stem, 
and with € as a stem-vowel, take the variable a in the second 
Aor., e. g. 

rphc-to, to turn, Aor. II. Act. K'rp&V'OP 

KXiv^-at, to steal, " Pass. i-KKitr-np 

Tp4^-^f to nourish. u u i'rp&^'tiy 

<rrp4^^j to turn, " " i-vrpA^-^v 

fip4x-c^,tovet, " « i'fip&X'iiy 

Up^,toflay, " " i-ZAp-nw 

ffrt?i\-a, to send, " " i'<rr&\'fip 

ffwtlp-^, to sow, " " i'ffTctLp'tiP 

^tlp-^, to deOroy, ' « " i-^p^ip-iiy 

rifty^jtoeut, " Act. H-THfi-oy. 

The second Aor. th&fuaf (from rcfuw, to cut)^ is very rare in Attic prose (Th. I. 
81. rdfjMfuv) ; regnlar Ih-cfioy ; the second Aor. i^xn^ (from /3p^x'> ^ *<^^> '^ 
poetic and late ; common form ifipix^y* The first Aor Pass, irpi^^v (from 
Tphnt), &p4^AiiP (fr. Tp^^), impi^^v (fr. vrpit^), belong more to poetry than 
prose ; ikki^&iiiP (fr. jc\^vt«) Ionic and Eur. Or. 1575 (icAc^cfs). A^pw, <nrclpu^ 
and ^€tp», hare no first Aor. Pass. The variable a does not occur in polysyl- ' 
lables, e. g. liyytXoy, ^yy^Aij*', ^c\oy, iiy€p6fiiiv. 

Remahk 1. As this variable vowel distinguishes the Impf. from the second 
Aor. Act., e. g. trprirop (Impf.), trpairw (Aor. II.), in some verbs of this class 
(2, above), whose second Aor. Act. is not in nse, the variable vowel does not occur 
in the second Aor. Pass., because that tense cannot be mistaken for the Impf, 
see § 141, Rem., e. g. i8X cv w, to see, Impf. t-^Krir-ov, second Aor. Pass. i-fiKir- 
tjv (first Aor. Pass, is wanting) ; \^, to collect (in compounds), second Aor. 
Pass. K€er€'\4y^y, evy4\tyriy (more seldom Aor. I. avv€\4x^n>^y H^^^T^^i '^^^^ 
the meaning to way, always iKix^v)'t so also X /«-•», to peal, i-hiir^v (first 
Aor. Pass, wanting) ; vX^jc-m, to 6rat J, usually i-^\dK-mv, but also i-^kdK-^tf 
Plat, (first Aor. Pass. ^\4x^^f Aesch. Eum. 259) ; ^X/7-«, to bum, i-^Kiy^v 
(more seldom i^\4x^y) ; ^4yw, to censure, i-^4y^v, first Aor. Pass, wanting. 

Rem. 2. The verb itX^ttw, to strike, when uncomponnded, retains the if 
in the second Aor. and second Fut. Pass., but when compounded, it takes the 
variable d; thus, i-T\irr^P, tcXtrrh^oiiai, i^e-irX&y-riy, Kart-wKiy-riy, iK^Kdrffi- 
aofuu ; 0^irw, to make rotten, and t^k«, to melt (trans.), also have the variable a\ 
hence Perf. atarrira, I am rotten, second Aor. Pass, iatir^v, second Fut. Pass. 
cMfffoiuu; Fut. T^|«, Aor. Itij^o; second Perf. t^tjko, /am meftcrf; second Aor. 
Pass. Irtbaiv; also first Aor. Pass. Mix^v, PI- Tim. 61. b., Eur. Supp. 1033. 

Digitized by 



3. Liquid verbs with a monosyllabic stem and with € for a 
stem-vowel, take the variable a, not only in the second Aor., but 
also in the first Perf. Act., in the Perf. Mid. or Pass., and the 
first Aor. Pass., e. g. 

<rr4xXMt to send, Fut. ffreX-c* Pf. f-oroX-ico d-orciX-fiou Aor. i-<rrcC\-di|9 
4>^tlpoa^ to destroy, Fut. ^cp-£ Pf. t-^ap-istk t^a^iuu. 

The first Aor. Pass. i<rra\^u is poetic ; tho first Aor. Pass, of S^pw, cie*if»* 
^ilpu is not in use ; but instead of it the second Aor. Pass., thus, iidp^^ 
imrdpyrirf iip^dpTfy, The variable a docs not occur in polysyllables, c. g. 
ff77fXKa, ^77/Ai^y from &77/AAW, iyiiytpfioUf ^4p^p from itytlpct, Comp. 
No. 1. 

4. Mute verbs, which have e in the final stem-syllable of the 
Pres., take the variable o in the second Perf. ; but those which 
have ec, take oi; liquid-verbs, which ha\e e or cc in this syllable, 
take o, e. g. 

Z4pKoym (poet.), to see, Zdhopica S^fw, to flay, 949opa 
Tp4(fWf to nourish, rirpo^ ^c/pw, tp tpoke, iyp^fryopa, I awoke, 

Xtlvuj to leave, \4Koiva mrtipv, to sow, ttnropa 

m-€(^, to persuade, whrot^ Z trust, ^tipu, to destroy, ll<p^opa poetic, (l^dv^xo, 

Rem. 3. Here are classed tho following anomalous second Perfs.; &m 

(Epic), ^00^ instead of c2^ to be wont, tioa^ivax, uu&iHsj Plnp. cit&^vi;— 

^ 'EIAfi, video, oTSo, I know; — *EIKA, fouca, to be like, to appear, PIup. ^^icciy;— 

' l\ir« (poet.), to cause tfi hope, loXira, / hope, Plup. i<&\ir€ty, I Aopw/ ; -^ 'EPrn, to 

do, toprya, Plup. idpytty] — p^iy-yvfu, to break, Hp^uya, lam broken (but on wifltm, 

see Biem. 2). 

5. The foUowing take the variable o in the fijrst Perf also, 
contrary to the rule in No. 1. 

KX4im», to steal, first Perf. ic/icA.o^a, but Peif. Mid. or Pass. K4K\€fifiui (yeiy 
rare and only poet. k^kAo^i/icu). 

X^, to collect, first Peif. avptlXoxa, i^ttXoxa] but Perf. Mid. or Pass. 

w4iixm, to send, first Perf. ir 4T0fiipa ', but Peif. Mid. or Pass. w4Tffifiau 

rpiwct, to turn, first Perf. r/rpo^a (like tho second Perf. of rp4^, to nourish), 
and r/rpo^a ; still, this last form is rare ; the more usual form is r4rpo^ 
The variable a in tho Perf. Act. is not found elsewhere, and is probably 
here used only to distinguish it from r^rpo^, Perf. of rp4^»* 

6. The folloM-ing mute verbs with a monosyllabic stem, and 
with c for a stem-vowel, like liqidd verbs (No. 3),' take the 
variable a in the Perf Mid. or Pass ; still, the a is not found in 
the first Aor. Pass., as is the case in liquid verbs, e. g. 

Digitized by 



9rp4^^.io twmy Pf. Mid. or Pass. $<rrpafi/tat, but first Aor. Pass, iffrpi^dn^ 
rprrm,totum, " " rdrpa/iiiaif " ** irpdiftdriw 

rp4^f to nourish, « " r4»paniAatt " " i^p4<pdriy. 

On jtA/irr«, see No. 5. 

} 141. Remarks •on the Secondary Tenses, 

1. The Secondary tenses differ from the Primary, partly in wanting the 
tense-characteristic, and consequently in appending the personal-endings (-ov, 
•^ixnvy -ijr, -^a-ofuu, -a, and -ciy) immediately to the pnre characteristic of the 
verb, e. g. ^-ATr-oy, second Aor., bat i-iraiSfv-c-ti, first Aor. ; partly, in being 
formed throoghont from an unchanged pure rerb-stem (except the Perf. which 
prefers a long vowel, see No. 2), e. g. Acfir«, l-A7ir-of^, ^t^yw l-^OyoK; and 
partly, in taking the variable vowel, e. g. arp4<^ i-ffrpi^'tiy arpd^-^co/iaUf 
but i-<rrpt4^r (f 140, 2). 

2. The second Perf. either lengthens the short stem-vowel T into 7, & into 17, 

and, when it stands after other vowels or p, into a, e. g. 
KpdCu^ to cry out, second Aor. (l-KpSy-ov second Perf. icd-KpoY^ 
^i<rvm, to shudder, stem : ♦PIK (I) ^ ir^-^pDc-a 

ddWM, to bloom, FutdAA-d ^ W-dt|A-a; 

so, v^m, A^Aiji^ from «AN-«, AA9-» ; or it retains the long vowel or diph- 
thong of the Pres., e. g. iri^vya from ^€^yo» (but second Aor. Act. t^^byov), 
r/nyica, ercrnra from t4«(», v4pfv (but second Aor. Pass, h-ticnv, itrivriy, see 
^140, Bem. 2 j ; a short vowel occurs only in the cases referred to in § 124, and 
1 140, 4. 

Bemark. Those verbs whose second Aor. Act. could not be distinguished 
from the Impf., or at least, only by the quantity of the stem-vowel, have no 
second Aor. Act. and Mid., but only Hie second Aor. Pass., since this last form 
has a different ending from the Impf., and could not be mistaken for it, e. g. 

yp&tfw Impf P/p&xpoy A. I. (ypcoifa A. H Act. want. A. IX. P. iyp&tniv (A. I. P. does 

not occur in classical writers). 
lOdyct « HxMyoy " l/cATw ** " A. II. P. ^icAW ( A. L P. ^icAf- 

^y in Aristophj. 
^» " ^vxoy " *t^{o " " " ^(friJxi?!', Plat (*^F 

Aristoph. Nub. 152 [with the variation ^x^^^] and often in the later writers; 
A. L i^x^^f Plat.). 

3. The following points, also, are to be noted : (a) There is no verb which, 
together with the second Aorist, forms the three first Aorists; (b) There is no 
verb which has in use at the same time the second Aor. Act. and Mid.' and the 
second Aor. Pass. ; but all verbs, which form the second Aor. have either the 
second Aor. Act. and Mid. only, or the second Aor. Pass. only. A single 
exception, in regard to both the particulars specified, is seen in the verb rph-m^ 
to turn, which has three first Aorists together with three second Aorists : irpibrop 
(Ion.), irpSir6fi7iy, irp&wriy, Ihpe^ (the common form in Attic), irpe^dfiriy 
(transitive, e. g. rpS^^ai cli ^vyfiy, to put to flight), irp4ipdrjv (used more by the 

Digitized by 



poets, seo ^ 140, 2) ; but in compounds, e. g. irnptip^tKu^ Andph. 4. 126, 4 
127, 5). 

Thero are bat few exceptions to the statement under (b), since the second 
Aor. Act. and Mid. and the second Aor. Pass., occur but rarely, and mostl/ 
In the poet, dialect, e. g. Irihroy Eur., and irtmiv \ J^Xivov and Miniv \ iKti^id^^ 
and very seldom iKiT6fjt,fitf, 

4. It is rare that a verb has both Aor. forms ; where this is the case, the two 
forms are used nnder certain conditions, namely : — 

(a) The two Aor. forms of the Act and Mid. have a different meaning, i. e. 
the first Aor. has a transitive meaning, the second Aor., an intransitive. The 
same is true of the two forms of the Ferf., where they are constructed from the 
same verb. See § 249, 2. 

(b) The two forms of the Aor. belong either to different dialects, or differ- 
ent periods, or to different species of literature, prose or poetry. Still, in some 
verbs, both forms occur even in prose, e. g. iarfiwdx^y, and usually IvijAAA/^r, 
BKa^^vcu and ^X&/3^yai, both for ex. in Thuc. Several verbs in p jetxy have i 
second Aor. Act., which in prose have commonly a first Aor. onlj, e. g. icrcdw, 
to killf Aor. prose, lirrciya, poet. t^Kiaifw and Ifcrar. « 

(c) The two Aorists stand in such a relation to each other, that the Ibrmi 
of one Aorist take the place of the forms of the other not in use, and in this 
way each supplies, respectively, the place of the other, as will be seen under 
the verbs ri^iu and ZtSvfu, 

A.F0RMAT10N OF THE Tenses of Mute-Vesbb. 

i 142. Classes of Mute Verbs. 

Mute verbs are divided, like mute letters, into three 
classes, according to their characteristic ; in each of these 
classes, verbs with a pure characteristic in the Pres. and 
Impf. are distinguished from those with an impure charac- 
teristic (§ 139, "Rem. 1) : — 

1. Verbs, whose characteristic is a Pi-mute {fi, ir, ^ pure 

characteristic; ttt ([§ 24, 1] impure characteristic), 
e. g. 

(a) Pure characteristic: 'nrifiTr-ay, to send; rplfi-oD, to 
rub ; ypd(f)'G)f to write ; 

(b) Impure characteristic : tuttt-o), to strike (pure char- 
acteristic TT, pure stem TTII) ; fikaTrr-o), to injure 
(/8, BAAB) ; piirr-(o, to hurl (<^, 'PI0). 

2. Verbs, whose characteristic is a Kappa-mute (k, 7, x 

Digitized by 



ptire characteristic ; a<T or Attic rr [§ 24, 1] impure 
characteristic), e. g. 

(a) Pure characteristic: itKuc-ko, to weave; ar/'O), to 
lead; Tev^-o), to prepare; 

(b) Impure characteristic: ^pUra-m, Att- ^piTT-a), to 
shvdder (pure characteristic /c, pure stem ^PIK) ; 
rMr<T'f0, Att Tarr-©, to arrange (7, TAT) ; fii]<ra-a}, 
Att. fiij7T-(o, to cotigh (x^ BHX). 

3. Verbs, whose characteristic is a Tau-mute (t, S, % 
pure characteristic ; ? [§ 24, 1] impure characteristic), 

(a) Pure characteristic: avvT'to,to complete; ^S-<o, to 
sing; w€t^-6), to persuade; 

(b) Impure characteristic ;^^/>a(;'-6)« to say (pure charac- 
t^stic S, pure stem 9P.AA). 

h 143. Remarks on the Characteristic, 

L The following mate verbs in -htm and -wm {-ttv) foim the Secondary 
tenses, especiallj the second Aor. Pass., and have for their characteristic : — 

«•: icAm-rw, to steal; KSwr-n, to cut; r^rr-w, to strike (second Aor. Fassiyo 
i-tc\iir-iiyf etc.). 

fi: psJerr-Wy to injure^ and Kp^nr-tt^ to conceal (second Aor. Pass. i-pKip-riif 
and ifijJxpdiiv, i'Kptp-riy and iKfiC^driy), 

^ : /9d[irr-«0, to tinge; ^wr-v, to bury; ^piirr-»t ^ break; pdarr-^^ to sew to- 
fftiher; phr-w, to cast; CKdmr-w, to dig (second Aor. Pass. #-i8Jl^-iyr, 
^-rS^-ijy, i-rpt^'iiy, if-pit^-iiy, if-ptip-riy and 4fip(^^y, i-akd^' 

K : ^atrv, to Judder (second Perf. tri-ipplK-a). ' 

7: ixxdaaeo, to change (second Aor. Pass. &\XAy-^yai, first Aor. Pass. 
kKXax^yaiy poetic), ftdtrirw, to A^ieac/ (/i&y-^mi), opiOvtrmf to dig (hp^y-riytu 
and Spux^'^1 *^V<'"»» to strike {i^\-trf^y^ ^|ff-ir\jty-9|y), irpd<rrd», Att. 
iTf^rrflv, to £?o {vi-Trp Ay- a), (T^^w (Attic mostlj ff^Tru)^ to kiU {i'vipi'v - 
fiy, rarely, and never in Attic prose, ia^x^'^)^ riffauf to arrange {r&ytlst 
Eur., elsewhere irdx^t^h ^pwff»^ to hedge rottnd {iippAy^y and ippdxdriy). 

2. Two verbs strengthen the pore characteristic k by 7, like verbs with the 
imparo chamcteristic nr: — 

Wicr-« (commonly trticriw, also ire(Kw), to <^«ar, to oom6, Fnt. ir/|c», etc. , 
still, Ktlptty is commonly used for rriicrtiv with the meaning to «Aear, and 
irrcy(C«t>' Ai^^ (ad'civ with the meaning to comb; 

tIkt-w (formed from ti-tAc-«), to beget, Put. ri^ofim^ second Aor. Act 
Ihtfcoy^ second Perf. riroKO. 

3. The following verbs in -o-o-w, -tt« have a Tau-mute, not a Kappa 
mute, for the pure characteristic : apfi6Trt» (non-Attic iffUfu), to Jit, Fnt. 
-^m; — fixirfut to take honey, Put. -iv^a; — $pdo'<rm (non-Attic fipdCBe)^ to 
shake; — ipiav^s, to row. Put. 4r»; — irdtrcv, to scatter, "Fnt-daw, — wKdo'- 
rw, to firm. Put. -drtt', — irriirvts^ to husk. Put. -(trm', — and Poet, IfAdtrtrm, to 


Digitized by 



whip, "Fat, -dtrv, Ky^trtrw, to sleep, "Fat-wrv] \ti<r(r»^1o Zoo^ Fut. Ktlew\ 
KiavojicLi (poetic, especially Horn., also X(rofiai), to pray, Aor. iXurd/iWp 
iXirSfifitf] yia-ffofiat, vtltrtroy^ai^ to go, Fut. vtitrofjuWy Kop6(rata, to equip 
(Epic Perf. Kt-K6pv^ •/*«)• 

Here are classed derivatives in -^rteo: Kifi^rru,to hunger ; iyttp^rrv, 
to dream; 6ir y^rr CO, to be sleepy. 

4. The following verbs in -a aw vaiy between the two formations : wdatrv, 
to press togeUur, Fut. vAfyt^ etc. : Perf. Mid. or Pass, ytiwrfuu ; verbal Adj. paffr6s ; 
— &^^(rcr» (Poet), to draw, Fut. '^fo^, Aor. Ij^ikra, iipvffdfirjy. 

5. Of verbs in • («, whose pure characteristic is a Tau-mute, commonly 8, 
there are only a few primitives, e. g. M(, Poet., Ka^4CofiaXf prose, / seat 
myself, %(», commonly koI^ICu, to seat; trxiC^i ^ separate; x^C^f alvum 
ddicere ; yet there are very many derivatives, namely, all in -i^u and most in 
4Cu, e. g. i^l0»9 €ticd(v, etc 

6. Verbs in - (w, whose pure characteristic is a Kappa-mute, commonly 7, 
are mostly Onomaimoetics, i. e. words whose sound corresponds to the sense ; 
the greater part or these denote a call, or sound, e. g. al(L(», to groan, Fut. 
fluflC^w; iL\a\d(ut to shout {Md^cur^ca, to speak, Aor. -wanting in Her.); ^P^*** 
to grunt; Kot(wf to squeak, to grunt (like a swine), Fut. jcot|«; Kod(w, to 
scream, Aor. fxpAyoy, Kp6(o», to caw, to croak; fiatrrlfw, to whip; «8^(m, to 
scratch; o I tn&it», to lament, Fut. olfi^ofuu] hKo\l(v^ to cry out,to shout; ^vo-- 
rd(uyto drag about; vrd^u and <TTa\d(<io, to trickle; ar€yd(vt to agh, 
CTTipiCu, to make firm; arlCtt, tomiark, to prick; avpl(oi, to whistle (Fat 
ffvpi^oftai, etc.; cvolarof, etc, later, and not Attic) ; a-^dCw (Attic mostly 0^^ 
T09), to kiU ; ffipv iwf to throb ; rpl (-w', to chirp {rirolya, Ion. and poet) ; ^ X ^ (t», 
to bubble, and the Poet fidCv,to prate, Fut /Sd^w, third Pers. Peif. Mid. or 
Pass. iS^iBaicrm ; fi pt(v, to slumber {fip7^€u)] 9 at (u, to divide, to kiU; i\9\l(^, 
to whirl, to tumble; iyaplfw, spolio ; ^4(»^todo {topya), 

7. The following verbs in -^w vary between the two modes of formation: 
fiaard (», to lift up, to support, Fut -dirtt, etc, Aor. i$affrdx^if ; — ita^rd (m, 
to doubt, itffrdffu, from which the verbal Subst Zurracyiu&s and dl(rroffis\ — yva* 
rd(»,to nod, to sleep^ Fut -dffu, Aor. iy^cuja, in the later writers pvcrifya^ 
etc., e. g. Plut Brut 36; — iraiCv, to jest, Fut ircufy}vpm and iro^o^uu, Aor. 
Att tfctuaa (in later writers Iroi^o, viwcuxa), Perf. Mid. or Pass. Att. Thtaiffpok 
(in later writers ir4iraiyfuu, Iraix^y) J verbal Adj. iraurrdos ; — apvd f «, to rob, 
Att. aprdffofuu, fipw&troj etc (but in the Epic and Common language Stpwd^ and 
-dau, etc, second Aor. Pass. Tiptrdyriv) ; — fii C^^, to moan, has II. 8, 20. iwl/w^, 
but in Hippocr. tftvcty, 

8. The following verbs in -f • have 77 for a pure characteristic : icA.^(fl0, to 
sound, to cry, Perf. K4-KKceyy<^ Fut K?<d'^mf Aor. HicXay^ai — ir\d(w (poet) to 
cause to wander, Fut fcXdy^w^ etc Aor. Pass, hrkdyx^*^ 5 — <r o \ ir f f «i, to blow a 
trumpet, Fut -^7Cfl»> etc (later also 'l<r», etc.) 

i lAi, Formation of the Tenses. 

Mute verbs form the Fut, and the first Aor. Act and 
Mid. with the tense-characteristic a, and the first Perf. and 
first Plup. Act. with the aspirated* endings -a and -elv, when 
the characteristic is a Pi or Kappa-mute; but with the 

* The Perf. Act of all verbs properly ends in ko, but where k is preceded by 
a Pi or Eappa-mute, that mate combmes with k and is changed into the coi^ 
responding rough. On the contrary, a Taurmute before k is dropped, e. ^ 
rSrvTKa = r^rvipa ; 'Khrparpcn « ithrpax<Btj but ir^ciica instead of ir^cidxa. 

Digitized by 



endings -«a, -xeiv, when the characteristic is a Taii-mute ; 
though the Tau-mute is omitted before k (§ 17, 5). 

Rkmark 1. Por the change of a Tau-mute into cr, before ^ in the Perf. Mid. 
or Pass, see ^ 19, 1 ; for the change of a Tau-mute into er before t, see § l?, 8, 
but this tr is omitted before a of the personal-endings, e. g. trirtia'fuUf -crtUf 
wi^poMTfAeUf -arm p but second Pers. T^Tci-(rcu, *7ri^pa-<rai instead of rchetia-vmL^ 
wi^pwr-cau The rowels a, t, v are short in yerbs which have a Tan-mute as a 
characteristic before endings with the tense-characteristic c and k (-jco, -xcur), 
e. g. ^pdC»t<t>P^^9 ^p&^a, ir4^p&Ka ; irTJurtru, to form^ xhiffn \ yofdCu, to think^ 
ivStLLca ; ic\^{o9, to wash, tcKtirw, etc. ; in like manner, short vowels remain short, 
e. g. apfi6{w, fjpfioKeu 

Rem. 2. On the changes which the mutes undergo by the addition of the 
ending^ beginning with (r, ^, /a, or r, and before the aspirated endings -it, -tiy, 
fee ^ 17, 2 and 3. 19, 1. 20, 1 ; on the lengthening of -c into -ct before a of 
Tcrbs in -^y8o» or '4v^», e. g. mrivb-w, Fnt. (tnr4v^-ir») tnrfifrw, Aor. tinrtura, 
Perf. >Iid. or Pass. t<nr€uri»aiy see § 20, 2 ; on the omission of tr in endings 
beginning with <rd^, e. g. KtKpi^^cu instead of ictxp^^cu {KtKp6^^cu), ircirA^X' 
dm instead of ireir\4^^at, see § 25, S ; on the endings of the third Pers. PL 
Perf. and Plup. Mid. or Pass., -arai and -ikro instead of -yrcu, -mo, see ^§ 18, 
1 and 116, 15 ; on the variable vowel in the Secondary- tenses, and in some first 
Perfects and Perfects Mid. or Pass., see § 140 ; on the Att. Put. of verbs in 
-^(», and -^C»9 c- g- fiifi^{»9 Put. fiifiiffu, fiifi&, -§Sy -^, -arov, -d/iCK, etc., Koid(t»y 
Fut. KOfjCttrof, Kofua, -itis, etc., see § 117. 

Heu. 3. When fi precedes a Pi-mute, which is the characteristic of the 
verb, e. g. in ir4/itrtt, the fi is rejected in the Perf. Mid. or Pass, before endings 
beginning with /* ; thus, «-//Air-», to sendy T4'ir€ii-fuu (instead of T4^ffiT-ftaiy ir4- 
vc/A/iA-fuu), tr^ircfiif^eu, T^cfiirrai, etc., Inf. irer 4 fjt^atf Part. irertf^Uvos] so 
Kdfiirr-v, to bend down, K4-Kafi-fuu (instead of K4-Kafiv-fuUt «%' KoufA-fuu). Also 
when two gammas would stand before ^ one y is omitted, e. g. a^lyy^, to tie, 
f-o'tpty-fuu (instead of f-Cfptyy-fuu), liir^iTfai, lo'^iyrrcu, etc.. Inf. iaiplyx^cu. 
Part. iir^tyfi4vos ; so i^€\4yx»t to convince, ^|«X/;Xc7/iai (instead of i^tk-fikeyxfuu, 
i^tKiryyfuu), ^IcX^Aey^oi, etc. Both the /a and 7 are here dropped to prevent . 
the concorrence of three consonants. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



H 145 

Pabadi«mb of Mute Yebbb. 
♦ 146, A. Verbs, whose Characteristic is a JPt-fnuts 
(A ^, *.) 

(a) Pare Characteristic, /3, v, ^ (Fat. -^m). 
VpijSw, to ru&. 



Ind. rp/jS-w Subj. rp<3-« Imp. rpS^-t luf. rp^f cy Part, rp^^B-^'' 


Ind. l-Ti>r/3-oy Opt. rpijp-oi/u 

Ind. (ri-rplfi-k) r^-rpl^ Subj. rt-rfit^hu Imp. not used. Inf. t«- 


rpbp-4y€u Part. Tc-rpr^i^T 


Ind. (^e-Tp//3-««v) ^-T«-Tp<^«r Opt rt-rpi^otiu 

Aor. I. 

Ind. (TpriB-<r«) rplifw Opt rpi^oiiu Inf. Tp/^«y Part, rpt^ir 
Ind. k-^pv^a Subj. rpf^w Opt rpl^oiiuu Imp. rpi^y Inf. Tf'^ 
Part. Tp(»frof. 



Ind. rplfi-oftai Subj. rptfi-ufuu Imp. rptfi-ov Inf. rfiffi-Ma^tu Part. 


Ind. 4-rplfi-6firiy Opt. rpl^ifitiv 






S. 1. 











D. 1. 






Tf-rpV4-/t^W*, 11, :o*r 




P. 1. 





T^^pit^c . 

rt-TpifA'fUyos i 


Tc-rptu-ficVoi e4crf(i') 
or rt-rpiip-^.rai 

or rt^pl^tay 


S. 1. 

i-rtTpifi-tifiv V. i-rt-Tplfi-fu^ov P. ^-rc-Tpf/A-/teda 



i-rd-rpi^o iT4rpt<l>^ov i-rd-rpvp^ 



i^i-rpnr-ro #-T€-Tp/^>-di?r rt^ptfA-fUvot fiaaaf 


rt-rpiyi-yihos ^-nv [or i-rt-rpl^'S.To 


Ind. Tp/^o^toM OptTp4o/fwyy Intrpl^tabai Part. rpW'^^ws 

Aor. I. 

Ind. i-rpt^dyitiv Subj. rpi^wyMi Opt rpt^cdfiriy Imp. rpitfroi Inf. 
rp/\freur;^ Part, rp^^teyos 







Aor. I. 

Ind. (^-rpr^-J&Tjy) i-^plip^v Subj. rpii^fi Opt. rpi^edji^ Inf. 
Tpi^-;^i'ou Imp. rplip-^riri Part. Tp«^€/f, (instead of I. Aor. 
Pass., commonly II. Aor. Pass.) 


Fut. I. 

Ind. rptipHffOfjLM Opt. rpi4>-dri<rolixriy Inf. Tpt4>-^cr€«r^« Part Tpi^ 

A. II. 

Ind. 4-Tptfi-nv Siibj. TpT;3-« Opt. rpXfi-titiv Imp. rpf$-fidt Inf. rpiiS- 
rjvoi Piut. rpXk-iis 


Ind. rpHfi-^jaofxat Opt. Tp'i$ifi<ro(tiiiv Inf. rpXfi-^ctffbtu Part. rpliS- 

Verbal adjective : (rpi^r6s) TpnrT^j, -^, -<Jy, rpar-riosj -^o, -Aw. | 

Digitized by 




4 146. (b) Impure Characteristic, irr in Pres. and Impf. (Fat. -^m). 

fc^mrtf , to cut. 






Perf. 1. 

{K4'Karw-a) k4'K0^ 

K4-KoiA'fieu, like r4-rpififjMt 


K4'K<nr-a (Horn.) 

A. I. 4'K6<lh^y 


(Kiw-aw) K^m 


F. I. Kwtf^ffo/ieu 

Aor. I. 


A. II. ^K<fir-i»y 



F. II. K<nr-4\troiiM 

Verbal adjective : kow-tSs, -i, -^y, KOK-rios, -ria^ -^4oy. 

Inflection of the Perf. Mid. or Pass. 

K^ir-r-«», to bend down {KdKo/i-fuu for KiKOfAfi'/uu, ^ 144, Rem. 3). 


S. 1. 













K4Kaiup^w i^ficafifuyos, -if, -«r 



K€Kdft/p^if 1 Subjunctive. 

P. 1. 


KtKOfifjJvOS 2 



K4Katl^ ! 


MMfifUim cM(y) 

K€Kdfup^9Mray, 01 ircjc^t^;^^^] 

Verbal adjectivd : icatJLinf6s, -^, -A^, Koiirrioty -ria, -rdw, | 

h 147. B. Verbs, whose Characteristic is a Kappa- 
mute (y, ic, x). 

(a) Pure Characteristic} y, jc, x- W Impure Characteristic in the Pres. and 
Impf., o'ff', Att. TT, rarer f. 

wxim-Wy to weave. Fat. -|». r^o'w, Att. r^Trci, to orroiipe. 








(rA^K-trw) irA^ci 











Fut. I. 
A. n. 
F. II. 

\4ir\4K'hriv) 4^k4x'^v 

4-vXdK-^v and 4'V\4Kiriv 


Verbal adjective : itXckt^s, -^, '6y ; ir\eic-T^oj, -r/o, -T«oy ; ToicT(f j, rQuer4ou | 

Digitized by 





Inflection of the Perf. Mid. or Pass. 

ritraeo, to arrange, and a^tyyw (§ 144, Rem. 3), to bind. 

Ind. S. 1. 



Imperative. | 










D. 1. 













P. 1. 








Teraeyfji4voi fl<rl{v), 

iffipiyfAiyot €iVr(y) 



or t€t4x*^«* 

or r€rdx^<»y 


Inf. rerdx^M 

iff<plyx^M Part rerayfi^yos 


Bemabk. The student will observe particularly the changes which take 
place-in the inflection of the Perf. Pass, of these verbs : rhpifi-fAoi (instead of 
rirpt^fjuu), fi before /t being changed into n ; r^ps^ (instead of rirptr^ai), 
ir and a forming \fr; rirpar^ou, the characteristic ir remaining unchanged; 
ri^pi^-bov (instead of rirpar'^ov), the characteristic x being changed into ^, to 
be of the same order as the ;^ following (^ 17, 2) ; so others similar. In like 
manner, r^oyfuu : r^o^oi (instead of T^opy-«-oi), y and tr forming f ; r^ajrroi 
(instead of rirayreu), y being changed into k, to be of the same order as the 
T f'/^owing ; rhax^oy (instead of Tireiy^y)^ y being changed to coirespond 

J 148. C, Verbs, whose Characteristic is a Tau- 
mute (8, T, S), 

(a) Pure Characteristic, 8, r, b, (b) Impure Clharacteristic in Pres. and Impf., 
f, rarer a&. — Put. irw. 










to deceive. 

to lie. 

to say, 

to think, 




























Aor. I. 








Aor. I. 





Put. I. 




bal Adj. : (if.ev»-T 

ios) i^ewr-T«of, -rii 

%y -riov ; ^^paxr-rk 

►y, -T^o, -r^oy. 

Digitized by 



Inflection of the Perf. Mid. or Pass. 

Ind. S. 1. 

f «fw/ia. 













i^€wr'ii4pot tUr{{y) 


i^€6'(rdwffay, or ^4>cd-<r^«r] 


i-^wr-fiiyos, -ij, • 


Rbmask. 2(6C»> ^ 'ovej has in the Perf. Mid. or Pass. a4ff»-fiai from o-<^ 
(Attic), and a^ffua/uu, but Aor. io^^y, verbal Adj. troMrrios, 


1. Liquid verbs (§ 127, 11. B.) form the Put Act. and 
Mid. and the first Aor. Act and Mid. without the tense- 
characteristic <T (§ 20, 3) but the Perf. Act with the tense- 
characteristic K, e. g. 

a^aXXm (stem 2«AA), Fut. or^oA-S, first Aor. l-0-^A-a, Perf. t-'v^oK Mm. 

Remabk 1. The endings of the Put. in liquid verbs, namelj, -«, -oD/tcu, are 
formed by contraction from -ivta, •4iro/uu after the rejection of a* (^ 20, 3). The 
inflection of these contracted endings is like that of contracts in -4^ in the 
Pres. Act. and Mid.: ^iA-«, ^lA-ov/ioi (f 135) ; v is omitted in the Put. of liquid 
verbs, to prevent the harshness occasioned by the combination of that letter with 
the preceding liquid. The Put Perf. is wanting in liquid verbs. 

2. The Present tense of Liquid verbs, with the exception 
of a few whose stem-vowel is e, is strengthened, either by 
doubling the characteristic X, or by inserting the liquid v 
after the characteristic ; also, by lengthening the short stem- 
vowel, as in all verbs in -iv<D, -ipto, -dpai, or by changing it 
into a diphthong (§ 16, 3), e. g. o-^oX-X-o), Tifi-v-ay, Kpiv-o), 
afjLOv-Q}, /cT€iv^€D, (f)aw-a) (stems S^AA, TEM, KPIN(t), 
'AMrN{v), KTEN, 0AN) ; but /a^-oi, j/c/a-w with a pure 

3. Except the Pres. and Irapf. the tenses are formed from 
the pure stem, but the final vowel of the stem is lengthened 
in the first Aor. Act. and Mid. (see No. 5), e. g. a<f>d\\-(a 
(S^AA)j Fut (T^aX-w, second Aor. Pass. i-a<f>d\-7]v, firsit 
Perf. Act e-ajxiK-Ka, first Aor. Act e-af^riX-a, The second 
Aorists Act and Mid. rarely occur, and scarcely at all in 

Digitized by 



prose ; on the contrary, the second Aor. Pass, is more iii use 
than the first Aor. ; the first Aor. i? wholly wanting in many 

4. In liquid verbs with an impure characteristic, the 
ground-form of the stem is not borrowed, as in the case 
of mute verbs, from the second Aor., but from the Fut^ 
since only a few verbs of this class form a second Aor. Act 
and Rlid. 

5. Liquid verbs are divided into four classes according as 
the stem-vowel of the Fut is a, e, t, or if before the ending <«. 
In the first Aor. Act. and Mid. d is lengthened into v, c into 
€i, I into t, V into v (§ 16, 3). Thus : — 

L Class with & id tho Fatare. 

Prcs. Fat. Act. 

<r^dUA-», to deceive J <rp&\'& ^-o-^X-o 

KdfAv-w, to labor, ndfi-ovfuu wanting 

TtK/udp'ttf to point out, rtKfi&p-m l^^Kfnifha 

tl>aiy-mf to shoWj ^Avu l-^y-o. 

II. Class with c in tho Fnturo. 

fi^iMt, to remain, fitr-A ^ t-iuw^ 

kyyihX-tty to announce, i77eX-S ffyTCiX-a 

'•/tr^ftocuty r9ti-& wanting 

v4ii-m, to divide, kc/a-w K-ytifi-a 

HI t(iM0, to kill, Kr9¥'» l-irrca»Hi 

tfulp-u, to desire, Ifitp'W X/utp^ 

m. Class with T in the Future. 

^u^-w, to pluck, rt^K-m ' l-rlX-a 

tipiy-Vt to separate, KpXv-& t-Kplv-a» 

IV. Class with C in the Future. 
iri>Q-w, to draw, aCpS M-cvp^ 

ofitv'U, to defend, ifiHy^ liftSr-a. 

Rem. 2. The folloT^-ing verbs in -aitm of the first class take a in the Aor. 
instead of 17, namely, Icx'^oivw, to make nnaciated (firxraya, Itrxt^^u) ; Ktptaitm^ 
to f/ain (^KcpSdvo, Kc/>8aveu) ; KoiXaitw, to hollow out (iKolkara, KOiAaveu) ; AcmcoIms 
to whiten ; ipyedm, to enrage ; vtvalvot, to rij)en ; also all verbs in 'palim, e. ^ 
iTfpalvot, Fut. vfpayw, Aor. MpOya, Inf. vfpayat (except rrrpedyu, to bore, irirpfif 
MX, TcTp^vai), and all in -ladw, c. g. irialvta, to make fat, Maya, ifiayai (except 
medyw, to stain, ^i^vcu, rarely fuayat). — The verbs <nifiaiy», to give a fignal, and 
Ko^aipw, to purifify have both trnfxrivai (which is usual amonj; the Attic \^Titers), 
Ka^pcu, and ffrinayat, Ko^apai. Also al0w, to raise, and &\Xo/luu, to leap, are 
formed with a: ipat, &/ijeur^tu, but in the Ind. the a is chang^ed into ri on account 
of the aupment, c. <r. ^pa, 7i\dfiriy (second Aor. ri\6fjLr)v is not URcd in the Ind. 
and vety rarely elsewhere). Comp. on c, M^t 7 (a). 

Digitized by 



6. The first Perf. Act of verbs with the characteristic v 
(according to § 19, 3), mnst end in -yKo, e. g. fiefitar/'Ko^ 
Plut (from fiialvea instead of fie-fiuiv-Ka)^ 7ri<f>ar/Kay .Dinarch. 
(from <f>aiv(o)^ irapa>^Kctj Polyb. (&om irapo^wKo, to excite^* 
But the form in -yxa is found only among later writers. The 
best writers endeavor to avoid itj sometimes by-dropping the 
t/, e. g. KeKpiKOt KiKXi/ca from Kpivta, kTupo) (so also KexipBaKa, 
among later writers, also KeKepBar/Ka, but KeKipBrjKO, Dem. 
56, 30. from icepialwo) ; or also, as in ktclvco, by using th6 
form of the second Perf., e. g. inrhcrova, in the sense of the 
first Perf. (JicrcuyKa, eKTcuca, from the time of Maenander), 
or, as in the case of verbs in -€i;ai, by not forming any Pert, 
as, e. g. in fievco, by forming it from a new theme, as ficfii- 
mjKa from MENEfl. 

7. The three following verbs with the characteristic v 
drop that letter, not only in the Perf. and Plup. Act, but 
also in the Perf. and Plup. Mid. or Pass, and in the first 
Aor. Pass. : — 

Kpiyvf to separate^ KinpXKa xiKplfuu ^lepH^r 

ttxh^t to bend doum, k4kKXm K^KKtym ^xXf^r (the 2d Aor. iK>ivnv is rare). 

irxAimy to washj (ir^\0«ca) irhrMfuu itrKidrtt^ (Hippoc.) 

Kbv. 3. Tc(y«, to stretch, and icrc^vw, to kill, form the ahoyc-mentioned teiuei 
from new themes, viz. TAH, KTANn, KTAA, thns : — 

itcrSjca (and t^iererYica) (icr&fuu ixrii^r {iierdydny among the later writers) ; 

yet the forms of lerttyv here presented, are not Attic. The Attic writers use 
Mterotfa as the Perf. Act. fsee No. 6), and instead of tierofuu and itcrd^Vf snb- 
stitnte rfypfiKa and i,wt^ayo¥ in passive phrases with &w6 and the Gen., or 
iuf^fuu and dvyp^i', withoat a preposition. 

Keu. 4. Kplifw, KXiyof, irXvMtf, and ktc^mv, among Ihe poets, often retain y in 
the first Aor. Pass, according to the necessities of the verse, e. g. iKKiydnv, 
/irX^dt}f ; in prose, these forms seem to be donbtfnl, yet ircrrcicX/i^ is found in 
X Hell. 4. 1, 30, in all the copies. 

8. On tlie formation of the Perf. Mid., the following 
points should be noted : — 

Verbs in -aiyw and 6yo», usually drop the y before the endings beginning with 
fi, and insert <r to strengthen the syllabi^ e. g. ^y-w tr^^-c-fieu irc-^-o'-/icda; 
iipcdytff t^erfXM ; fitpadyv fi€/k dpatrfuu (Luc.) ; mtiudym vtaiiftcurfuu ; ittpalytt wtw4* 
fofffieu'y Palvtt f^^fteu'j wa^^ytt irtirdxwrfjuu ; ^9vyu li^vafuWy Khrrvym AcX/ir- 
rvayju ; o|t(rw 6{iMr/xa( ; di)X^ rct^Awr/uu (Luc.) ; irwiytt wttrlarfiM \ rpax&ytt 

Digitized by 




H 150. 

TfTpdxvo'fuu (Luc); \v/udyofiM XtKuiionrfiivoi tlai(v)\ fualiw fu/Jcurftauj but 
some verbs of this kind assimilato the v to the following fi, e. g. ^yipoJof^m^ 
i^pofA-fuu instead of i^'fipear-fuu (also i^iipair/uu), Tapo^iyw, irapt^^vftfuuy aurx&r^** 
f^Xymiai (Homer) ; a very few verbs drop v aipong tlie later writers, without 
sabstitnting a strengthening c; the vowel, however, is made long, e. g. rpax^r^^ 
to make roughs rt^pdxv-fiat also rrrpdxycfiax and rrrpd^vft^uu. It is evident that 
in the personal-endings, except those beginning with /a, the y remains, e. g. 
W^Kur-/Am, ir4ifHiy-€rai, tri-^canaiy i^'^pafi-fLoif -avtrat, •oyrot, fajcyfifuu^ 'vvaoi^ 
'Vtrrca, -ifi-fit^y (see <pedit^ and ^i/ipaiyu, ^ 151) ; still, it is to be noted that tho 
form of the second Pers. Sing., in -vo-oi, is rare ; instead of it the Part, with 
rj is used, e. g. vt^offyiivos c7, etc 

Bem. 5. On the omission of v in endings beginning with v^, we § 25, 3 ; 
on the variable a, in the first Perf. Act. and Mid. and in the first Aor. Pass., and 
also in the second Aorists of liquid verbs with a monos^rllabic stem and the 
stem-vowel c, see § 140, 3 ; on the Perf. of iiy^tpcff and iytipcf with Att Bedup^ 
see § 124, 2 (b). 

9. Ill the second Perf. (which, however, belongs only to 
a few verbs) the short stem-vowel before the ending -a, is 
lengthened, as in the first Aor. Act, except in verbs with « 
in tho Fut, which take the variable o (§ 140, 4), e. g. ^xuv-to, 
first Aor. e-<^j/-a, second Perf. Tri'tfnjv-a ; but aireip-io, Fut. 
(rn'€p'&, second Perf. e-airop-cu 

Rbu. 6. Second Aorists Act. and Mid. are rare in liquid verbs, e. g. li^iXsr, 
ifidx6iA'nv<t tKOMOVy iirrSipov (doubtful in ^rose) from /icCXA«, Kofyw, irraipmf rrcf- 
pw ; Aorists are also formed from some irregular verbs ; a few verbs, also, have 
a second Aor. Pass., e. g. those with monosyllabic stems, as Scpo^, ^8^y, ^d«f- 
pw, irr^AAfli, ^a/yw, fudyv, irAiywi etc. 

§ 150. Paradigms of Liquid Verbs, 
&77^AXw, to ajmounce. 


Pres. iyy4KXv Perf. I. IfyytK-xa Perf. II. l-^op-o, perdidi. from ^(p^ 

Fut. Ind. 












Opt. &77fAo(^ 



or ieyy^Xotriy 
&77f Ao(i)f 


Inf. ayyf\(?y Pnrt. AyycAwy, -ovireLf -oCy 

Aor. I. 

Aor. IL 


ff77eiA-«, ityyflKWf &77WAcufU, AyyeiXoy, hyy§i\u, ieyy^tXas 
Ind. IJYYtX-oy Subj. &yy«Aw Opt. iyytXotfu Imp. 6yy9\9 
Inf. AyycAeiv Part. JtyycAi^y, -ovira, -<?y. 

Digitized by 


f 151.] 




Pert: Ind. 

S. 1. 

( <rry«^-A«" 










D. 1. 









irrr^^'f^^i^os 2 

P. 1. 






irrY^\'fi4yoi €W(k) 

liyy^^^oVf or ^^A-;^y] 1 

Plup. Ind. 

irrr^^'f^nyi -<ro, -to, -/ac^ox, -^oy, -driy, 'fu^Oy -de, ^^Xfiivoi ^aay \ 

Fut. Ind. 

S. 1. 

Opt. iry«A-of/Ai;K 



iry«A"^» or -" 














P. 1. 







• iryytX-ourro 

Aor I. 

Ind. ^TTciA.-iC/xiyi', etc. 

Aor. n. 

Ind. ^77cA-^/Ai)y Snbj. ieyy^Ktaiuu Opt. &7ycX -o^uijy Imp. 


ayycA-ov Inf. iyytX-^a^u Part. it,yyt\'6fityos. 

Verbal adjective : dyyeA-r/oj, -r^o, -rdor, | 

♦ 151. Shorter Paradigms, arranged according to the 
stem-vowel of the Future, 

(a) with d in the Future: (T^cCaAm, falloj ^afvo^, to show^ Mid. 

to appear. 


Perf. I. 
Perf. n. 
Aor. I. 

tr^pHK-w, €?», ti ffipaXovfia: 









Trd-^y^ 1 appear. 

* / shall appear, 4iro^-, / shall affirm. * Prose dire^., t* vxis affirmed by me. 


Aor. L 
Fut I. 
Aor. IL 
Fut. IL 

i-a^dK-^Tfy (poet.) 
o'^oA-t^o'ofuu (poet.) 


i-ipdy-^v, T appeared, 

i'ip&y^y^ lapprarrd, 

<f>&y-^crofUUy I will it ri" 

Verbal adjective : o-^oA-r^os, -r^a, -riov, ^oy-r/os. 

Digitized by 




[« 152, 153 

Inflection of the Perf. Mid. or Pass, of 

<paty'Wy to show; ^7ipaly-u,to djy, andrc^vw (§ 149, Rem. 3), tosfrefcft. | 

Ind. S. 1. 




P. 1. 








ir€-i>a(r'fi4yot €l<ri{y) 









i'i7ipafJi'fi4yoi tial{y} 








Imp. S. 2. 




P. 2. 


irt'^fdy-^uffOMf or 


i-^fipdy-^avy, or 

r4 rA-ao 





Tt-fd-ff^naeof, or 









§152. (b) with c in the Future: 'ifitip-tc (Ion. and Poet.), to 
desire, and ffT4\\w, to send. 





Aor. I. 












Aor. I. 
Put. I. 


4-(rrd\-^y A. II. i-criK-^y 
aroK-d^a-ofiai P. II. arSX-^o/uu 

Verbal Adj. ififp-rSst -^, '6v, lfi€p-r4os, -rfOf -rtoy, aroK-rdSf aTaK-^4os. 
Kemahk. The inflection of the Perf. Mid. or Pass, is like IjyyeK-fuu, 

§153. (c) With I and in the Future, 
(o) rlW-Wj to pluck ; tripUf to draw ; /iox6y-w, to deJUe. 
















ri\-S) TtA-oOfuu 

Aor. I. 

^-tIA-o i-rlX-dfiriv 

t-avp-a 4-<rvp'dffiiy 

i'fw\vy-a i-fioKw-dfOfy 

A. LP. 




F. LP. 




Aor. II. and Put. II. P. i-attp-riy, avp-^troficu 

Verbal Adj. tiA-tjJj, TiX-T«or, <rvp-r6t, <rup-r4os. 

fAo\vy^6si fio\vy^4os. 

Remark 1. The inflection of the Perf. Mid. or P 

ass. of r4-ri\-fiau, a'4'-avp' 

fjuu, is like liyyfX-fuu, and that of fif-fdkwr-fuu like n 

r4-<fKur-fuu, that of ^trx^fi' 

l-iai (fi-om oiVxiSv-a;, to shame), like 4-^Tipafi-fjuu. 

Digitized by 




{$) Kktif^t, to hend down ; irXdy-«, to wasik^ with p dropped (§ 149, 7). 





Aor. L 












Aor. I. 
Aor. II. 

4'KAt-driP Fut. 1. icAi-dVoA«u 1 4-vKih^y vKO-d^o/iM 
i'KXJb^y Put. II. My^tropm | 

Verbal Adj. KAi-r^;, -^, -<Jy, kAi-t^oj, -t^o, -t^ov, tAvt^i , irKv^ios, 
Rem. 2. The inflection of the Fcrf Mid. or Pass. k^-kAI-^uu and W-irAO- 
1 /Ml is like ri-r&'ftait and corresponds with that of pure verbs. 

f 154. Special Peculiarities in the Formation of 
single Verbs, both Pure and Impure. 

1. The Future of very many Active verbs is in the Middle 
fornii e. g, cucovcui I hear, Fut. oKova-ofiaif IsJiaUhear, Aor. i^kovq-o, 
I heard. See ♦ 198. 

2. The following verbs in -aJua or -aw and -«i>, whose stem 
ended originally in -au* and -cu (ai'', ci''), resume the v in the 
Aorist and Future (§ 25, 2) : — 

Kolw (old Attic Kim seldom, and without contraction), to hwm^ Put. ica^trw; Aor. 

iTicavo'a ; Perf. KiKoiuKa ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. Kinrntiuu \ Aor. Pass, inad^y ; 

Fut. Pass. Kou^aofuu] verbal Adj. komtt^os, KawrrSs, Kcarr6s\ but second 

Aor. Act. ixtiivy I burned^ Intrans., in the Ion. and later writers. 
kXai» (irAdof seldom, and without contraction), to treep, jrAo^o/Mu or jcAauo-ovfuu 

(No. 3), KXaAato late \ first Aor. Act. MKKawrti^ etc. ; Perf Pass. ic^MAoi/ftoi ; 

Aor. Pass. UXalMr^y late. See § 166, 18. 
;^w, to run^ Fat. ;^cv0'OfMu or ^tvcodfuu (No. 3), ;^c^o» late; the other tenses 

are wanting. See rp4x»y ^ 167» 5. 
p4», to swim^ Fut. ytvaofuu or wvo-ov/mu (No. 3) ; Aor. Ivetwa; Perf ycVcvira. 
rA^w, to saiV, Fut. irAc^o/uu, usually irAcvvov/uu (No. 3) ; Aor. firXtwra] Perf. 

ir^AcvKa ; Perf Mid. or Pass. ir(r\tvcfjuu ; Aor. Pass. irXtOadijy ; verbal 

Adj. TACVOT^Of. 

* The w in the Fut. of these verbs is occasioned by the reappearance of tho 
Digamma {F) softened into the vowel v. The Di^amma would regularly 
Btaud in the Pros, before the personal-ending w, but is omitted where it comes 
between two vowels : it appears, however, in the Fut., as it Oiere stands before 
the consonant (T. This is analogous to the disappearance, in the Prcs., of some 
aspirate, perhaps A (comp. vefio), in the Latm verbs j^uo^ struoj and the reap- 
pe«rance of the same in the Pen. before s, with which it combines and forms x. 


Digitized by 



«W», to blow, Fut. trvticofuu or wy€v<rovfuu (No. 3); Aor. fvycvva; Pci£ 

vhryfVKa) late Fat. irv€^(r», and Aor. Pass, i-wtft^adyi^. 
p4t0, to flow, Fut. ^t^ofuu] Aor. Ij^^ewra; both forms extremely rare in tha 

Attic, which uses instead of 'them ^vficotuUf ifp^y^w (§ 192, 7), and so alw 

the Tcif. ipp{rqKa, 

Remask 1. The verb xiv (x^Fw^ X^^)* ^ P*^^ ^ differs from the pre- 
ceding verbs: Fut. x^"\ ^u^- ^d- X^'*f*^ (^^ ^o* ^)} -^o^- ^X<^ Sulj. x^i 
Inf. x^ai, Imp. x^^'^t X^^^^i ct<^} '^or. Mid. ^x*^^'' (^^ ^<>- 7)i ^<^^< -^^^ 
if^X*'««j I*erf- Mid. or Pass. k^xO/u^i Aor. Pass, ixfi^f^i ^^^' ^^^- X"^^«1M« 
(§ 223, R. 2). The forms with cv belong only to the Epic; Fut.x«^i Aor. 


3. The circumflexed Fut in -ov/im which properly, belongs to 
liquid verbs only, is used by the Doric writers with other verbs 
also, whose Future would regularly be in -ota or -croijuai, e. g. 
rv^ui, -€ts, '€if '6vfjL€v, -citc, -owTot ; nnl/oviwx, etc. ; this is called the 
Doric Fut. and is in common use in the following verbs, yet 
only in the Middle form, with the signification of the Fut. 
Act. : — 

^c^», to flee, Fut. ipw^ovfuu and tpti^ofiau 

ira/^-», to sport, " rm^ovfuu " wal^ofiau 

xiC-i0, alvum exonerare, " x^^^^l"^ 

vtrT'to, toflitl, " wtaoufuu (ITETfl) 

wvy^dvouaut to inquire, ^ wwcovftat, usually tc^o^mu, 

and also in those mentioned under No. 2: icXxdm, w\^, wyim, rim, 


4. Future without the tense-characteristic. The Fut of the 
following verbs, being without the Fut characteristic <r, and 
having the inflection of the Present, takes entirely the form of 
a Present, viz. : — 

«-», Epic, usually ia^lw, to eat, Fut. 15-o/iai; vly-w (nm), to drink, Fut. jrf* 
ofuu ; x^«» '<> 7^«»" <*^i F«t. x€«. X««*» X**"* etc. ; Fut. Mid. x^/mu (see Rem. 1). 

5. Also tvvo mute verbs take the Future form of liquid verba 
in 'OVfjLoi without or : — 

fjtdx-ofuu, toflgid, Fut iiax-ovixai (formed from the Ion. fnax-iffoftm). 
Z(oitxu ('£An), to sit, Fut. (i^-ovfuu) Ko^i-ovfuu. 

6. The Fut Perf. of the following verbs has an Act form: — 

MiaKw, to die, Peif. ri^Ko, lam dead, Fut. Perf. Tei^|o» or -|o/iai, I.akaH 

he dead; 
larvfu, to station, Perf. IferrvKa, I stand, Fut. Perf. icr^w or -(o/mu, / MU 

Digitized by 


k 156.] VERBS. SYNCOPE. 187 

'Ear^w and rtMi^v are old Attic ) i<rHi^ofuu and rtdvii^ofuu are 
only in the Attic, X, Cy. 6. 2, 17. 

7. The three following verbs, though not liquid, form the 
first Aor. according to the analogy of the second Aor., without 
the tense -characteristic a- : — 

cjrcir (second Aor.), to say, first Aor. cTir-a; ^/pw ('EFKn), to bear, first Aor. 
llmyK-a (second Aor. IjutyKov) ; x^»i fx«« (see Rem. 1). 

Bem. 2. In the second Aor. irire<roy, from IIET-w (ir/irr-w), to fall, the <r is 
not the tense-characteristic, bnt belongs to the stem, the r having here been 
changed into <r (Dor. Ireroy). The first Aor. Ireo-o, is late ; in Eurip. Ale. 471 
and Troad. 394, the readings are not sufficiently confirmed. 

8. The following piure and impure verbs form the Perf. Subj. 
and Plup. Opt Mid. or Pass, without the aid of the auxiliary 
€lfu; the impure verbs by assuming an c as their characteristic 
in forming the tenses, become analogous to pure verbs : — 

Krd'Ofiait lobtatriy Perf. Kitcntiuu^ I possess, Subj. MtcT&fiai, -y, -i?T«; Plup. 
iittieHifnify I possessed, Opt. Ktier^fniv, Kticr^o, Ktiayro or Kticr^fiiiiff -yo, 

/nfM.P'hffKn (MNAfi), to remind, Perf. fi4funifuu, I remember, Subj. fufumfmif -p, 

-qrcu ; Plup. ifuftrfifATiy, Opt. fitfufjffiri^, -J70, -fro or fitfty^fiTiPf -^0, -^0, and 

in X An. 1. 7, 5. fi4fAvoio (in all the MSS.). 
fid\\», to throw (BAA), Perf. fiifiKrifuu, second Pers. PI. Perf. Subj. Sio^c 

fiXii<r&«, Andoc. p. 22. \ 24. 
jcaX^w, to namej Perf. K^KKrifuu, lam named; Plup. iKtkk-fiiaiv, Opt. KtKkjffifiyf 

-Jo, -Jto. 

Keh. 3. iKT€Tfiriff^o¥ may be found in PI. Rp. 564, c ; at present, however, 
0ie right reading is iKrerfifia-eff^oy, according to most MSS. 

• { 155. Syncope, 

1. A few verbs, in some forms, suffer Syncope (§ 16, 8). 
E. g. the following words in prose : — 

wirofjuu, to Jiff, Aor. irrSfA-nv, m-itr^M, Put. irr^o'ofieu (e syncopated). 

iy*ipc9, to tpcdce, second Aor. iryp^M'^ (^^^ ^^^ ^°^* ^P'l^^^ ^^^ ^^^ accent 

of the Pres.), I awoke (^tp^v, I was awake), (« or i sjmcopated.) 
tpxofuuy to go, second. Aor. ^aj^ok, Inf. ik^fiy, etc., from 'EAETBO (w synco* 

pated), (4 167, 2.) 
olfuu, to suppose, instead of dtofuu, ^^/iijy instead of if6/aiv. 

Digitized by 


188 VERBS. METATHESIS. [i 156 

2. This Syncope occurs most frequently after the rcdu* 
plication ; thus, e. g. 

a. In the Present: 
yiyyofuUf to become, instead of yt^y^yoficu, stem TENfl. 
/liftyWf to remain. Poet., instead of fu-fAtuw, 

Wirrv, to fall, instead of Ti-rcr», stem HETO. 
vtirpdffKU from wtpdof. 

b. In the Perfect: 

w§Tdyyvfii, to spreaa out, wimikfiai \ Wirr«Ka (from HETA), to/aU. 

i 156. Metathesis, 

1. Metathesis (§ 22) occurs in the formation of the tensea 
of several verbs, most frequently in the Perf., Plup., first 
A.or. Pass., and first Fut. Pass, (seldom in the second Aor. 
Act), sometimes also in the Pres., both for the sake of an 
easier or more euphonic form, and, in poetry, for the sake 
of making a syllable long by position. 

2. In the Common language, the foLowing verbs are 
subject to Metathesis : — 

fidWwy to ilirow, Fat. fid\& {fiaW-fiffWy Aristoph. Vesp. 222); Aor. (ffiaXotf; 

Aor. Mid. 4fi&\6iiriv', BAA: Perf. fiifiKriKa] Perf. Mid. or Pass. fiifiXti- 

/Aai; Aor. Pass. ifi\'fi^n¥\ Fut. Pass. i3Ai}d^<ro/au ; Fat. Perf. fitfiKfyrofiau 
dofidot, usually 9afid{a, to tame, Fat. ^ctft&j'u] Aor. 49dfuura; AMA: Perf. 8^9- 

fti^ica; Perf. Mid. or Pass. d4Zfirifiat; Aor. Pass, i^fiii^titff iBdfiipf. 
94fiu, to build (mostly Poet, and Ion.) ; Aor. Act. &€ifM ; Aor. Mid. ^tiftdfaiw ; 

AME: Perf. itSfinKa; Perf. Mid. or Pass. 949fifjfAau 
bvfiffKWyto die, Aor. bar4^a»o¥ ', Perf. ribviiKvu 
hpdKTKto, to leap, Aor. ibopoy, 

Ka\€Wt to call (Poet. KiKh-fiaKv, like Mio'kw), Fut. ica\»; Perf. k4kK7ik€l 
Kdfufw, laboro, Aor. ffKOfioy, Perf. KixfiTiKa. 
0-«c^AA», ffK€k4<a, to make dry, second Aor. t^^KKiiy^ Perf. icKknica; Fat 

r4uLvtOy to cut; Aor. trtfuov, Perf. r4TfiriKcu 
T\'^ffofiatf IwiUbear; Aor. ^tXtji'; Perf. r4T\iiKa, from the stem TAAA. 

Hemark. When the stem of the verb is dissyllabic, then the vowel trans* 
posed by Metathesis coalesces with the following vowel; (a) In inflection: — 

Ktpd-yyvfu (Poet, xtpd-ct), to mingle; Fut. Kepiffco ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. K4Kpa 

ftm instead of K€'Kp4a-fuu] Aor. Pass. ^Kp&^riy. 
wnrpda-Kct,to8cll (instead of viitepdirKn, wivptda-Kto), &om ircpdw (hence Fnt 

Digitized by 


4f 157, 15^^ VERBS IN 'to WITH STRENGTHENED STEM. 189 

vcp&M): Ferf. r^irpdfco, wiirpafia,] Aor. Pass, ivpi^riy] Tut. Peril 
irtir f/(£(ro/ia(. 
aropi'yvOfUf to ttrcw; secondary form trrp^vwvyn (instead of arpt6vyviu)\ 
'Evkt.arpd'ffw] Aor. Hffrpwaa] Pcrf. Mid. or Pass. Hffrpwaai) Aor. 
Taas. iarp^^riv. 
ircXi^tf, appropinquo, to 6rin^ to, wtkd^w, irAdi^o*; Aor. Pass. ^cXc£o';^y; 
Poet. Att. 4ir\i^riy'f second Aor. Att ^irXd/ufy; Perf. Mid. or PasB. 
Att ir^irXd/iBi. 
(b) The same holds also in the stem of the verb dpArru, to disturb (formed 
from rapdrrvf t/mm(tt»), an Attic form of rapdrffw ; Aor. I^^o. 

♦ 157. Verbs in -w with the Stem of the Present 

1. It has already been seen {kk 138-140), that the stem of 
many verbs is strengthened in the Present ; but this strength- 
ening remains only in the Present and Imperfect. Besides the 
modes of strengthening already mentioned, by t (wt, /ct), o- (m^ 
i), and by lengthening the stem-vowel, there are others, which 
will now be specified. 

Rehabk. All the forms which are assumed for the sake of constructing the 
tenses in use, are indicated by capitals (§ 138, 3). The abbreviations, D. M., 
signify Deponent Middle^ and D. P., Deponent Passive (§ 102, 3). The fi i, placed 
in parenthesis, shows that the form standing before it, is analogous to the con- 
jugation in -fit, to be treated below. See § 191. 

♦ 158. I. Verbs, whose Pure Stem is strengthened in the 
Pres. and Impf, by inserting v before the ending, 

Pbelim INABT Kemask. Bo/km lengthens the stem-vowel a into ax \ iXaiv^^ 
a into av \ ddyn and vhw, S and t into v and L 

1. Botvo), to go (BA-), Fut p^fiai; Perf. pifirfKa (} 194, 2) ; 
second Aor. ^i^ (/«, } 191); the Pass, occurs in compounds, 
e. g. ayapalvopjOLf AuapifiafmL, irapafiiPapiXLL, AvePiBrjv, irap^PaS-qv 
[kk 130 (c), and 131, 5]. Verbal adjectives, /Jaros, /Marcos. 

Kemahk. First Aor. Act. ((firjira, and Put. p^vw, are transitive, / brought^ 
will bring^ and belong only to the poetic, Ionic, and later writers 

2. Si5vw, to go in, to go under, to put on. The unstrengthcned 
verb &){!> (KttTcSiJcD) has in the Pres., in the Fut Sixrwand lirst 
Aor. Act f^vfTo, a transitive signification, to wrap up, to immerse. 

Digitized by 



to sink; (so also Ferf. in X. An. 5. 8, 23, dTroScSvjccir;) Aor 
Pass. cSvV; Flit. Pass. Sv^iJo-o/Liat [* 130 (b),2]. But the Mid. 
BvofjLcu, BiBufiai, Bva-ofjuu, iSvcdfirp^, signifies to wrap vp one^s self, to 
go intOf or under, to clothe one's self; likewise' the Perf. 3c5vica 
and the Aor. c8w (fit, } 191), have an intransitive signification, 
like 8vo/xai. Verbal adjectives, ^6^, Svrcos. 

3. cAawo), to drive (secondary form Aw, -ot?, etc. poetic, yet 
also in X. Cy. 8. 3, 32. aTrcXo, Imp.) ; Fut cXoo-w (in later writers, 
though also X. An. 7. 7, 55, cXoo-oKras), commonly Att. Aw, -f?, 
-a, Inf. IKay ($ 117); Aor. ^Xaaa; Perf. AijXoKa; Mid. to drive 
from me, Aor. r^XMrdfirjv ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. cXijXofuu ; Inf. cXiy- 
Xacr^oi [i 124, 2 (a)] ; Aor. Pass. rfXaJSipf [Si in the tense-forma- 
tion, $ 130 (c) ; without or, i 131, 5]. — Verbal adjectives, Aaroc 
fXarios (X. HipparclL 2, 7). 

4. ;^ra» and ;&i^ (poet.), to rage, Fat. 3^0-00, etc.; second Aor. Part dvfiana 
(/u), raging. 

5. irivm, to diink, Fut ttio/wu (} 154, 4), among the later 
writers Triov/iai, but also, in X- Symp. 4, 7. wtcZb-^c ; second Aor. 
cwXov, Inf irtctv, Part, wiaiv. Imp. inJ^i {k 191), poet., and seldom 
prose TTtc ; HO- Perf. irhmKa \ Perf Mid. or Pass, irh-ofuu ; Aor. 
Pass. cVo'^, Fut Pass. iroS^crofjtm f» 130 (c), and 131, SJ. 
Verbal adjectives, ttotos, worio^. 

6. T*iti), ^o ^ay, to eccpiate, Fut tio-w; Aor. crura; Perf Act. 
Tert#ca; Perf Mid. or Pass, rerurfjuu, Aor. Pass. crtaSr^v ($ 131). 
Mid. rivofAoi, to get pay from, to avenge, to punish, rtaopm, h-la-d" 
fjirjv. Verbal Adj. runiov. In the Pres. and Impf the penult is 
long in Epic, short in Attic ; in the other tenses, it is long in all 
the poets. 

Tito, to honor, ritru, UrUra, rirlfuUf Poet 

7. fji^dyu), to anticipate, Fut. <I>3t^oiuu, more rarely tf^^dawy e g. 
X Cy. 5. 4, 38. 7. 1, 19; first Aor. Ifji&acra, and (in prose more 
seldom) second Aor. €<l>S7jv (ijll, $ 191) ; Perf c^oica. In Pres 
and Impf d in Epic, a in Attic. 

8. ^hm (poet., rarely prose and only in the Frcs., e. g. Fl. Phaedr. 246, c. 
Symp 211, a.), to perish (seldom to consume), Fut. ^ta-to and Aor. ^<^7ffa, trans, 
to consume. ^Intrans., Fnt. ^iaoftai] Ferf. I^t/uw, f^irriu; Flnp. and second 
Aor. i^ffifip, Subj. <p^iwfuu. Opt. 4>^(firiv, ^no. Imp. ^Iff^, Inf. tp^lv^tu^ 

Digitized by 



Part, ^ifuyoi, e. g. X Cj. 8. 7, 18. rots ^mtwis, the dead (^, § 192). Verbal 
adjective, ^dir6s. 
Here belong also three verbs, whose pure stem ends with a consonant : — 

• 9. SoicvQ*, to bite, Aor. cSo/cov; Fut B^ofuu (late &y6u) ; Perf. 
Aor. S^x*J ^®^^- ^^^- ^'^ Pass. ScSi/y/ioi; Aor.. Mid. i^idfjurfv 
(Hippoc); Aor. Pass. cSiJx*^; Fut. Pass. Brix-^T^frofuu, 

10. KdfjLvm, to labor, to be weary, Aor. IcafjLov; Fut ico/aov/mu; 
Perf. K€KfLriKa 156, 2). 

11. rifUHo, to cut, Fut T^m\ Aor. ercfU)v (eroftov, } 140, 2); 
Perf. rerftijica (f 156, 2) ; Mid to cut for one's^self (something) ; 
Aor. Mii ^c/to/iiTv ; Perf. Mid. or Pass, rirfjirjimi ( Subj. rerfw^- 
Say, ♦ 154, Rem. 3); Aor. Pass. hfniSrjv; Fut Perf. Ter/Ai/o-ofuw, 
Verbal Adj. Tftiyros, rfirfrio^. . 

f 159. II. Verbs, whose Pure Stem is strengthened in 
the Pres, and Imp/, by inserting the syllable v« 
before the ending. 

1. Pv-v€xa, to stop up, Fut Pva-o) ; Aor. tfivcra ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. 
fiiPwTiLon', Aor. Mid. ifiva-dfnjv; Aor. Pass. iPva-Srjv (4 131). 

Pres. /9^, not used by the Attic writers. 

2. uc'vlofuu (the simple is seldom used in prose, e. g. Th. 5, 
40. PL Phaedr. 276, d., the compound being generally used 
instead of it), o^ucveo/juii, to come, Fut. a(fH$ofim; Aor. &(f>iK6firp^, 
6/fl>uciar&<u ; Perf. d^iy/icu, &<l>ixSai ; Plup. &^yii.rp/f axliucTo, Verb. 
Adj. ucTo^, 

3. KW'iio, to ^w, Fut Kvcrca: Aor. ocvora [i 130 (b)]. But wpo9- 
ICUVCC0, to worsMp, Fut. irposicw^o) ; Aor. irposcionn^cra (also poetic 
vposeJcvcra, Inf. irposmxrcu). 

4. virurx-y^ofuu (\nrC(rx'Ofim Ion.), strengthened form of vir^o/ioi, 
propeily, to Ao^ <wic** self under, to promise, Aor. \nr€<rx'6firiy. Imp. 
viroa7(oi; ; but Fut. V7ro<rxqarofUU ; Perf. vKicryriiuu.. So, di/ATrio^ov- 
pu or afiw€xpfjuii, to clothe (from dlfi?rcx(u, to surround), Impf <i/A?rcr- 
;^, Fut. &fJL<^i$a>, Aor. rffiTrurxpv, dfnrurxelv, Fut a/JL<f>iiofKU', Aor. 
^irurxpfirpf and '^fiir€a'\6firjv (i 126, 1). 

Digitized by 



f 160. III. Verbs, whose Pure Stent is strengthened in 
the Pres, and Impf, by inserting the syllable ar, 
more rarely dtv, before the ending. 

a. &y or ai¥ is inserted without any change. 
Preliminabt Remark. AU verbs of this kind form their tenses from a 
uirecfold stem, viz. the Pres. and Impf.4rom the strengthened stem, the second 
Aor. from the pure stem, the Fnt and Ferf. from a third stem, consisting of a 
pure stem and an assumed c, which is changed in the inflection into n ; hence 
the Fnt and Perf. are formed like the same tenses of verbs in -«». — The a in 
the ending -^vm is alsiTshort in Epic (except in the three verbs, Ixitmt ^^yw, 
and «nxd(y») ; but long in Ik^u in Attic 

1. cuo-'^-av-ofMu (seldom aur-^o/iai), to perceive, Aor. yo-S-ofiTpr, 
aicrSio'^ai; Perf. ycrSrjfjuu; Fut dicrSi^ofKu-y verb. Adj. aia-BT/jTo^. 

2. ofitiprayu}, to miss, Aor. rjfuipTov (late '^fjudprrja'a) ; Fut. afuap- 
n^ofioL {afrnfyn^aro}, only in Alexandrine Greek) ; Perf. rffwpnfKa,', 
Perf. Pass. ^fidfynjfiaL ; Aor. Pass, ^luxprq^ (X* An. 5. 9, 21. 
Vcct. 4, 37). Verb. Adj. afmfynjTiov. 

3. airexl^dyofuu, to be Jiated, Aor. dTrrj\S6firiv (poet. i^X'^^fT") » 
Inf airix^ccrSai with irregular accent; Fut. aircx-^a-ofjxu: Perf. 
^'"Jx^f""' /am hated. 

4. aviavio (and av^), to increase, Fut av^^o); Aor. 'qv(yf(Ta\ 
Perf rfi^Ka; Mid. and Pass, to thrive, Perf rfi^fxai; Fut. av^ 
aofjMi and av(rj3rja-0fjuu ; Aor. tjjv^Stjv, 

5. pXxurTayui, to sprout, Aor. l/SAaarov (later ipXaxnTjaa) ; Fut. 
pXiurr^; Perf ifiXMrr/jKa and P^pkaxmiKa {k 123, 2). 

6. BapSaaw, commonly in composition, KaraS., to ^e;?, Aor. 
KoeriSap^ov {KaTO^apSevra, Aristoph. Plut 300) ; Fut. KaToSap^iJcro. 
fKu; Perf. KaraScSop^Ka. 

7. i^oi^ and KoSiiaa^, secondary form of liw^ KoSiCia. See 
♦ 166, 16. 

8. icAayyavb), used of dogs, a secondary form of Kkdiw, to cry 
out, Fut. K-Xayiw (K€K\dy(ofmi, Aristoph. Vesp. 930) ; Aor. ocXayja, 
ScXoyov, Eur. Ipli. T. 1062; Perf KCKXayya (old form KcicXiyyo). 

9. olBayo}, otSatVo) (also oiSao), otScoj), to sivell, Fut. ocS^oxj; Perf 

10. oXurSoyia . (oXurSaivo} uscd by later writers), to ^Zt}?, Aor^ 
wAmt^ov; Fut. oXto-^TTo-o) ; Perf. wAwr-^iyKa (first Aor. coW^ipa 

Digitized by 



1 1. 6a'^fMivofjuaL, to smell, Aoic. wnfipofirju ; Fut oa-^prqcro^LajL. 
Frtt. le^pSur^ui was a rare Attic form ; Aor. wr^pTja-dfiiiy and oir^paydijvQi 


12. wffXMTKayui (rare Inf. o<^Xctv, Part. 5<^Xa)K), to be liable to a 
fine, to incur jncniskmerU (the double strengthening ixtk and av 
is to be noted) ; Aor. Sxf>\ov ((o^i^a, Lys. 13, 65. and by later 
writers); Eut o^ijcnD; Per£ wf>kriKa\ Perf. Mid. or Pass. 

b. &y is appended to the pure stem, and p is inserted before 
the Characteristic-consonant.« 

Preliminabt Remabk. The short Towel in the middle of the pore stem 
18 changed into a long one, in inflection. The y is subject to the osnal changes 
before the Pi and Kappa^mates (§ 19, 3). 

13. ifnjyyaana (instead of ipv-v^ySofw), ructo, Aor. ^pvyoi/, lut 


14. Stfyavfo, to touch, Aor. l5Tyov; Fut St^ofjuu, 

15. Xayxjivto, to obtain by lot, Aor. fXax^^'f ^^^' X^fo/xot; Perf. 
tikrixo, (rarely A^Xoyx* fj^oni AEFX-, comp. viirov&a, TraSelv, ircF- 
i^os) ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. cZXi/ypu ($ 123,4) ; Aor. Pass. cXi^x^* 
Verbal Adj. Xi/irrcos. 

16. Xofifiaiw, to take, Aor. ^Xafiov, Imp. Xa/9e and Attic Xafii 
[\ 118, 3 (a)] ; Fut X^oim; Perf. €t^Tf4Hi; Perf. Mid. or Pass. 
cZ\i7/ifuu (i 123, 4), (XeXi/fuxi Aesch. Ag. 876) ; Aor. Mid. ^Xa)3o/Aip; 
Aor. Pass. iX^-SiTv ; Fut. Pass. XiT^^i/crofuu. Verbal Adj. X7prr6% 


17. Aav^^oKii (poet and also X. O. 7, 31, also kij^(a), to be con' 
eeaied, Aor. KkaJ^ov (L Aor. IKtftra late in simple words) ; Fut 
k^trta; Perf. XcXit^o, J am concealed; Mid. Xoy^avofuu (Ion. and 
poet also krjSoiJMi), in prose lirtX. (seldom hrX.), txifiyrget, Fut 
Xv<yofuu; Perf \f\rf(rfjMt (* 131) ; Aor. iXa5o/ii;v; Fut Perf XcXi{- 
rro^Mu, Eur. Ale. 1981. 

18 XifjLTrSi^ rare secondary form of Xctiro). 

19. fmv^av<o, to learn, Aor.* c/aoL^oi/; Fut fjuaSi^oiJiaL; Perf 
fLgfiA^rfKa. — The a remains short, and the Fut and Perf are 
formed from the stem MA0E, according to No. a. Verb. Adj. 

20. wwSayoum^ to inquire, to perceive, Aor. ivvSofirju; Perf. wt' 


Digitized by 



Tvcfjioi, vhnxnu, etc. (} 131) ; Put tci^/uu (very rarely vcmrov- 
IJMi, i 151, 3). Verb. Adj. ircwrw, vtwrrw. 

21. Tvyxiw, to Juijypen, Aor. ervxov; Fut, T€v$ofiM (TEYX-); 
Perf. Tcrvx^/Ktt (ITXE- according to No. a). The transitive of 
tliis verb is the poetic t€vx!^ paro. 

22. f^vyyovQ), secondary form of ^eirytiH to Jlee, Fut ^cv£o^ 
and -iovfutt (§ 154, 3) ; Aor. c^uyov; Perf. wc^cvya^ Verb. Adj 

^KVKTO^f -rco9. 

23. ;(ai'&ii^ to hold, contain (spoken of vessels), Aor. ^a&ir; 
Perf. with a Pres. signification jccxoy&i; Fut x^uro/icu (stem 
XENA-y comp. {m^ov^ ircurofuu). 

♦ 161. IV. Verbs, whose Pure Stem is strengthened in 
the Pres. and Imp/, by annexing the two conso* 
nants, o-ic or the syllable lq-k. - 

2ic is annexed, when the stem-characteristic is a rowel, and we, ^en it is a 
consonant j icv-t<rKw and xpn-t^icofiot are exceptions. Most verbs, whose pure 
stem ends wit;h a consonant, form the Future, etc. according to the analogy of 
pure Tcrbs, in -du, -/«, and -A», e. g. wtp-UrKct, Fut. edpi^w from 'ETPE- ; iL/jifiJd^ 
M», Fut itfifikA-^rv from *AMBAO-. Some of these verbs, in the Pres. and Impf, 
take a reduplication also, which consists in repeating the first consonant of the 
stem with i, and may be called the improper reduplication. Most of these Teibs 
correspond to the Latin Inchoatives in sco : yiyp^vKw, {ifidaicm, yiipJuricm, 

1. oX-MTK-ofuu, to be taken, to be conquered, with this meaning, is 
used as the Pass, of atpc(i),Imp£ i^Wico/ti/v; CAA.O-) Fut dXaxro/iai; 
second Aor. ^Awv, Att UKuiv and iJXwv (/«, i 192, 9), I was taken, 
Perf yXuuccL, and Att iaXmKa and rjkuuca, I/uive been taken (Aug., 
k 122, 4 and 6). The Active is supphed by a^tv, signifying, to* 
take captive, to conquer. Verb. Adj. akuyr6i. Xen. uses both 
loXcDv and rikmvy An. 4, 4. 21. ; Thu. only coAiuv and coXoMca: Plato 
also only eoXcoKa. 

2. ofifiXuTKu (seldom ofi^kooi), to miscarry ("AMBAO-), Fut 
dfipXtii(r<o; Aor. ^/it/?A(ixra ; Perf. T^fifikuMca; Perf. Frss. TjfipXMfuu; 
Aor. Pass, ^pifiho^riv, 

3. dvaPuxTKOfuu, (a) to recall to life, (b) to live again, Aor. 
^tfiuMTdpiriv, I recalled to life ; but second Aor. di/c/?tW (/it, § 192, 
10), J lived again. 

4. dvuXuTKo) (also dvoAod)), to spend, to consume, Impf dyi^Xia«op 
(4»iXow without Aug.); Fut avaXwoxo; Aor. dn^Wra and avir VjOOQIC 


XoMra, jcan/KoXoxTa ; Perf. avqXjuuca and dmXcDica ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. 
San^XtofuiL and dni\cD/Aai; Aor. iyaXxoSriv, dvrfXutSTp^ ; Fut. Pass. 
avaXfoSi^oiuiu Thu. and the Tragedians preferred the unaug- 
mented forms ; Plato and the orators, the aCigmented. 
• 5. opco-jco), to please, Fut opco-oi; Aor. ^pcora [} 130 (d)] ; (Perf. 
^prpaca in Sext. Emp. ;) Mid. with Accusative, to appease, to 
satisfy, Fut apia-ofuu, Aesch. SuppL 654 ; Perf Mid. or Pass, ijpccr- 
fiox; Aor. Pass, riplcr&ifivy Soph. Ant 500. Verbal Adj. dpcoro^. 

6. PifipwTKWy to eat (Fut Att SSopu from ia-^ua, second Aor 
li/wtyov), Perf piPp^Ka; Part /?€/?p<fc (} 194) ; Perf Mid. or Pass 
pippatfuu (Aor. Pass. iPp(a^, and Fut Pass. PptitSrjfrofim non- 
Attic ; instead, the forms of iarSua are used). 

7. y^ymviiTKu (mostlj Poet), to caU; to make huncn, Fat. 7«7»i^<r«; Aor- 
Syey^iynca; Perf. 7^y«ra, with a Present signification; — farther, ytyvytlrv, 
Xen., 7«7WFc<r, Poet., seldom prose, e. g. PI. Hipp. M. 292, d, from the Prim. 


8. yqpaxrKm (or yijpaM), senesco, to grow old, Fut yT^pdxro/uu (sel- 
dom yrjpaxr<a Plato) ; Aor. iyi^pdaa (in Aesch. SuppL 901., Trans. 
to cause to grow old), Inf yrfpaurai (instead of it yijpSyai, from an 
old second Aor. fyjpdv, was preferred by the Attics, /u, } 192, 1) ; 
Perf yeyi^paKOj lam old. 

9. yv/inxTKta (ylvwrKu)), cognosco, to know (PNO-), Fut yvwro- 
ftjut; second Aor. ifyvwv (ftt, 4 191); Perf fy/wKa; Perf Mid. or 
Pass, hfvwrfjuax {k 131); Aor. Pass, cyvwo-^; Fut Pass. ywDo-^ 
vofuu. Verbal Adj. yvoxrros (old form yvtaro^), yvwrrio^. 

. 10. StSpouTKu), to nin away (only in compounds, e. g. d7ro8., ^cS., 
&a5.), Fut SpcurofMu; Perf Sc^ojca; second Aor. cSpav (/xi, } 192, 

11. cvptb-KO), to find, second Aor. cSpov; Imp. ^pi [k 118, 3 
(a)]; OEYPE-) Fut €upi}o-a); Perf cvpiyica; Perf Mid. or Pass. 
kvpripm; Aor. Pass. evpiSrp^ [^130 (d)] ; Fut Pass. €vpijSii<rofmi; 
Mid. to obtain, Aor. (vp6p.rjv (Aug. j 121, Rem.). Verbal Adj. 
€vp€T6^, evpqrioi, 

12. riPaxTKia, pubesco, to become marriageable, Fut ^/Jijo-oi; Aor 
^Prpu; Perf ^/Siy/ca (^j3a<u, to 6c young, but &vrjP<uo, to became 
young again). 

13. ^I'To-Ko), commonly dTro^K^Kw, to cSc (Metathesis, } 156, 
2), (0AN-) Aor. &jriSayw (Poet g^avov; ^^awov, ol ^^ovovrcs, tA« 

Digitized by 



dead, aiso in prose) ; Fut diro^ayov/uu (Poet ^avov/uu) ; Per£ 
riSvrjKa (not dirorc^Ka) both in prose and poetry, re^yofto 
(4 194), etc., Inf. reSydyai; Fut Perf. tc^co (^ 154, 6), and 
among later writers re^nj^o/juu, I shall be dead. Verbal Adj. 
Jhrrp-o^, mortal 

14. Spwa-Kio (i 156, 2), to spring, to leap, Aor. ISopoi^; Fut 
5opovfuu; Perf. riSopa. 

15. IXMTKOfjim, to propitiate, Fut Uocrofuu; Aor. L iXcuto/xitf; Aor. 
Pass. lAfiuTi^i/v. 

16. fjLfSviTKxa, to intoxicate, Fut /tc^ucna; Aor. i/USwra, But 
fi^Mto, to be intoxicated (only Pres. and Impf.), borrows its tenses 
from the Passive, e. g. ifitSwrSriy ($ 131): 

17. fufun^iaa, to remind (MNA-), Fut fim^ata ; Aor. ^nTo-a ; Mid 
to remind one^s self, to remember, also to mention ; Perf. yiiiunqiim, 
memini, I remember, lam mindful (Redup. J 123, Rem. 1), 
Subj. fi€fmofjuiL, -g, -Trot (f 154, 8), Imp. ft^^n/cro; Plup. ifije/Mtrf- 
firpr, I remembered, Opt fL^i^fu/yy -^o, -^o, or fUfji^n^T^, -^, -«ro 
(} 154, 8) ; Fut Perf. fj^fMn^ofuu^ I shall be mindfd (among the 
Tragedians also, / unll mention) ; Aor. ^/wtto-^, / remembered 
(ifun/fardfjLtiv Poet); Fut fivrfaSi^ofim, I shall remember (diro/iyT- 
iroftcu, Th. 1, 137). 

18. irdaryyi (formed from TraSa-Kia, by transferring the aspiration 
of ^ to ic), to experience a sensation, to suffer, Aor. oroSoy; 
(IIEN0-) Fut v€Carofim; Perf. ir^v-^a. Verbal Adj. Tro^ip-ds. 

19. iTMrurKo), to give to drink, Fut irto-w; Aor. firura. 

20. irvirpaxrKw, to sell, rare in Pres. Act. (Fut and Aor. in the 
Common language expressed by airoSwa-oiuu, aircSo/Ai^v) ; PerC 
vhrpajca (k 156, Rem.) ; Perf. Mid. or Pass, vetrpafuu (Inf. imrpaxr- 
J^ai, often instead of the Aor.) ; Aor. iTrpdJhfv, Fut Perf. iKvpa- 
(Topjax in the sense of the simple Fut vpw^rlaofjMif which is rare 
and not Attic. Verbal Adj. Trparos, irpdrcos. 

21. ur€pi(TK<a (seldom artpito, diroaripowra^, Isoc. 12, 243^ 
according to the Ms. Urb.), to deprive of, Fut areptja-to', Aor. 
iariprrfa-a; Perf. iaripriKa; Mid. and Pass. orcpto-Ko/Aoi, orcpov/ioi, 
privor; but aripopxu, lam dejmvcd, Fut. artprja-opjai, rarer (tt^m^ 
S^opm {a7ro<rr€p€ur^€, Andoc. Myst 149); Perf. cor^fuu; Aor. 
i(rr€prj^. The simple occurs most frequently in the middle 
form ; in the Act, the compound dTnxrrcpMricai is more frequent 

Digitized by 


M.162, 163.] VERBS IN -«» WITH 8TRENOTHSNED STEM. 197 

22. m-piMriaa, to wamtdt Fut rpwiw ; Aor. Irpwra ; Perf. Mid. 
or Pass, rh-ptofuu. Inf. rerpiUrBaji^ P&rt. rerptafjiiyoi ', Aor. irpioSTp^ ; 
Fut. rptaSi^crofuu and rpoxro/iai. Verbal Adj. rpcom. 

23. tftdxTKnoy to say, to think (Ind. and Imp. very rare), Impf 
^^ooTKov; Fut ^17010 ; Aor. ^eq(Ta. — (Pass. iifwrKtro, S. Ph. 114), 

24. x!^*^^ ^ S^P^ (XAN-, among the later writers -xolvia), Aor. 
€)^i»w\ Fut xovovfuu; Perf. «c^;(7ra, to jtanc? open. 

Remark. In SiScCo-jcw, dbo-eo, the jc belonging to the stem is Btrengthened 
by c prefixed ; hence the jc remains in forming the tenses, Fut. ZMfyt ; Aor. ^l- 
ZafyL\ Perf. ScdtSaxa; Perf. Mid. or Pass. acS^SayAuu; Aor. Pass. 49iBdx^. 
Verb. Adj. SiSorr^f , -r^«f . The same usage is found in the Epic and poetic 
Terbs, itX^KCf, iLK&aieot, xJurKm, See § 230. 

♦ 162. V. Yerhs which have a Secondary Form in -5«, 

Sereral yeibSi particularly in poetry, haye secondary forms in •dw, e. g. 
^cT^ir, poetic (instead of ^X^^ciy), to bum; iiy^piboprai and ^fptf* 
j^oyrai. Epic, instead of ky^tporrai and Aciporrai. Here belong also the end- 
ings -a&w and -^i^tfu of the Bnpf., and -d^u^ of the Pres. Inf., which are used 
eren in Attic prose, e. g. aX^|«, to ward off^ tragic Inf. AXicil^eiy (stem *AAK) ; 
^^yw, to ward off^ iifiwd^ty, Impf. ^/i^radoy; — 8m&ic», to pursue^ 8i«iMt^tcr» 
Impf. ISc^Kcid«i', also prose ; — «&«, to ytieU^ Impf. ^t$uAw, 9ht4dfHfu ; -^ dpyii, 
to al^ up, Impf. and Aor. dipya^oir; — fx«, to Aove, 0%^*^ (^ Homer exM^w 
as Aor.). 

4 163. VL Fer^s, whose Pure Stem is strengthened in 
the Pres, and Impf, by prefixing a Reduplication, 

The reduplication consists in repeating the first consonant of the root with 
Ae TOwel 1. In the Epic and poetic dialects, there are also Terbs, which take 
the Attic reduplication, i. e. they repeat the first two letters of the root ; sea 
^^X^C<>^> iarwpiffKw, iipaplv'Ktt, f 230. 

1. fiiPdtifo^ to make go, to convey, Fut Att fitfiSi^ -f«, -^ (still 
also fitpatrto; X. An. 4, 8, 8. 5. 2, 10). Verbal Adj. Pifiaar^. 

2. yiyvofim (ycKo/xoi) instead of yiylyofuu (4 156, 2), to become, 
to be, (PEN-) Aor. iy€y6firjy (late Attic lycnj^) ; Fut yani(rofuu 
(PL Parm. 141, e. yorqcrerai, fiet, and moreover yevt-S^eroi, effide- 
tur) ; Perf. ycyoo/fuu, I have become, foetus sum, exstiti, and yfywa 
with a present signification, lam, implying I am by birth; ^ycw- 
u^ and yeycfya are also used as preterites of d/il, to be, 

3. irmti) (instead of irwrerw, ♦ 155, 2), to faJl, lup. irtwrc ; 
(UBT-) Fut ir«ffov/Mu (^ 154, 3) ; Aor. htww (very seldom first 


Digitized by 



Aor. crwra), i 164, Rem. 2 ; Perf. ?rcimiMca with irregulax variabU 
vowel (Part ircirw, iriinwos. Poet $ 194, 5). 

4. TirpoAo, to bore, Fut. rpi^cru; Aor. erptffra. More usudl the 
secondary form rerfxuvu}, Fut rcrpovw ; Aor. irerpr/pfa (f 149, Rem. 
2) ; Perf. rhptiKa, rtrpnfifuu. Verbal Adj. rpifrot. 

Seyenl reiiM of class lY (§ 161) belong here, as yvffAvttm, and seyeral reiii 
in -/u, as 8(8«/u. 

{164. VII Vtrhi, whose Fw e Stem^vowel a is 
strengthened in the Pres, and Ifnpf. by c. 

Here belong the dialectic rerbs, mostlj Epic and poetic : kyaUfam^ to be w- 
dignani; Bo/W, to divide and hum ; fudoftm, to rage ; vaim, to dwell. See § 230. 

i 165. VIIL Verbs, whose Pure Stem assumes c in the 
Pres, and Imp/. 

1. yofiiio, to marry (of the man), Perf. yeyd/ArfKa; but Fut 
yofm; Aor. e^nj/ui, y^fuu (iydfuriau furst in Menander, then in 
Lucian. ; ya/iriaeuis with the better reading yayofreim in X Cy. 
8. 4, 20). Mid. yofuovfjuai (with the Dat), to marry (of the 
woman, nubo), Fut yofwvfjMi; Aor. hftf/mfLriy ; Perf yeydfofftm. 
Pass, in matrimonium ducor, Aor. iyofiijBip^, etc. [f 130 (d), 2]. 

2. yi/^co>, Poet, usually Perf. ycyiy^a (also prose), to rejoue, 
Fut yiy^Jottf. 

3. Soicluy ^ feem, videor, to think, Fut So£q> (SomToncD poet) ; 
Aor. &o$a (i^tcrftra Poet) ; Aor. Pass. KaraSox^ek, Antiph. 2. 116, 
2; Perf. Mid. or Pass. ScSoy/uu (Sc^^jc^/aoc, Ionic and Euiip.), 
visus stmi. 

4. KTvw4w (Poet.), to resoundt Fat -^i^w, etc. ; second Aor. tienntop (Epic and 
B. O. C. 1450) ; first Aor. iiedintva (ib. 1606). 

5. fu»frvpi<a, to bear witnessy Fut ijuafnvfyqtm, etc. But pjaprvpo' , 
gtm, Dep. Mid. ^ coZ? a« witnesses. 

6. ^p€a>, ^ 5^ar, to shave. Mid. (vpofuu ; Aor. l^vpdfiTjv ; but 
Perf. i^vfnjpxu. 

1. wSeto, to push, Impf. cco^ovi/; Fut (mto) and wSi^; Aor. 
3w<ra, So-ot; Perf. &)Ka late, Plut; Fut Mid. tM-ofim; Aor. Voxra* 
fwyv; Perf. Mid. or Pass, loa-fuu; Aor. Pass. iutcrSriv; Fut Pass. 
ittrlhryroiim (Aug. } 122, 4). Verbal Adj. «90to9« -tIdc. 

Digitized by 



♦ 166. Verbs, whose Stem is Pure in the Tres, and 
Imp/,, but which assume an t in forming the 

This change has taken place in the fonnation of verhs in -4», partly from 
necessity, as is the case with rerbs whoseAcharacteristic is |, ^ ; partly for the 
sake of perspicuity, that the root marf not Wholly disappear by the introdaction 
of consonants, as in verbs whose characteristic is c^k, x^ i ^^^ partly from mere 
choice or the desire of euphony, as in verbs whose characteristic is 5, r, (, A, 
p» ^» K, X* ^ <>'> *> ^^' '^^^ c ^ changed into i| in inflection. Exceptions : 
mX^/uu, &x^ofuUf and ftdxotuu [§ 130 (d)]. 

I. tHiofuu, to fed shame^ to fear (Pres. and Impf. old poetic, in the Common 
language alS4ofuu), Impf. tdfiSfiriP without Aug.; Fut. tdUaofuu and -iiffofjuu 
(frcuScird^o'o/iat, Eur. Iph. A. 889) ; Perf. f^f<rfi4yos, Dem. Aristocr. 646, 1 ; 
Aor. ]jSc<r<^i|i' (with Ace), as a law-term in Attic prose, signifying to pardon a 
mtppUcaU; bat also in poetiy, signifying to be ashamed of to fear ; but in this 
sense ijUcbiiv is commonly used. 

2. dA«£o>, to ward off. Act seldom in prose, X. Cy. 4. 3. 2, ^IXiif- 
ccy; Fut. dXc^Tcntf (Aor. ^Xc^i/o-o, Horn.); Mid. to ward off from 
one^s self, Fut dXc^ofuu (oXcfb/uu as Fut of 'AA£K- is rare, 
e. g. S. Or. 171. 539. X. An. 7. 7, 3) ; Aor. riks^-qv (^Xcfi;ord/xi;i/, 
Horn, and X. An. 1. 3, 6. in all the best MSS.) (Inf. second 
Aor. oA/coJctv, used by the Trag., k 162.) 

3. av(^ to increase ; see av£(md, k 160, 4. 

4. ax^ofjuu, to be vexed, Fut ax^ia-ofuu, and in prose usually 
ax^ecrStja-ofiai (both with the same signification); Aor. rf/BlcrBiiv 
(♦ 131). 

5. pofTKio, to feed, Fut Pwricqcrvi ; Aor. Ipoaicqmi ; Mid. intrans. 
to feed, to eat. Verbal Adj. poro^, Pofncrjrw. 

6. pavXopm, to wish (second Pers. /Savkei, H16, 11), Fut fiov- 
Xrjarofjuu ; Ferf. PtPovXruuu, ; Aor. ipovkrfiyjv and rffiovXtj^ (Aug., 
i 120, Rem. 1). 

7. B4<i>, to want, to need, usually Impers. ^itis wa/nting, it is 
necessary {k 137, 2), Subj. Soy, Part 8cov, Inf Sctv; Impf. Sci, Opt 
Sc'oi; Fut Sc^ct; Aor. lUq<T^{v) ; Perf 8€8ci?kc(v) ; Mid. Uoiaxu, to 
need, Fut. Sci^o-o/Aai ; Aor. iheqBrfv ; Perf ScSci^pu. 

8.' ^^eX<i) and ^eXo), to wiU, Impf v^cXof and j^cXov ; Fut 
c<^cA.7oto and .^cXi^; Aor. -^tkryra and c^eXs^cra; Perf only 

Digitized by 



9. €tXAOy cIXXah iXXtts also ciX«b)» to press, to shut up, Fut ciXa^, 
Perf. Mid. or Pass, ctXi^fuu; Aor. Bass. elXi^Srpr. 

10. IXhw, to draw, Fut cX^ (which is preferred to the other 
form iXxww from 'EAKYO) ; Aor. ctXxwa (♦ 122, 3), cXjcvocu 
(more common than cl\fa) ; Perf. ctXjcvKa; Mid. to draw to ones 
self, ikKva-ofuu^ ciAioxrafii/v ; Ap% Pass., Fut Pass., and Perf. Mid 
or Pass, only tlXtcwrSfp^, cAxvcr^i/o-ofUM, cZXicvaytou. 

11. 'EIFOMAI, Aor. ifpo/irp^, I inquired, IpkrSai, ^/mu, ipoCfuff, 
ipov, ip6fjL€y<K ; Fut i(yq<rofULi. The other tenses are supplied by 
ipwav; but the Aor. rfpurrqaa is rejected. 

12. Uppoi, to go forth, Fut ippi^; Aor. ri^fnjaa\ Perf. T^pfii^ca. 

13. ev&ii, commonly ico^cvSco, to sleep, Fut ico^cvSiTonu ; Aor. rare 
and late ; Perf. wanting (Aug., 4} 121, Rem. and 126, 3). Verb. 
Adj. jco^cvSi^cov. 

14. Ix^ to have, to hold, Impf. cTxor (♦ 122, 3); Aor. icrxaf 
(instead of l-a-cxov), Inf. <rx€lv, Imp, cr^fc, rrapdirxK according to 
verbs in /u (in composition also <rx<» as KaToayt, wapdcrx^, Subj. 
o^w* -^> TrafMMrxw, irapdgrxrf^, etc.. Opt arxpiriv (fu, 4 192, Kem.), 
but in compounds TrapdtrxiHfii, etc., Part. ox«>>i^; Fut. cjfiu and 
crxiToti) ; Perf icrxufKa ; Aor. Mid. I<rx6firjy, Subj. o^fi/JMi, Opt oTpi- 
fw/v. Imp. oxou, irapdarxov. Inf. axi<rB<u, irapojirxiur^^ Part oxof^cyos; 
Fut e^ofuu and axrifrofiai ; Perf Mid. or Pass. urxHI*^ I -^.or. P&ss. 
ItrxiBrfy (not used in good Attic). Verbal Adj. cicitfe, and oflener 
poetic iTxeroiy -r^os. 

15. c</r(u, to cook, Fut ^^^ (Fut Mid. hlrqa-o/uu. Plat Rp. 372, 
c.) ; Aor. ^t/o/o-a; Aor. Pass. -^^In^Srjy; Perf. Mid. or Pass. ij^fMu 
Verbal Adj. c<^o5, or ci/a^rw, e/o7rcof. 

16. ti<D (Plat Symp. 196, 6), commonly KoJifaj, to seat, to sit, 
Impf iKoSiiovy old Attic ko^I^ov; Fut ko^m (117, 2); Aor. 
cVaJtcra, old Attic Kcu^ura (J 126, 3) ; (Perf. iccica^uca;) Mid. I seat 
myself, Fut ko^i^^o/luu; Aor. iKoSurdfjLTfy, I seated for myself, I 
caused to sit. But KaSiiopM, I seat myself, I sit, Impf. ixa^effifafy; 

Fut KoSiSoVflOL. 

17. ktJ&d, to make anxious (Act only Epic), Fut jaT^i/avo ; Perf. 
Kitafia, I am anxious ; Mid. Ki^fjuu, to be anxious, in prose only 
Pres. and Impf ; in Aesch. S. 138, is found Imp. Aor. Mid. 

18. fcAouD, to weep (nXaiii seldom, and without contractioa)^ 

Digitized by 



Fat icXaixro/uu (#cXavorovfuu, i 154, 2, in Aristoph.), rarer (itt 
Dem.) icXaci^o), or kXoj^^', Aor. ZicXauo-a; iKXavcrdfirp^, S. Trach. 
153; Perf. k^cAou/uuu, and }ater KixXavcrfuu (I 131, 3). Comp. 
4 154, 2. Fut. Perf. icixAaiJcrcrai, Aristoph. Nub. 1440. Verbal 
Adj. fcXavoTos and fcXovro^^ fcXavorcb?. 

19. fMxpfuu, to fight, Fut. ^y^^joji, S 154, 5 (Epic and late 
prose fmxj(rofjuu) ; Aor. litaxwdjvqv ; Perf. fUfiaxrifuu ; Aor. Pass. 
i/jua.xi(r3rfv late. Verbal Adj. ftaxmoq and fULxrrrioq. 

20. fie\Xci>, to intend, to be about to do, hence to <i^/by, Imp£ 
HfitXXov and ^/acAAov ; Fut fitXXqaw ; Aor. ^ficAAiToti ; -Pass. fUXXar* 
Sol, to be put off, delayed. (Aug., ♦ 120, Rem. 1.) Verbal Adj. 


21. ficXct fUM, curae mihi est, it concerns me, I lay it to heart 
(rarely personal itAha), Fut ftcXi/crci; Aor. IfUkrftrt^v) \ Per£ 
/ic/ic\i;jc<(v) ; Mid. fi€XofKu, commonly hrtfAiXofuu (and imfitXjovfuu, 
but Inf probably Ittc/xcXco-^cu) ; Fut hrtfitXijaofuu (sometimes 
eirifitkfjSrjcrofuu) ; Perf. ^iftcficXi/fuu ; Aor. Ittc/acXt^i/v. Verbal 
Adj. hriiufkijriov. 

The compounds, e. g. furatjJKu, poenUd^ are osed as impersonals only; sel- 
dom furctfUKofjuu, to repent (Thac), Aor. fUT9fi§\iidn>^ (late) ; fitfitiK^s, caring 

22. ftv^d), to «*cA:, Fut /ivfijo-w, etc.^ 

23. ofo), to ^meZ?, i. e. to emt^ an odicw, Fut ^fyria ; Aor. o){7oxi 
(Perf. ^»8(i>8a with the meaning of the Pres. in Homer and the 
later writers, k 124, 2). * . 

24. oloiJuajL and otfuuyto think, second Pers. oici {k 116, 11); 
Impf. i^firjv and ^rp^ ', Fut. ol^o/juu ; Aor. torj^rp^, oir^S^oL ; Perf. 
wanting. (Aug., i 122, 1.) Verbal Adj. olrfrw. 

The abbreviated forms, oTfiai, ^^lyy, are used in prose as a mere paren* 
thetic expression, like the Lat. credoj and hence are often employed in an 
ironical sense ; otofiat, on the contrary, has such a sense, only when it is a 
gOYeming verb ; still, this difference of usage is not fully observed even by the 
best Attic writers. 

25. oixo/Mu, I am gone, have gone (with sense of Perf), aini^ 
Impf ifX9p.rp^ (sense of Aor., also Plup.), I went away, had gone, 
Fat olxq(TopM,\ Porf yx^ftat, commonly as a compound, e. g 
wapmxtipm, X. An. 2. 4, 1. in the best MSS., Ion. and Att Poet 

Digitized by 



6i)(yuca (so originate, o7;(a, otK-co^o, olx'<0KaL, comp. the Epic okux* 
from ^x«i * 230). 

26. o^ciXad, to owe, deheo, I ougJU^ must, Fut o^tXrfm ; Aor. 
tt^ctXijoti ; Perf. cL^ciXi/Ka ; second Aor. oi^cAov^ -C9, -c(v) (first and 
second Pers. PL not used), in fonns expressing a tm^,utiiiam. 

27. Trajuny to strike, Fut. ?rawna (Att secondary form irai^o-<i> in 
Aristoph.) ; Aor. ^irouo-a; Perf. irmuxa (the simple late); Aor. 
Mid. hraurdfirjv; Pass, with o* (M31, 2) ; yet instead of vewaur- 
^uu and hnuardrpf, hrkqfiiv and iriirXrfYfJML were commonly used 
Verbal Adj. nyu^rrcos. 

28.. vipSui, usually TripSofiat, emittere fiatum, Aor. ctto^v; Fut 
irapSi/crofuu; Perf. ircirop&i (^ 140, 4). 

29. irirofjuu, to fy, Fut, (venliaofimf Aristoph.) commonly vn^ 
vofuu ; Aor. commonly in prose and in the Comic writers, cirn>- 
fiTjy, irr&rS^ai (rarer hrrdfuqy ; hrrqv, wrw, iptcuitk, irnjjvaiy vrn^s poet, 
and in the later writers (} 192, 2); Perf trmfnuuu (Aristoph*). 
— Syncope (j 155, 1). 

30. o-Ke\Xci> (or o-KcX^), to dry, Aor. Irkkqv (4 192, 4), and Perf. 
co-fcXi^ica, and Fut cncX^ofiai, intrans. to £?^ t(p, to wWier, — Met- 
athesis, k 156, 2. 

31. Twrntf, to strike, Fut Attic TwmTtno {rwfna. Homer) ; (Aor. 
L Mtmyra late ; crv^ Hbm. ; Aor. IL ^rwrov, Eur. Ion. 779 ; for 
the Aor. of this word, the *Attics use lirdTa^a, hraura ;) (Perf. 
rervmn^KOj Pollux); Fut Mid. Twrqaofiai, Aristoph. Nub. 1382. 
Pass, blows wUl be inflicted; Perf rervfifjuaiy Aesch. (rervimffjuu 
late) ; Aor. Pass, irvmfy (cTuimJ^TyF late). Verbal Adj. nnrnfrm. 

32. x^upoh to rejoice, Fut xp-fW^ (xfVV^^f^'^ late) ; Aor. €)(afirg^ 
(/a, i 192, 8); Perf KcxaprfKa (Aristoph. and Herod.), I have 
rejoiced, and Kcxoprffjuu (poet), I am glad. Verbal Adj. xap™^' 

KsMARK 1. Of the preceding classes, there belong here verbs in -cbw (§ 160), 
and vxi^Wofuu, of those in ^159. 

BsK. 2. With these yerbs several liquid verbs are classed (^ 149, 6) ; still, 
t' lej form the Fat and the Aor. regularly, e. g. 

fi4ifw, to remain^ Fut fi€v&] Aor. Hfitipa] Perf. fi€ft.4tniKeL Verbal Adj. 

luverii, fAtycrdos. 
viyM, todimdey Fut. vc/xw} Aor. fvci/xa; Perf. v€v4tiriKa] Aor. Pass. ^yc« 
^^^t}v. — Mid. v4fiofjLou, Fut. ytfjLovfjLcu \ Aor. dytifidfitiv, Perf. Mid. of 
VmoB. tffyifirifiai. Verbal Adj. vcftiyr /os. 

Digitized by 



♦ 167. Verbs, whose Tenses are formed from different 
Roots, and which are classed together only in 
respect to Signification, 

1. a^c<i>, to take, to capture, e. g. a city, Lnpf. ifxnw; Fut 
aLfrrja-ia; Perf. iJ/wy/ca; Aor. (from *EA) cIXov, IXetv; Aor. Pass. 
TQpiSrjv; Fut. Pass, o^^ijcro/iai [} 130 (d)]. — Mid. to choose, Aor. 
€iX6firiy', Fut cu^ofuu; Perf. Mid. or Pass, ifnfpm; Fut Perf. 
gpi}(7x>fuu, R. Prot 338, b. Verbal Adj. alpero^, -rw, 

2. fpxofim, to go, to come (only the Indie, of the Pres. in use in 
Attic, the remaining modes and the participials being borrowed 
from tlfu {\ 181) ; thus, ^IpxofJiM, wd, ^^^ Uvai, uav), Impf rjpxofJi-rfy, 
commonly ^w and ^ Opt lotfii; Fut cTfu, Is/iallgo (rji<o, I shall 
come) ;^(*EAEY&-) Perf. IXijAv^a [^ 124, 2 (b)] ; Fut iXt^trofjuai 
almost exclusively poetical and later prose, still also Lys. p. 
165, * 11; Aor. ?X5ok, a^w, V^Soi/u, iX^i [$ 118, 3 (a)], iX^€w, 
iXSiav. Verbal Adj. ftcrcXcvoreov. 

*Zpxotuu has in common the signification of to come and to ^ ; tho idea of 
tmning commonly belongs to the form from ihJ^w, and the idea of going to that 
of cT/u. But in compounds, each of these three verbs expresses both ideas, and 
ovlj the preposition limits it to the one ox. to the other signification. 

3. ^cr^ttii, to eat, Impf ^o-^iov; (I8<d, Ep.) Fut ^itxu, {k 154, 4) ; 
Perf ihrfioKa ; Aor. ht>a.yov, ^yciv ; Perf Mid. or Pass. ^Si}Sco-/xcm, 
(♦ 124), 2 ; Aor. Pass. ^<r^. Verbal Adj. ^8€<rros, Ihwrm. 

• 4. opoM, to see, Impf cwpcov; Perf. iiapaxa (Poet also copcuca, 
Aug., * 122, 6); Aor. (from 1A-) cISor, ?8a>, ZSoifi*, i8c. Hi 8, 3 (a), 
cSciv, i&ov. (On the second Perf olSa, / know, see ^ 195.) Fut 
(from 'on) otlfofim (2. Pers. oj/rct. Ml 6, 11). — Mid. or Pass. 6po>. 
fuu; Perf. Mid. or Pass. eiDpa/juu, or wfifuu, uy^ax, etc. ; Inf Ji^^at; 
Aor. Mid. ciSo/xi/v, iMtr^ai, i8ov (and with the meaning ecce, i8ou), 
as a simple only Poet. ; 'Aor. Pass. iaff>3iijy, 6^^vou ;* Fut 6<l>Si^' 
o/uLcu. Verbal Adj. oparos and Arrds, otttco^. 

5. Tpc^w, to run, (APEM-) Fut Spa/ww/jwu; Aor. HBpofiov; Perf 
SeSpdfirjKa; Perf Mid. or Pass. ^iriScSpd/iiz/iot (X. O." 15. 1). Verb. 

Adj. 3p€KT€qV. 

ISp4^ofiai, l^pt^a, rare and poet. — Second Pert*, only Epic SiBpo/xa (APEMXl). 

6. <l>€p(o (only Pres. and Impf), to bear, COI-) Fut omtcd (Aor. 
Imp. olcrc, oiVcnu, bring, in Aristoph., see ^ 230, under ^^(d) ; — 

Digitized by 


204 CONJUaATION OF VERBS IN -fU. [1 168 

fEFKO, or ^ENEFKO) Aor. II. ijvtyKov (rarer Aor. L Tjve^Ka^), -«; 
-€(k), 'Ofiet', -crc, -ov (and -a/icv, -arc, -oi/), (i 124, Rem. 2), Opt 
iveyKoifu, etc. (rarer -oific, etc.), Inf. tyeyKeiv, Part IveyKM^ (rarer 
cveyicas), Imp. fe'cyicc, -ctci), etc. (and -arta, etc.) ; — (*ENEK-) Perf. 
hrqvoxa ({ 124, 2) ; Mid. to car/y off, carry away, win, Fut ouro- 
uoi; Perf. Mid. or Pass. €vyv€yfuu (-yfiou, -yicrcu, or en/vcfcroc) ; Aor. 
Mid. '^veyKOfirp^, h/eyKoi, -tur^ai, 'dfi€vos; Pass, (a) to be home^ 
earned, {h) to hear one's self, to Jiasten; Aor. Pass. ^e;('9i;r; Fut 
ivexSyjfTOfuau. (rarer 010-^170-0/104). Verb. Adj. ourros, otorm (Poet 

7. ^i7fu (} 178), to say, Impf. 1^ with the meaning of the 
Aor. also <^vat and ^s (} 178, Rem. 2);— CEII-) Aor. €hxj^, 
CHTO), ctirocfu, ciTTc [M18, 3 (a)], (the other forms of the Imp. are 
rarely or never used, compound wpdcwrc), ciTrcu^^ ciwwv (first Aor. 
cTiro, not very frequent in Attic writers, more frequent cTras* 
very frequent cwraTc, rarely clTrav, Imp. cTiror rarely, very frequent 
ciTraro), ct-n-aTor, ctirctTWK, and always ctirarc ; all Other forms want- 
ing in the Att). From the Epic Pres. clJfXA, come Fut ipS^ Peif. 
cSfw/ico, Perf. Mid. or Pass, etfrnfjuu (* 123, 4) ; — CPE-) Aor. Pass. 
ipprjSTjv (ipp43riy appears not to be Attic), prfS^vou, ^m\ Fut 
Pass. prjSi^fuu and dpi^o/Mu. — Mid. only in compounds, Fat 
dir^xwfuu, and first Aor. dWmur^cu, to deny, to be wearied out, to 
give up, like dirciTrcir. Verbal Adj. pvfroi, pv/rm. 

Instead of the Pres. tfnifd, other words are lometimes used, particolarlj in 
composition. Compare &ir«yopc^, I firbid, ftircivov, I forbade; iamX^ym^ I 
ctntradict, hyruTov, I contradicted, the compoonds of drcii' in the Aor. being 
more freqaent than kinrY6p€vaa and ^un-^Xf {a. So, &yop€^ riy& icaicws, / tpeak 
ill of one^ but &KTc7iroy kokws. 

^ 168. Conjugation of Verbs in -/xi. 

1. Verbs 'in -pu, the number of which is small, differ from 
those in -ca, principally in taking different personal-endings 
in the Pros, and Impf., several also in the second Aor. Act 
and Mid. ; and also in omitting the mode-vowel in the Ind. 
of the above tenses. The formation of the remaining 

' The first Aor. is preferred to the second, in the first Pers. Sin^. Indie, when 
die next word bcpns with a consonant ; also in the persons of the Imp. wUch 
lui?e a } Iience li^cyirc, but ivryiUiTm. 

Digitized by 


§ 169.] DnasiON of vebbb in -/u. 20d 

tenses is like that of verbs in -^y with a few exceptions. Li 
omitting the mode-vowel, these verbs are analogous to those 
in -oo), -^0), and -6a>. 

2. In the Pres. and Lnpf., most verbs in -/a* with a mono- 
syllabic stem, take a reduplication (§ 163) ; this consists in 
repeating the first consonant of the stem with *, when the 
stem begins with a simple consonant or a mute and liquid; 
but, when the stem begins with <tt, ttt, or with an aspirated 
vowel, t with the rough breathing is prefixed to the stem. 
These verbs are the following : -^ 

2TA X-irrrffu HPA wi-pif^fti'fu 

XPA id-'Xfi^H* ^E (9f-di|-/ii) ZiZ4nri(¥) 

BK {fiUfivfiu) fiifids BE ri-diffu 

nTA l-^n-arfuu *E l-itfu 

TIAA wi-fi-vKn-fU AO 9i-9miu. 

Bemabk. Most yerbs in -/u do not follow this conjugation thronghont in 
the three tenses aboye named, bnt only in some particular forms ; fdui rerbs, 
rfi^fu, to put ; Vmifu^ to place ; 9id»fu, to give^ and fri/Uy to ten4i l^^o this 
conjogation most fall, though even these have forms in use borrowed from the 
conjugation in -«, together with seyeral forms of the inflection in -fu. See 
S 172, Bern. 8 

♦ 169. Division of Verbs in -/a*. 

Verbs in -fw axe divided into two principal classes : — 

1. Such as annex the personal-ending to the stem-voweL 
The stem of verbs of this class ends : — 

, (a) in a, e. g. l-imf-fUf to place, Stem STA- 

(b) " «, " ri-dri'/u, to put, " eS- 

(c) " o, " 8/-««-/ii, to^•»v^ « AO- 

(d) « I, " €liii,togo, " •!- 

(e) " (T, *' ci/J, instead of itryl, to he, " *E1'. 

2. Such as annex to their stems the syllable -wv or -w, 
and then append to this syllable the personal-endings. The 
stem of verbs of this class ends : — 

A. In one of the four vowels, a, €, h o, and assumes -ww 

(a) in a, e. g. CKM-yyO-fit, to scatter. Stem 2KEAA- 

(b) " c, " Kop4-jnrv-fju, to satisfy, *' KOPE- 

(c) " I, only rt-yyv-fu, to atone, ** TI- 

(d) " o, e. g. orp^wvv^pLi, to spread out, " 3TPO-. 


Digitized by 



6. In a consonant, and assumes -vv. 

(a) in a mute, e. g. HtU-yv-fu^ to dtow, Stem AEIK- 

(b) " liquid, " ifi-yO-fu, to swear, *" 'CM-. 
Remark 1. When a diphthong precedes the final consonant of the stem 

that consonant is omitted before the -ruf except it be a Eappa-mnte, e. g. 

td-v^fuu Stem *AIP (comp. od^Mtf* Jkp-t^fAoi) 

^al-yvfu " AAIT (comp. Sofi, 9atr'6s) 

KtU-rCfitu " KAIA from KAA (comp. Perf. ic4KaB-fuUy iciiuurftat) 

KT^i'vOfu " KTEIN from KTEN (Fat. rrcr-A) ; but 

^fU-intfiif tlpy-yvfu, C^^vviu^ ofyyvyiu 
Rem. 2. Verbs of the second class, — those in -vfu, — -'form only the Prca. 
and Impf. like verbs in /u, and even in these tenses, only a part of the fornu 
are in -u^, the others in -i^; in the Sing. Impf. the forms in -dt» are predomi- 
nant, and in the Pres. Subj. and in the Impf Opt., these are. the r^^nlar forms. 
The verb vfid-yyv-fu, from the stem 2BE-, is the only verb of this class which 
forms the second Aor., namely, Ka^ ; several verbs in -«, form their second 
Aor. according to the analogy of these verbs, e. g. 8d<», IBui'. 

♦ 170. Characteristic'vowel and Strengthening of 
the Stem of the Present, 

1. In verbs of the first class, the short characteristic-vowel 
of the stem, a, c« o, is lengthened -in the Pres., Lnpf., and 
second Aor. Act. : — 

& and e into ly, and o into •». 
Still, in verbs in -c and -o this lengthening extends only to the 
Ind. Sing, of these three tenses ; but in verbs in -a, to the Dual 
and PL Ind. also, and likewise to the entire Imp. and the 
second Aor. Inf. Act In the second Aor. Inf. Act of verbs in 
-c and -o, € is lengthened into ci, and o into ov, e. g. ^ct-voi, SoO- 
vol. But in the same tenses of the Mid., the short character- 
istic-vowel remains throughout 

2. Verbs in -iJfti, whose stems end in a vowel, and hence 
annex -wu, retain the short characteristic-vowel, except those 
whose stem ends in -o, e. g. arpw-wu/iu (2TPO-); but verba 
whose stems end in a consonant, and hence annex -w, are 
strengthened in the stem of the Pres. by lengthening the stem- 
vowel, namely, 

a becomes ij, as in irfiy-inifu, second Aor. Pass. Mey-riif 
a '* «» " ti-yCfuu instead of lEfn^fioi, stem *AP, *AIP 
• " ei, ** 8c(fc-ia>/iu, stem AEK, hence Ion. I2k^a 
9 " cv, " (t^ypvfu, second Aor. Pass. i(ty-^. 

Digitized by 


If 171, I7?.f VERBS IN -fU. -^PERSONAL-ENDINGS. 207 

♦ 171. Mode-vowels. 

1. The Ind. Pres., Impf., and second Aor. do not take the 
mode-vowel (♦ 168, 1), and hence the personal-endings are 
* ' !)exed immediately to the stem of the verb, e. g. 

2. The Subj. has the mode-vowels w and 17, as in verbs in -w ; 
but these vowels coalesce with the characteristic-vowel and 
form one syllable ; this coalescence differs from the contraction 
of verbs in -<i>, as follows : — 

da/i and ip coalesce into ^ and ^ (not, aa in contracts in -dtf, into a and f ), ^ 
coalesces into f (not, as in contracts in -^^ into ot), e. g. 

l-^riru a=9 l-^rw i-irrd-jfs = l-irrfs Uirrd'^ii^at = /-ot^-toi 

trrd-^ = irr& ard-fis = trrps 

Rexabk 1. This form of the Snbj. of T<im}/u and rtdrifu is like the Snbj. 
of the two Aorists Pass, of all yerbs, e. g. tw^», -gj, -f , etc., rw-w, -f r, -^, 
from T^-T«», oTo-dw, -p J, -p, from Ttrrn/u. 

Rev. 2. The Snbj. of verbs in -vfu is like that of verbs in -ikf, c. g. 8«iiei^, 
-^f, etc. 

3. The Impf and second Aor. Opt. have the mode-vowel i, 
which is aimexed to the characteristic-vowel, and with it forms 
a diphthong, e. g. 

Impf. Opt. A l-ara-i-fip — l-^rai^v Aor. II. A aral-riy Impf. M. l-ffTal-fin^ 

8«-8o-i-i|y = 9l-8o^1|r 8i»^ili' Bi-iol-fiiiy. 

Rek. 8. The Opt. of verbs in -€ {rtdrifu) is like the Aorists Opt. Pass, of 
all verbs, e. g. ara-bti-^Pf rv^§t-fiPf rvtr-^-^w. 

Rem. 4. The Impf. Opt. of verbs in -via, lUte the Subj. Pres., follows tha 
ft>rm in -«, e. g. ttuof^ifu. The few exceptions will be considered below. 

k 172. Personal-endings. 
1. The following are the personal endings for the Act. : — 

(a) For the Indicative Present, 



-J (properly -^-i) ttrrn-s 

'^•i{y) (properly -ri} T-«mf-ff'i(v) 

Digitized by 




Dual 2. 





-/i«K (properly -fus) 

[•pffi{f)] (properly -w) {t-^rra^m 1-orm-0i{f)\. 

The ending of the third Pen. PL -r0'i(K) is changed into -«ri(v), and thev 
is contracted with the preceding stem-TOwel of the yerb. Still, the Attic dia- 
lect admits contraction only in the stemB ending in -a, thos : — 

fix>m X-irra-yo'i is formed l-arain {l-ard-dtn) 

" T/-3c-K«n " Ti-^7<n Att. ri-^t-da-^ 

Rekask 1. The nncontracted form in 'dart, -iauji^ -iofft^ is the only one 
used in Attic prose, though it also occurs in the Ionic dialect ; the contracted 
form in -ei<rt, -oucri, -vvi, is the nsnal fbnn in the Ionic writers, veiy seldom in 
the Attic poets. Bat from ttiiu (stem 'E), to tend, this Attic form IStfi (oon* 
tracted firom l-d-dai) always occurs. 

(b) The personal-endings of the Subj. Pres. and second 
Aor. do not differ from those of verbs in -w. 

(c) The following are used for the Impf and second Aor. 

Tnd.: — 

Sing. I. -r Lnpf. T-^rrrr i-rt-d^r 

2. -» X-ffrn-s l-rt-d^s 

3. - T-cmj iM-dii 
Baal 2. -ror A IT. t-arri-rop f-^^-ror 

3. -rnw 4-<rri-T7itt /-d^-npr 

Plur. 1. -/icy (properly -fi€s) ^<m^^cr f-di-fMr 

2. -T« t-vnti-rt l-;^f-Tc 

3. 'ffcar ('ffni-a-ay l'-3c-«'ax. 

Bbm. 2. The Ind. of the two Aorists Pass, of all verbs is like the second 
Aor. fffrriy, e. g. frl^-ijK, i-trri-^y, -ijj, ij, iro"* •^»', i»A«>'» -"H"** -i|«roy. 

(d) The personal-endings of the Opt Lnpf. and second Aor. 
(except the first Pers. Sing.) differ from those of the Opt of 
the historical tenses of verbs in -eo, only in being preceded by 
rj ; comp. the endings of Povkevoifu, fioyXxvamfu, etc. with those 

Rem. 3. In the Dual and PI. Impf Opt, the -ij is commonly rejected in the 
Attic dialect, and the ending of the third Pcrs. PL -iffffap is almost always 
shortened into -ei^, e. g. * 

ri^tiiituy = Ti^tTfMy l<rrai-rrr€ = /(rrcurc 

Digitized by 



The same holds of the Opt. Pass. Aorists of all yerbs, e. g. vwScul^fi|/i«y » 
wm^mv^-ttfuy (wholly like ri&€iriy), — On the contrary, in the second Aor. Opt 
Act. of tanifUf ri^fu^ 8^8m/u, the abbreriated forms are very rare, except tha 
third Pers. PI., which is commonly abridged. 
Rem. 4. The forms 8i5^y and 8^r also occnr. 
(e) The endings of the Pies, and second Aor. Imp. are : — 

Sing. 2. 








' ri-;^-T« 






















BsK. 5. The second Pers. Sing. Imp. Pres. rejects the ending -dt, and, as a 
compensation, lengthens the short characteristio-Towel, namely, a into i}, c into 
•I, o into €Vf H into v, 

t-vrir&t becomes t-ani rt-bt-^i becomes ri-^u 

9i-9o-»t *' 8f-8ov 9€U'yih»t '' ttlian/. 

The ending -^t is retained in the Pres. only in a very few verbs, e. g. ^«(3i 
from frifUy tc^i from tlfd, C^i from cl/u, and some others; it also occurs in cer- 
tain Perfects of verbs in -«, e. g. rddra^ 

In the second Aor. of rt^fu, lnfUy and 8{8«/u, the ending ^t is softened into 
i; thns, ^4-^1 becomes bis, l-j^i — If, 96^i » t6s\ bat in the second Aor. of 
loTtifUf the ending -bi is retained; thns, irr^-i^c; also in the two Aorists Pass. 
of all verbs, e. g. rvirq-;^, iroiSc^dtrri (instead of wtuMdrt^i, i 21, Bem. 3). In 
compounds of rnibi and fiit^t^ the ending -^ is often abbreviated into d, in 
the poet, dialect, e. g. wapdar&f &ir^0Ya, wp6pdf icardfid. 

(f ) The ending of the Pres. and second Aor. Inf is -vai. 
This is appended in the Pres. to the short characteristic- vowel ; 
but in the second Aor., to the lengthened vowel (a being 
lengthened into 17, c into ^i, o into ov, i 170, 1) ; thus, 

Pres. /Ttrr^-nu ri-^d-ptu 8i-8^wti ttuc-vt-rtu 

Second Aor. ffr^-ycu ^i-mi Zov-vau 

Rem. 6. The Inf, Pass. Aorists of all verbs are like crr^rai, e. g. rvv^-reu, 

• (g) The endings of the Res. and secpnd Aor. participle are 
-vr5» -KTxra, -vr, which ore joi| ed to the characteristic-vowej 
according to the common rules ; thus, 

l-irrd-PTs = I-ot4j, l-crTcura, t-ffriif otAj, craffOf <rr^ 

n-bi-rrs » ri-^is, -^iffo^ -iv htis^ btTtrtL, hiw 

99iK-r6-trrs = 8cuc-yd5, -mto, -ty, 


Digitized by 



Rbu. 7. Tho participles of the two Pass. Aoiists of all verbs are like'th« 
Part, ri^tis, or d§ls, e. g. rvtr-^ls, -turo, -4y, /3ouA.ct/^-c/f. 

2. The personal-endings of the Mid. are like those of yeibs 
in -co, except that unifonnly, in the second Pers. Sing. Pres. and 
almost always in the Impf. Ind. and in the Imp., the personal- 
endings retain their full form, -<rcu and -<ro. Still, the following 
points are to be noted : — ^ 

(a) The second Pers. Pres. Ind. of verbs in -a (as l<mj/a, 9^c^), is only -arm 
in Attic prose ; the contracted form is found, from the earliest period, only 
in the poetic dialect, e. g. hrUrr^ from Maroftjeu in Aesch., 9^ (from the Ionic 
ending -ecu) instead of 8^i^, in Soph, and Eurip. — In the second Pers. Imp. 
and in the Impf., tarit seems to be only poetic ; ont, iwivr^, iiwtcr^, 96rm^ 
48dv«, are tne regular forms in good prose, and the nncontracted forma 
scarcely occur except in the poets and later writers. 

(b) In Tcrbs in -«, the contract forms in the Imp. Pres. are poetic and rare, and 
in the Indie. Impf. not at all in use^ thus, Impf. h-i^€<ro. Imp. rt^tca (rt^ov) ; in 
the second Aor., both of verbs in -c and -o, the contract are the regular forms, 
e. g. Indie. £^v. Imp. ^ov ; fBov, SoO. In verbs in -o also, the nncontracted 
forms seem to be the usual ones in the Impf. and Imp. : ^t8o<ro, Zltoao. 

(c) The contracted forms are unifonnly employed throughout the Subj. ; in 
the Opt., as in yerbs in -», the c is always omitted, yet the form remains 

Rem. 8. The Smg. Impf. Act of rl^fu, is ^fi^r, 2 Pers. iri^u^ 3. ^r£^f 
(from TieEA), iri^tis and iri&u being more frequent than frCdijf, iri^; on 
7i}/Ai, see §180: the Sing. Impf. Act. of BlBw/u is always i9iBow.{{T. AIAOH), 
iSl^vs, etc. (X. An. 5. 8, 4. is to be read iBt^vs instead of ^S(8wf, according to 
the best MSS.) In verbs in -O/u, the forms in -^m are usual throughout the Pres. 
and Impf., especially in third Pers. PL Indie. Act., e. g. 8€ucyiovo-t(y), and 
the only forms in the Pres. Subj. and Impf. Opt., e. g. Scuci^, ifiy6v, cvfifuy 
1^, together with ficfjcio/fu, tfunfiu, avfifiiyyvfu, — In Attic poetry, there are also 
contracted forms of rt^fu and Irifu in the second and third Pers. Sing. Pres. 
Ind. Act., e. g. rt^tTs, /cit, ride?, Ut — But the Middle admits the formation in 
•^ only in the Subj. and Opt. 


§ 173. I. First Class of Verbs in -tii. 

U In forming the tenses of the Act., the short characteristic- 
vowel is lengthened, both in the Fut. and first Aor. Mid., 
namely, a into ij, c into yj ; also in the Perf. Act. of rvSrffu and 
irffu, c is lengthened into cc, and o into co ; but in the remaining 
tenses of the JMid., and throughout the Pass., the short charao- 
teristic- vowel is retained, with the exception of the Perf. and 
Plup. Mid. and Pass, of rCBrffii and ti^fu, where the c4 of tho 
Perf. Act. (T£^6t#fa, T€&€LfjMi, cTico, cl/xcu) is retained. 

2. The first Aor. Act. and Mid. of rt^i^/xi, Itjjxi, and BiBtafUy haa 
K for the characteristic of the tense, no*, o- ; thus, 

Digitized by 



The forms of the first Aor. Act c^i/ko, ^ko, and IScoko, however, 
are usual only in the Ind., and generally only in the Sing. ; in 
the other persons, the Attic writers commonly used the forms 
of the second Aor. ; in the other modes and the participials, 
the forms of the second Aor. were always used. 

Sxamples of the first Aor. in the PI. Ind. are: id^icaftty, X. C. 4. 2, 15. 
i^d^Kofj^y, X. An. 3. 2, 5. O. 9, 9. 10. ^8<^iearc, Antiph. 138, 77. dwear, X Cy. 
4. 6, 12. &7iKay, H. 2. 3, 20. a^icay, Cj. 4. 5, 14. 

Also the forms of the second Aor. Mid. 'of riSrjfu, irj/u, and 
8iSo>/i^ are used by the* Attic writers instead of the first Aor.; 
rfKdfjLrp^ from oy/u occurs, though but seldom. On the contrary, 
the forms of the second Aor. Ind. Act. of TiSrf/u, trj/u, and h&afu 
(e^T^K, ijv, cSfidv), are not in use. 

3. The verb tanjiu forms the first Aor. Act. and Mid., like 

verbs in -<», with the tense-characteristic a-, e. g. i'{mi'<r'a, i-^mf- 

a-'Ofjajy. The second Aor. Mid. itrrdfiriv is not used. Some 

other verbs, however, have a second Aor. Mid., e. g. hrrdfiriv, 


Kemabk 1. The second Aor. and the second Fat. Pass, are wanting: in these 
verbs, also the Fat. Peif, except in Tcmyfu, the Fat. Ferf. of which is {(rr^{« 
and {0T^o/Mu, \ 154, 6. 

Rbm. 2. On the meaning of th%Terb Torry^i, the following things are to be 
oted : the Pres., Impf., Fnt., and first Aor. Act. have a Trans, meaning, to 
JP^ace; on the contrary, the second Aor., the Perf. and Plnp., Act. and the Fat. 

Perf., have a reflexive or Intrans. meaning, to place one*a self, to stand, namely, 
ttmtyy I pheed myaelf, or / ^ood; l<m}fca (witn present signification), / have 
ptaced myself, I stand, sto ; krHiK€w^ stabam ; l«v^», lor^ofuu, stabo (i^trr^^w, 
/ ahaU withdraw). The Mid. denotes either to place for one*8 self, to erect, to ttand, 
ootAistere, or to place one^a self; Pass, to he placed, "l^rjiKa and iarrfiKsty asaaily 
take the pUce also of the forms t^aiuu and lovdfii^y, which occar bat rarely. 

♦ 174. XL Second Class of Verbs in -fti. 

There is no difficulty in forming the tenses of verbs of the 
second class {k 169, 2). All the tenses are formed from the 
stem, after rejecting the ending -wvpx, or -vOfw. Verbs in -o, 
which in the Plres. have lengthened the o into <i>, retain the oi 
through all the tenses, e. g. (rrpw-wv-pu, fw-vKu-fu, pto-wv-pu, Fut. 
arpto-Kna, etc But verbs, whose stem ends in a liquid, in form- 
ing some of the tenses, assume a fkeme ending in a vowel, 
e. g. opL'Vv-fu, Aor. iap.'0-<ra, from 'OMOH. The second Aor. and 
the second Fut. Pass, occur only in a few verbs, e. g. fcvy-vO-fii. 
See k 182 

Digitized by 




[♦ 17A 

k 175. Paradigms of 



1 s 

JO'S g 

2TA- to /)/ac€. 

eE- to put. 

AO- to ^iVe. 

AEIK- to show. 



» ft* 

S. 1. 




BtU-yO-^ * 

























P. 1. 









(from 2aTd-d4rt) 




and ri'^tai{y) 

and ai-aovo'i(r) 

S. 1. 





























P. 1. 


















(from ItrrS^i) 

(from r(^€^t] 

(fmm Ofl^i) 








Wt^-tok ^ 







P. 2. 










and i'ordirrvv 

and ri-^ivrwf 

and SMrraiy 







l-aris, atrti, dr. 

ri-^tisy uffOy 4y 

Bi-9o6st ovo-a, 6y 

at uc-v6s, vo-a, ^ 

G. (£rro» 

G. ^irroj 

G. rfirros 

G. ^rroj 

S. 1. 













































S. 1. 




















l'<rrai'rov * 


Bi-BoT-roy * 

















pecially Btucytov 

in{y). Alsolmi 

^ And acucy 

^•», -eu, etc., es 

>f. 49€lKyiioy, W, 

-«f(r), and the Part. usually 8< 

tucyihwy, -oMTo, -< 


1). M 172. Rem. 

Digitized by' 

GooqIc . 


Verbs in -fii. 



2TA- to place. 


AO- (0 (^'t;e. 

AEIK- to 5Aou7. 


























t-crra^^ 1 










Tl-i^ W-fUU 


























T-irrd-<ro and 

Ti-bf-iTo and 

8{-8o-<ro and 










rl-bt-abov . 







T ffro'a'^ 



l-^r^Hr^mcoof and 

ri-b^vbwrea^ and 

BM'irb^tffay and 





and 8ciK-r^o-dwv 





lirrii'fi€yos, Vt w 

ri-bt-fityos, ij, or 

8i-8^-|uyDS, 11, or 

itiK-yihfuyos, 11, 





^W-3t-<ro ^ 






























Bi-Zoi'firiy ' 




























5. » 4 172, Rem. 8. 

* f 172, Rem. 8. 

» On the irreg. at 

jcent of Htfrraiuu^ 

etc., see fm, 1. " 

1 On the accent in i 

witrrato, etc. see 4 1 

76, 1. ^ ♦ 176, % 

Digitized by 




[♦ 175. 





XTA- to place. 

eE- to />Mf. 

AO- to give. 






H. L. 











if-S^y) ) A. I. 
(f-;^-f j S used 
(r-;^) ) for it 

(r-8fl»-T) Used 
(r-««) ) for it 




b. i. 

P. 1. 

or A' 








8. 1. 


D. 1. 













8. if. 


P 2. 



and (rrdyrvy 


^4^cHreaf and 





S^tfo-oy and 






oris, cMTo, 4r 
(Jen. crdyros 

^tisf cio-o, 4y 
Gen. ;^4yros 

Bovs, owrct, 6y 
Gen. B6vTos 







orist L 

t-^rnva^ I 



Innead of thMe fb 
OMd In the Dual. 1 
other Mod«0 and Pt 

nnt, th« ad Aor. la 
PI. iDd. and In the 
irticipials, ( 178, 2. 




harrn-KOf* StO, 

r4-^€fka \ Z4-Bw'Ka J 



i-arfi-Ktiy and 





ut. Per/. 

i-cr^ta old An. 

wantin;^. 1 wanting. 

wanting. | 



or,l 1 

4ffT&-^y 1 i-rd-dup* \ i-ZS-^nt' 1 Mifx-difr | 



;'he compc 
ho simple 
See S 17( 

mnds, c. g. kiroo 

B, e. g. kwoCT&O'l 
>, 3. • ir4^y a 

, iiedrrroy, ZuM 
tipdffra- MoTTi 
; &ir^8ot, Mot; 
nd rtd^ofuu in 

have the same 
\lAMy. • See H* 
bi, iirArrd, f 17 

Lstead of^;^^!' 

accentuation a« 
r2,Rem.3. «In 
2, Rem. 5. « In 
€,^ 118, Rem. 1. 

and ^t^ffofuu. 


♦ 175.] 




XTA- 1) place. 

{i-irrd-firiv does 
not occur, but 

eE- to put. 

{or&'ftai does not 
occur, but wpiu- 


(rnU'firpf does not 
occur, but wptal- 


(wrd^o, or orw 
does not* occur, 
but wp(a'iro, or 

(wrdrff^ai) wpitur. 

(cririitvos) wpla- 




i-irr&-finy, § 175, 
Rem. 2. 


i-^u {from. I^co-o) 



d4^^»ffaM and 


^4'fuyos, ij, -OP 



/kO- to give. 


t-ioO (from Vtwfo) 





ioi'fiiip *• 




9o0 (from S^o'o) ® 
td-vbwrwp and 


B^/uyo^, -i|, 'Op' 



InHtmd of these fonni, the second Aor. Hid. 1b 
used hy the Attic writers, ( 178, 2. 









AEIK- to show. 








\ Fut. 1 1 trrir^coiuu \ Tc-d^co/Mu • | lo-bifffoiuu Ir | Itix-H^ofuu 
^ 21, 2. 7 Also in composition, ip^fuu^ -y, -^cu, etc., hwo^&fMtf -f , -i?T«y 
etc^ iiaSftM, -V, -fircu, etc., &iro8»fiai, -^, '-«roi, etc. " See f 176, 2. •In 
composition, Kvrd&ou, iw6dw, vtpiSWf kw49ov', Kord^tir^, wtplioc^) fi^^tr- 
a«i v^pi^otr^e ; but^xdov, tlsMf ; ir^oSov, ^I'Sov, ^ 118, Rem. I. *• 4 154, 6, and 
§ 173, Rem. 2. 



216 SUMHA&T OF VERBS IN -fU. [ft 176, 177 

i 176. Remarks on the Paradigms, 

1. The verbs Zlvafiat^tole able; iirlarafiai^ to Jbioir, and xp4fuifuu,tohang, 
have a different accentnation from ^arofAm, in the Pres. Subj. and Impf. Opt^ 
namely, Subj. ZvvtofjuUf itrlirrwiKU, -p, -rrrcu, -Titr^ovy -^a^t, -wjnai\ Opt. fiwo^iir, 
iwurrtd/ifiy, -oio, -euro, -euff^w, -aur^t, -aufro] so also hinSfiriVi -cuo, -orro {S 177, 
4), and iirpidfiriy (§ 179, 6). 

2. The forms of the Opt. Mid. Impf. and second Aor. in -oi, viz. ri3o(fU|y, 
Marii » were preferred to those in -ci, viz. rt^ttfiiiy, -<<<>> -c'to, etc^ ^ttfutip, -««», 
•ciro, etc. In compounds, the accent remains as in simples ; thus, ip&oUaiF 
(^i^c/u7)y), iy^To (^i^cio), etc.; so also in compounds of Soifufv, e. g. SioSotoir, 
tiaSoiOj etc. 

3. On the abbreviated form of the Ferf. and Flnp. : c-ord-rov, Sf-ard-ttcr, 
2-aT&-Tc, C'<rrd-o'i(i'), see f 193. 

4. Verbs in -vfu, as has been seen, form the Subj. and Opt like verbs in -tm. 
Still, there are some examples where these modes follow the analogy of verbs 
in -fu: Ihrosfiii ZiaiTKt^dyyvrai (instead of -^ca), PL Phaedon. 77, h,^6xMr4 
Tc Kot ir^yyvTO (from -^tro^ instead of -^oiro). Ibid. 118, a. 

5. In the later writers, e. e. Polybius, a Peif. and Plup. are found with the 
Trans, meaning, /Aaue/)2acea, namely, tar&Ka, Icrriiecii'. 


1. Verbs in -fii which annex the Personal-endings immediately 
to the Stem-vowel. 

i 177. (a) Verbs in -a (l-cm^-fii; STA-): 
1. Ki-'xpnrj'iu, to lend, to bestow (XPA-), Inf. Kixpami, Fut XPV^ 
Aor. ^xfwyora. Mid. to borrow, Fut xpwofuu. (Aor. expryrofirpr in 
this sense is avoided by the Attic writers.) To the same stem 
belong : — 

2. Xp4« <' >^ necessary y oportet (stem XPA- and XPE-), Subj. xpv* ^^^Xf"!""^ 
Fart, {rh) xp^^ (usually only Nom. and Ace); Impf. Ixf^y, or xpq^ (with 
irregular accent). Opt. xp^Ui (from XPE-) ; Fut xp^arcu in Soph, (but not 

Inf' XP^"* ^oxp^Vi in Eurip., by contraction from xpinv, 

3. i,w6xt»l» i^ suffices, sufficU; the following also are formed regnlariyfrom 
XPAA: kiroxpwrt(y)y Inf. dvoxp^y ; Part. hnroxfiSas, -wrei, -&y ; Impf. kteixFt i ^^^ 
kiroxp^<f^i ; Aor. &v^xp'7<''<(^)t ^^c. Mid. iaroxp&tiai, to ahuscy abutor, or consume. 
Inf. itroxpviff^M, is inflected like xpcCo/mi, § 129, Hem. 2. 

4. ovCvrjfu (with Attic reduplication instead of ovovrj/u), to ben- 
efit, ('ONA-) Inf. ovivayat; Impf Act. wanting, -ca^Aow being 
used for it ; Fut. om^ui ; Aor. wyrja-a, Inf ov^ai (for it ov^vom, like 
oT^vot, in PI. Rp. 600, d.). Mid. oviva/juu, to get benefit, be bene' 
fitted, Fut. ovqaofuu ; Aor. u)vq/j.rjv (juivdfirjv later, but also in Eur. 
&vaa-&€), "qa-o, "qro, etc.. Imp. ovi^Oy Part, ovi^/acvos (Hom.), Opt 
6v€u/jirp^, 'cuo, -ajLTo (^ 176, 1), Inf. ovoo-^ ; Aor. Pass. ^tr^Sniv rarer 

Digitized by 


I 178.J 



instead of wviqfjufjv. The remaining forms are supplied by 

6, vi'fjL'irXrj'fu, to filly (ILAA-) Inf. Tri/XTrAoi^ai ; Impf. hriitnrXaipf ; 
Fut vKrfTta ; Perf. v€Tr\rfKa ; Aor. ar\rf(Ta ; Mid. to fiO, for one's 
self, TrifiirXaitai, Inf. vifivXa(r&at ; Impf. iTrifMrXaifirp^ ; Aor. hrXrjcrii' 
tuiy] Fut. irXrjiTOfiai; Perf. MiS. or Pass. 7r«rX7<r/«u; Aor. Pass. 
hrXi^Srjv 131); Fut Pass. vXTfaSi^ofuu (§ 131); second Aor. 
iwkj^rp^. Poet Verb. Adj. itAi^otcos. 

The |i in the redaplication of this and the following yerb is nsnall j omitted 
in composition, when fi precedes the redaplication, e. g. i/iviirXafuu, but iptwifi^- 
vxAfoir, Contraiy to this rale, howerer, forms "with and withoat fi are both 
osed by the poets, according to the necessities of the yerse. 

6. irtfLirfnyu, to bum, Trans., in all respects like in/iirXi/fu : trfyj- 
tna, hrpTfovL, irhrfrrfKHy Tren-fnja-fuu, arpn^Srp/f 7rfnj(r&ilja'0fWXf V€irfyq(rofJLai, 

7. TAH-MI, to' endure, Pres. and Impf wanting (instead of 
them vfrofi€ytOf dvc^ofuu) ; Aor. erXqv, (tXB,) rXalrgy, rXajSi, tAos 
(rAocra); Fut rX^fuu; Perf rcrXiyica. Verbal Adj. TXiyros. (In 
Attic prose this verb is rare.) 

8. ^lUy to say (stem *A-), has the following formation : — 

♦ 178. 

Present. ' ACTIVE. 

Imperfect, \ 





S. 1. 



P. 1. 












lf<^f , usually r^^ifirda 
r<^ [(M16,2). 

^» ^», #. ^w. ^M*". 
(fay and ^dm-cty 

G. ipdyros, <^k^j) 


^ijK, ^i}f, ^m ^nroy 
and ^Tor, ^^v and 
^TT^y, ^fi/itp and ^- 
Aicy, ^9rr< &nd ^eure, ^<y 



Perf."hd(r^u (PI. Tim. 72, d.), let it he i 
Fragm. 3. (X. Cv. 6. 1, 21, is a false reading 
687, in chorus. Part. 4>dfi€vos (rare), affirmm 
Verbal adjective, ^aris. 

Hxi<f. Impf Ind. t^cunoj Lys. 
] ; Inf. ^doh Aesch. Fers. 


. " In composition : Ain-f^/u, triii^iu, Akti^vtiCv), a^/4^n^i(i'), etc, but Arr*. 
f4r (accent on ultimate), avfjb^Sf and Subj. iyri^t AKr*#*, etc. 


Digitized by 



Rexabk I. In the second person ^jf f, both the accentuation and the Iota 
subscript are contrary to all analogy. On the inclination of this yerb in the 
Pres. Ind. (except ^j), sec f 33, a. 

Hem. 2. This yerb has two significations, (a) to say in general, (b) to affirm^ 
(aio) to assert^ to assure^ etc. The Fat. ^/<r«», and Aor. I^o-a, have only the 
last signification. The Part. ^ is not used in Attic prose } still, ^^ PL Ale S. 
139, c. 4>dyTts. t 

Rem. 3. With ^/x/ the yerb ^ §».{<, xnquam^ may be compared, which, like 
inquaniy is used in the spirited repetition of what lyid been said ; the imperfect 
j|y, i| is used in the phrases ^¥ V iy6^ aaid /, i| 8* 5s, Bodd he, to describe a oon- 

i 179. The following Deponents also belong here, 

1. ayofiOLy to wonder f Impf. ^ya/xiyv; Aor. rfyiurSrfy (^ywrdfJLrpr, 
Epic and Dem. 18, 204) ; Fut dyao-o/xai. Verbal Adj. 6yaoros, 

2. Svvofuu, to be able, second Fers. ^Wo-oi \ol'nij from the Ion. 
8w€(u, tragic and later, 4 172, 2, (a)], Subj. hv/v^iiai {k 176, 1), Imp. 
Swao-o, Inf. hvvaxrBajii Fart Swoficvos ; Impf. idvydfirjy and '^BmnfAjpr, 
second Fers. iSvvio (not iBvyacro, i 172, 2), Opt SiwaifjLyjiy, Svhuo 
(i 176, 1 ) ; Fut ^virqaofuu ; Aor. cSwiJ^iyv, i^Sui^^ and ^8vi^^ 
(not •^Svyda-dTjv), the last Ion. and in Xen. (Aug., i 120, Rem. 
1) ; Ferf Scdvmff/juu. Verbal Adj. Swaro?, ahle wid possible. 

3. iTriarrafiai (like urrofuu), to hww, (properly, to stand upon 
something, to be distinguished from iffMrrofim), second Fers. 
cn-uTToom (ariarq. seldom and only Foet), Subj. hrumafitu (II 176, 
1), Imp. hrlxTr<a [seldom and only in the poets and later writers, 
hrumuro, i 172, 2 (b)] ; Impf rprurrdfMjv, rpriama [seldom and 
only in the poets and later writers, iprurraax}^ i 172, 2 (b)]. Opt 
hruTToIfjirpf, hrurraw {k 176, 1) ; Fut imarnja-ofuul Aor. rfirum^STiVt 
(Aug., i 126, 3.) Verbal Adj. hrumrros. 

4. Upofjuu, to love (in the Fres. and Impf only poetic, in prose 
ipcua is used instead of it) ; Aor. rjpatr&riv, I loved; Fut ipcur^ 
<rofmi, I shall love, [Fass. ifHOfjuai (from ^poco), I sJuill be loved] 
Verbal Adj. ipaaros. 

i). Kpiimfjuai, to Jiang, be stispended, pendeo, Subj. Kpyuafuu 
(i 176, 1), Fart. KpefjAyLcyos] Impf. iKpe/idfiriv, Opt Kp€fuiufiriv, -ow, 
-oiTo ($ 176, 1), (Arist Vesp. 298, KpifiourSe, comp. liAftuopm^ 
\ 230, and fi€fAyoifitiv, i 154, 8); Aor. iKp€fA4ur3m; Fut F&ss 

Digitized by 


I 180.] 



KfiffuurSiqaofAm, I shoU he hung; Eut Mid.' xpc/ii/<rofuu, pendeho 

6. TrpiaxrSai, to buy, ivpuifnjv, second Pers. iirpCo} (an Aor. JVIid., 
and found only in this tense, which the Attic wiiters employ 
instead of the Aor. of dryiofuUf viz. itMn/ja-afiTpf, which is not used 
by them, } 122, 4), Subj. irpuDfjuu (k 176, 1) ; Opt jrpuufjui^v, -aio, 
•euro (^ 176, 1) ; Imp. vpuo; Fart 7rptafifvo9» 

i 180. (b) Verbs in -e (ri-Syj-fii, ©E-) 

^I-rj-fu (stem *E-), to send. Many forms of this verb are found 
only in composition. 




Ind. fii/Uf his, fiifri{y) ; Tcroy j Yc|iffy, Tcre, iaffi{p) [/ci0'i(y)]; 

Sabj. i«, ips, /]p; iip-oy'j l&fuy, l^t, /«0'i(r) ; a^id, ^cps, ^<$> 

Imp. Tci, ierot, etc. — Inf. iVrai. — Fart. Uis, Uiaa, Uv. 

Ind. Ibuy (from 'lEXI), A^fovT (hirer ^(ovr, rare Tcir, wpoitiy, ^9^)^ 
Uu, 7c(, A^fei (rarer ^/fi); Tcroy, /^v; tcficr, Tcrc, 7c<rai', 
i^Wor (rarer ^^ctf'oy). 

Opt. /cV (second Fers. Fl. A^^oirc, Flat.} third Fers. Fl. iubioup, 
X. H. 6. 4, 3). 

Aor. n. 

e&fo.— Flap .«Iic«>'. — Fut V». —Aor. I. ^m (§ 173, 2). 
Ind. Sing, is supplied by Aor. I. (§ 173, 2); Dual ttroy, hpthov, 
rTn|y; Flur. cfficy, Kol^^^cr, cFrt, Aycrre, ^tror, commonly 

Subj. £, ^s, i^, A(^f, etc 

Opt. 9%ti¥, r^s, cTtj ; cFroy, iupwrw, tirriv ; cr/ucr, A^ciftcy, cFrr, A^ci- 

Tf , cfey, A^icy. 
Imp. If, &^cf, St« ; croy, K^croy, ^wy ; Ire, tf^crc, trnaw and tvrttv. 
Inf. etnu, &^iVai< — F. <7t^ ffdro, A^cZra, cv, &^^y, Gen. tvros^ ^taris, 


Bbmabk 1. On the Aug. of Ipirifu, see § 126, 3. 

Rbm . 2. The form of the Impf. Tt|r la yeiy doubtful, and the forms 7i7f , tn 
•re Tery rare. The form Uty has the ending of the FInp., like the Impf. of ttfu, 
to go; His Att and Ion., a secondaiy form of Imt. 

Digitized by 









Ind. Tc/Mu, Tccroi, Tcrof, etc. — Subj. i&fuu, iupuifuu, l^, ^<9» etc 
Imp. T€<ro, or Tou. — Inf. Ua^vu. — Part. Ufjktyos, -iy, -oy. 

Uftriyf Xfffo, etc. — Opt. itifiriy, Att. iotfii^y, loto, i^ioToj etc. 

Ind. fXfiriy Subj. ufuu, apcofuu, p, &^, ^rai, &^^ai 

cfiro, &0ci(ro Opt. irpoolfu^y, -oio, -on-o, -ol/ie^a, -our«yc, 

cfro, A4>ciT0 -otKro (irpociro, irpocuri&c, vpocZrro 

ffljfuda, etc. are rarer forms) 

Imp. oZ (&^, irpooD), second Pers. PL 

Inf. ccrdoi. •— Part, ifityos, if, -of. 

Perf. cf/AW, /mI^v'^) ^^* cfurdcu, fi9^t7irdai, — Plap. tX/iriy, clro, i^T&o, etc 
— Fnt. fiaofuu. — Aor. I. iindfiny (rare, f 173, 2). 


A, I. tt^ny, P. 43^Fcu,etc. — Put. i^^ieofuu, — Verb. Adj. Wj, irtos {Aptros), 

Rem. S. Besides the two verbs ridiifu and tri/u, onlj the following dialectic 
yerbs belong here, viz., *AH-MI, AI-AH-MI (AE), (though 8c8cair((v). from the 
last is found in X) ; ^ICvH^ and AIH-MI. 

i 181. (c) Verbs in -i, only tl/jn (*I), to gq, 

Prblixinabt Rexabk. The verbs e7fii, to go, and tlfii, to 6e, are pre- 
sented together (though the last, on account of its stem *E2, does not belong 
here), in order to exhibit to the eye the agreement and disagreement of tbfl two 
verbs in their formation. 


Ind. S. 1. 

cl/J, to be 

Subj. & 


€ltUt to go 

Subj. Xm 



















P. 1. 



P. 1. 












. 3. 



Imp. S. 2. 


lof. flvcu 

X^i, irp6sAt 

Inf. Uyai 


(seld. irp6s€t) 



Part. *v, olcaj 



Part. Uy, loo- 





Xroy, irp6strov 


P. 2. 


G. 6yT0Sf oCcJis 



Gen. t6yTos, 



{irap^y, irapov- 

P. 2. 

Xt(j irp6si'r^ 


(rare (aT»y] 

aa, irap6y. 


Xrwray, or 

{-rapuSty, mt- 
odffa, raptOy, 

Byruy, Plat. 

G. wap6yTos) 

Uyrtttv (XT»y 



G. iraptdyros). 

Digitized by 


# 181.] 





i{jr, Itoas 

2. ijirda (§ 116, 2) 

3. •Jjr (from ^€-k) 
D.2. i^TTor (^oy) 

3. Ilarjfy (liTfiy) 
P. 1. Vm*" 

2. ^Tt(^e) 

3. ikw 

Fat llro^uu, IthaB he, 
— Fart MiAwos. 



cfif/tcF (seldom c7/icy) 
dirrff (seld. poet fflrf ) 
cfiio'ar and cTtr 








f€is and fttff^a 
^tvTovy us'ly Jtok 

peirt, " ^Tf 
ftccurifffo/f poet) 


toifu or 



l<Tj7, or fe-fft, liirrai, etc. — Opt i^olfirp^. — Inf. fcrco'dai. 
.-r- Verbal Adj. iffrioy, trvw^tniw. 

MiBBLB FOBM : Pres. fcfioi, fccreu or Tii, fcrcu, etc., Imp. Uvo^ Inf. fciri^, 
Part Ufi€yos: the Impf. ///i^y, Ico'o, etc., signifying to Aosten, oaght 
probably to be written with the rongh breathing, which is strongly 
confirmed by the manuscripts, and to be referred to Ti?fu. — Verbal Adj. 
hSsf hioPt rarer hnrrdw. 

Rekabk 1. On the inclinatioa of the Ind. of tlfd^ to be (except the second 
Pen. c7), see 4 33 (a). In compounds, the accent is on the preposition, as £u* back 
as the general rales of accentoation permit, e. g. irdptt/u, Tdptit ««(pc0T((y), etc. 
Imp. v^ur^t, ^^ytff^i ; bat wofin^ on account of the temporal augment, wapiorai 
on account of the omission of t (m^o-rrcu), irapnyai like infinitiyes with the 
ending -mu, iropv, -ps, -^, etc, Tapc?r«, -TOpcif v, on account of the contraction ; 
the accentuation of the Part in compound words should be particularly noted, 
e. g. irofK^y, mtpovtra, xapSy^ Gen. xap6inos (so also vapufiy, Qen. 'wapi6vr9t)» 

Rem. 2. The compounds of 9lfu, to go^ follow the same rules as those of 
tifd, to be; hence seyeral forms of these two yerbs are the same in compounds, 
e. g. rdpttfu, irdpti^ and irdptun{p) (the last, being third Pers. Sing, of 9tf^i and 
third Pers. PL of €lfd) ; but Inf. vapUim, Part. 'npUhf. 

Rev. 3. The form tTey, esto, be it so I good I shortened from ^ and strength- 
ened by a y, must be distinguished from the shortened form rlcy instead of 
^htnp of the third Pers. PL Opt Impf. — A secondary form, yet critically to be 
rejected, of the third Pers. Imp. firct instead of (l<rrc»f is found once in PL Rp. 
361, c, with the varying readmg Haru, — The form of the first Pers. Impf. is 
often 1i, among the Attic poets, and sometimes also in Plato ; the form ff/iiry is 
raro (Lys. 7, 34, X. Cy. 6. 1, 9). — The form of the second Pers. Impf. Ijs is 
found frequently in the later writers, and Tarely in lyric passages of the Attic 
. poets. — The Dual forms with a- are preferred to those without a- ; on the con- 
trary, ^« is preferred to i|<rr« (Aristoph.). 

Rem. 4. The form of the third Pers. Sing. Impf. Ijtiy instead of fu, from 
97fUf sometimes occurs, even before consonants, Ar. Pint. 696. irposjjtiy (in 
Senarius) ; PL Crit p. 114, d. (in the best MSS.) ; ^tty, PL Grit 117, e. (in the 
best MSS.) ; wpajftty, PL Tim. 43, 6 ; hnfwt ib. 60, c ; ^Tj^ccy, ib. 76, b. 

Rem. 5. The Ind. Pres. of tlua, to aoj has regularly in the Attic prose- 
writers the meaning of the Fat /sAou or will go or come ; hence the Pres; is 
supplied by tpx^fuu (S 167, 2) ; the Inf and Part, have likewise a Pres. and 
Fat meaning. 


Digitized by 



V£RBS IN 'fit. 


IL Verbs in -fit which annex the Syllable pyv or rO to the 
Stem-Yowel and append to this the Personal-endings. 

^ 182. Formation of the Tenses of , Verbs whose Stem 
ends with a, €, o, or with a Consonant. 

A. Verbs whose Stem ends with a, c, or o. 



a. Stem in a. 

b. Stem in c. 

c. Stem in • (t»). 



^kM-ppv-zu ' 












Att. <r«c5«, -§Sy -$ 


Att. «roiM0, -c7s, -c7 





























{TTpW'Q fyrofjuu 


I Adj. 





-K0p€'yy6vf i-KOpi-yy 


'And tnrcSa 

•yy6»f 4ffKM'yyvoy- 

arpA-ppvoy (v a 

Iways short). 

B. Veibs whose Stem ends with a Consonant 

Pre,. • 

$Xr\v-iu,^ perdo, f «A-X»-fuij, pereo, 

ifi-yv-fu » 



a^X-XG-r' 1 i^K'Kt-ivny 




iK-^Kt'Ka ('OAEA), perdidi, 


^24, 2. 


Perf n. 

SK-mK-a, perii, ' 

4 m, 2. 

Plup. L 

^X-»X^-ir€ir, ^rdideram, 



iK-AXrup, perieram, 


6K'&, -f IJ, -€« 6\-0VfUU, -€« 

hlirOViUUf -C« 

Aor. L 

&\§^a A. II. oi\-6u7iP 



A. I. P. iiiju&^^hip (et ^/ui3iry)| 

F. L P. hiuHrM<foiuu. \ 

*AndoAA^tt», fiAAw-Of — i/ir^,. i 

J/iwoy, (always i 

») 1 

Remabk. "OXXufu comes by assimilation from 6\'pv/u (§18, Bem.). For an 
example of a stem-ending with a mute, see 99lKPVfu aboye, under the para 
digms (( 175). The Part Perf. Mid. or Pass, of 6fun)fu is hfjM/ioo^fi(yos. The 
remaining forms of the Perf. and Plup. commonly omit the «- among the Atdo 
writers, e. g. i/iAfJurreu, i/'^fioro. 

Digitized by 




The Stem ends, 
A. In a Vowel and assumes -rwv. 

i 183. (a) Verbs whose Stem ends in a. 

1. K€pd'iryv'fu (poetic Secondary form mpvaxop Kipvtjfui Epic and 
poet K€paM), to miXf Fat K€paata, Alt x^; Aor. iKJpSxra; Perf. 
Kixpojca ; Mid. to mix for (me*s self, Aor. iKtpaurdfirp^ ; Perf. Mid. 
or Pass. K€Kpdfuu (jctKlpturfuup Anacr. 29, 13 ; Inf. K£K€pcuT&cu, Luc. 
Dial Meretr. 4, 4); Aor. Pass. iKpaJ^, Alt also UtfMxr^ 
(Metathesis, k 1^6, Rem.). 

2. Kp€fjLa'Wv-fiUy to haaig, Fut Kp€/iaffu^, Att xpcfua ; Aor. iKpifid* 
au ; Mid. or Pass. Kpefiayyvfitu, to kan^ one's self^ or he hung (but 
KpiiJMfuan, to hangy k 179, 5) ; (Perf. Mid. or Pass, mkp^m^mjl in 
later writers;) Fut Pass. Kpt\iMT^^opax\ Aor. hcp€/ia(T$Tp^, I was 
hung, or I hung. 

3. TTctd-wv-fiiy to spread out, to open, Fut 7rcra<rco, Att. Trcrw; 
Aor. Iircracra (Perf. Act ircircrcuco, Diod.) ; Perf. IM^d. or Pass. 
trcnrSfuu (^ 155, 2) (Trcirereurfuii, non- Attic and Luc.) ; Aor. Pass. 

4. (r«c€&£-na;-/bu, 2<7 scatter, Fut a-KeMa-w, Att cr/ccSo) ; Aor. ^o-icc* 
&(Fo; Perf. Mid. or Pass. iarKeSaarfuu; Aor. Pass. icrK€Bda'3ijv. 

k 184. (b) Verbs whose Stem ends in f. 

Fbsuxivabt Bemabk. The yerbs $rvvfu, trfiiwwvfu, and also ^Jmiiu 
{S 186), do not properly belong here, since their stem originally ended in tr, 'E^ 
(comp. ve9-iire), XBEZ- (comp. lUriSro'-Tos), ZfiS- (comp. (m<r-rf\p, (Sta-^pov, (69- 
TTfs, Co^-r6s) ; but by the omission of the ^, they become analogous to verbs in 
-c and -o, 

1. Vwv'fjLiy to clothe, in prose afi<f>Uwvfu, Impf. &fjL<f>i.€vvw with- 
out Aug.; Fut a/jw^corco, Att a/i<^«o; Aor. rffi4>U<ra; Perf Act 
wanting ; Perf Mid. or Pass. •fjfKJiUa'fuuy rifi<f>Ua'aiy ^/i<^i€(rr(u, etc., 
Inf. rffi4>ua-3ai; Fut Mid. AfAjftniaofiai. (Aug. ♦§ 126, 3. and 230.) 
The vowel of the Prep, is not elided in the Common language, 
hence also hruacurSai, X Cy. 6. 4, 6. 

2. it-wv'fu, to boil, Trans., Fut itara; Aor. Ifeona; Perf. Mid. 
or Pass. SitcTfuu; Aor. Pass. iiia-Srpt, — ((^ on the contrary, is 
vsually intransitive). 

Digitized by 


j|{24 8UMHABT OF SOME VERBS IN #U. [H 185-187 

3. Kopi'Wv^fUj to satiate, Fut Kopcoti*, Alt. xopCt; Aor. ixoptty^i 
Aor. Mid. hcopatrdfiriy ; Ferf. Mid. or Pass. K€K6p€trfjLiu; Aor. Pass 

4. arfii'WV'fjLi, to extinguish, Fut afiuno; first Aor.*l(r)3caa, / 
extinguished; second Aor. 27/3i7v, / ceased to bum; Perf. ^fiT/jKOf 
DuiVB ceased to bum, — Mid. apiwv/uu, to cease to bum, intraos. 
Fut afirjaofuu; Perf. Mid. or Pass, wfitarfuu; Aor. Pass. itrfiSfr- 
StIv; Fut. Pass. <rP€ar&ri(rofuu. No other verb in -yv/u has a 
second Aor. Act. (♦ 191, 2). 

5. aropi'WV'fu, to spread out (shortened form crropviifu. Poet 
and X. Cy. 8. 8, 16), Fut irropiina, Att oropoi; Aor. coropccra; 
Mid. <o spread out for one's self. The other tenses are formed 
from crpiawvfu; larpoiO'dfArp^ ; ILrrptafuu, lurfMi/iv, orpoyro? (non* 
Att i<rT6p€afuu, iaTopia-Sriv, and ifrrofr^Srpi), See f 182. 

} 185. (c) Verbs whose Stem ends in i. 

rt-prO-fu (TI-), to /xiy, to expiate^ Mid. W-ivlK-fuu, to jp€t jxzy, to jmniah, to ea/mge, 
tecondaiy Epic form of r/iw and rlrafuu.— In Attic poetiy. the Mid. is often 
fonnd, and with one r, rft^/tw. 

i 186. (d) Fcr&5 in o, trt^A ^/ic o lengthened into oi. 

1. (oj-vKv-/Uy to gird, Futiwcro); Perf. ifcoxa, Paus. ; Aor. HJoKra; 
Mid. to ^rrf (wc*5 self Aor. Mid iiiuKrafirfv \ Perf Mid. or Pass. 
2{;aKr/uu 131). 

2. pta^vyv'fu,' to strengthen, Fut /^axTO) ; Aor. tppwra ; Perf Mid. 
or Pass, ipfnaiuu. Imp. ippwao, vale, farewell, Inf ippwrSai; Aor 
Pass. ippwBTjv (U31) ; Fut Pass. pwr&y<rofjuu. 

3. arpui-wv'fu (i 182), to spread out, Fut orpiotrw; Aor. corrpw- 
oti, etc. See aropafvv'fu (i 184, 5). 

4. -xfMi'Vvv-iJix, to color, Fut xp<'>><^> Aor. I;)(p(ixm; Perf. Mid. of 
Pass. K€xpwrfjMi; Aor. Pass. IxpwrBrfv. 

B. Verbs whoso Stem snds in a Consonant and assumes -yv. 

k 187. (a) In a Mute. 

1. dyvv-fu, to break, Fut a^; Aor. h^ Inf a^ (Part Lys. 
100, 5. xarco^i^cs with the Aug.); second Perf &ya. Jaw 
broken; Mid to break for one's self, Aor. ^o^ofup; Aor. Pasa 
l^tyip' (Aug., ♦ 122, 4). 

Digitized by 


f 187.] SUHHABT OF SOME VERBS IN -fU. 225 

2. Seuc'VV'fu, see i 175. 

3. €iprf-vv'fu (or €ipy<a), to shtU in, Fut. etpfo); Aor. c!Jf>£iti, LiC 
dp£ou. Part ^s (PI. Polit 285, b.), ir^pUp^a-vrt^ (Th. 5, 11), 
£iiif^>javro9 (PL Rp. 5. 461, b), Subj. KaSeipirp (with the variation 
MoStpdf:), PI. Gorg. 461,. d; Aor. Pass. cipx-V; Perf dpyfuu. 
( But cijpyci), €cp£ci>, clp^ €i/)x^> ^ shut out, etc.) 

4. ^cvy-vu-fu, to join together, Fut (cv^; Aor. tiieu^a; Mid. to 
yom to or for one's self, Fut {cv^fuu; Aor. i(ieu$dfirjy ; Perf. Mid« 
or P&ss efc/Ay/Mu; Aor. Pass. ^evtyBrp^^ and more frequently 

5. fuy-vv-fu, to mix (j/iayta, secondary form), Fut fu!£(i>; Aor. 
^pu^ m2^; Perf. ftc/uxa (Polyb.); Perf. Mid. or Pass, fiyuy/uu, 
fA€fux^^ * ^^^- Pa^s. liUxBrfVy and ^/uyTv ; Fut Pass. fuxSiitrofjuu ; 
Fut Perf. fjL€fiC$ofuu. 

6. oTy-Kv-fu, usually as a compound: (The Attic use of the 
form olyyvfu is not certain) Siyoiyvvfu, Stoiyvvfu (but instead, 
dvor/b), SiOiyw, are more frequently used in the Pres. and dv^^jyov 
always in the Lnpf ), to open, Fut ayot^ ; Aor. ay&^a, dvoZfcu (in 
X. Hell, yjywfovt ^voi^a, signifying to put to sea, to weigh anchor) ; 
first Perf avcaixs ^ ^f>(^ve opened; second Perf avii^yaj I stand 
open, instead of which Att dveuyfuu; Impf. Mid. &y€wy6fxrp/ ; Aor. 
Pass. ay€faxBriVf aFoix<^<u. (Aug. i 122, 6.) Verb. Adj. droucr^os. 

7. ofjLopy-vv-fu, to ynpe off, Fut d/xop^; Aor. o>/iop^; Mid. to 
ir^ off from one's self; Fut 6fi6p$o/uu', Aor. Q>fjLop$dfirpf ; Aor. 
Pass, cjftopx*^^* • 

8. flTTy-vu-fu, to fx, fasten, freeze, Fut mjfto; Aor. ^^; first 
Perf TTtmixP^ I have fastened ; second Perf. vhrqya, I standfast, 
am frozen; Mid. mJyinJfuu, I stick fast; Perf Trimiyiuuy I statid 
fast; Aor. Pass, hrayrjv (more seldom ^tt^x*^) J second Fut 
Pass. Trayqaofuu. Verbal Adj. in}KT6^. 

9. p^-vu-fu, to reTic/, Fut /S^^d; Aor. Ipprf^a; second Perf 
$p<i)ya» J o;» rew^ ($ 140, Rem. 3); Aor. Mid. ippvfidfiriv', Aor. 
Pass, ippayrjv (ipprjx^ rare) ; second Fut payrjarofuu. 

10. <fipdyvv'fu (commonly tfipdo'crui, Kfipdrrw, i 143, 1), to 6rea^ 
Impf f<l>pdyvvv (Thnc. 7, 74. S. Ant 241);. Fut <l>pdi<a; Aor. 
i[xf>pa(a\ Perf Mid. or Pass. vilf>payfiai; Aor. Pass, iffipdx^ 
{if^payqv fii'st usod among the later writers). 

Digitized by 


226 VERBS. -^fccffuu AND f^fiou [H 188, 189 

i 188. (b) Verbs whose Stem ends in a Liquid, 

1. iSi^w^iiM (Epic and also in Plato), to take, obtain, secondary form of tip^ 
ftmif and nsed only in particular phrases, to obtain, to acquire^ namely, a reufant^ 
ipoils, etc. Impf. iipwlifiriy. The remaining forms come from oXpoftoju 

2. KT€i'vv'iUy commonly written ktIwviu in the MSS., to put to 
death, Att. prose secondary form of icrciyu), is used in the Fres. 
and Impf The stenuis KTEIN-, lengthened from KTEN-. 
The V of the stem is omitted on accoimt of the diphthong (♦ 169, 
Rem. 1). 

3. oK-Xv'iki (instead of oX-vu-/At), to destroy. See i 182, B. la 
prose, only in compounds. 

4. o/A-vO-fu, to swear. See k 182, B. 
6. op'vv-fu (poet), to rouse (} 230). 

6. <rrdp-vu-fu, to spread out. See oropo/vO/u, i 184, 5. 

\ 189. Inflection of the two forms of the Perf fcci/iai 
and ^fiai. 

Pbeliminakt Bemark. The two forms of the Perf. Kti/iai and ^/cci* 
are so essentially different, in their formation, from the other yerbs in -/u, that 
they require to be treated by themselves. 

a. Kcifiai, to lie. 

Kctfuu, properly, I have laid myself doum, hence / Ue down; 
then Pass, lliave been laid down^ I am lying down (e. g. dmica- 
ujUf I am laid up, i. e. consecrated, ovyxciTtu, it has been agreed 
upon, compositura est, constat, but cn/n-c^ciTOi vwo row, it has 
been agreed by some one) ; this verb is a Perf witliout reduplica- 
tion, from the stem KEI- [contracted from K££-). 

Perf. Ind. ireijum, Kutrai, kcitoi, Ktifit^ «rc7(r3c, irctW-cu ; 

Sabj. K4c»fuu, «r^, Kifireu, etc. 

Imp. ircSro, Ktia^, etcj — Inf. icc<(r;^;-^Part Ktlfuifos, 
Impf Ind. iKtlfinyf KKturo, Ikcito, third Pers. PI. Drcurro. 

Opt. KtolfHIPy k4oIO, KiotTO, CtC. 

Fid. KflaofKu. 

Compounds iydxtificu, Kordxttfuu, Kordxtiffcu, etc.; — Inf KwrcuctTadm} — Imp 

Digitized by 


W 190, 191.] VBBBS IN -« WITH TENSBS LIKE THOSE IN -/tt. 2?1 

4 190. b. *Hfiai, to sit. 

1. *ll/uu, piopeiiy, / A/w?tf seated myselfl I have been seated, 
hence, / sU (Ion. and poetic, also used of inanimate objects, 
instead of i^/uu, / have been fixed, estabUshed) ; this verb id 
a Perf. of the poet Aor. Act. clim, to set, to establish. The stem 
is 'HA- (comp. ijo-rm instead of ijS-Ttu, according to i 17, 6, and 
the liat sedrco). 

Kkuasx. 1. The active Aorist-forms of ^Tffa are dialectic (\ 230) and poet, 
bat the Mid. signifying to erect, to establish, belongs also to Attic prose, «ir^i|r; 
Part tMfutfos (Th. 3, 58, UedfUiH}s) ; Imp. ttrai, tffffai (i^fraai) \ Fut poetic 
Uofuu, tffffo/Mi (i^pdaaofiM). The defective forms of Uiis verb are suppUed by 


Ind. Ii/uu, li^ai, W«» V«^«» t*^^» W«5 . 

Imp. Jiffo, V^. etc. i — Inf Ha^at ; — Part, ^/acws. 


2. In prose, the compound ico^i/fuu is commonly used instead 
of the simple. The inflection'of the compound differs from the 
simple in never taking a- in the third Pers. Sing., and in the 
Plup., only when it has the temporal Augment: — 

Per/. KddnpM, KU^ffoi, lcrfanTo^ etc;— Subj. Ko^Qfuu, ica^, itfAf- 

T«, etc;— Imp. irrfdTHro, etc.;— Inf. ica»v^d«;— Part, irad^ 

Plvp, iKo^'^v and icod^/inv, <«fc5t|M and Ko^vtro, iKd^riro and 

Ka^Vtrro, etc; — Opt. Ko^ol/iriy, Kd^oio, Kif^iro, etc 
Rem. 2. The Opt forms: mc^firir, -pp, -vro, etc are doubtfnL-The 
defective forms of Iiim are suppUed by Iftcr^, or rf«r^ (prose ico&^f€<r3a», 


i 191. L Second Aor. Act. and Mid. 

1. Several verbs with the characteristic a, c, o* v, form a 
second Aor. Act. and (though rarely) a second Aor. Mid., ac- 
corfling to theanalogyof verbs in -fti, — this tense bemgwithout 
the mode-vowel, and appending the personal- endings to the 
stem. But aU the remaining forms of these. verbs are like 

verbs in -w. 

2. The formation of this second Aor. Act, through all the 
modes and p&rticipials is like that of the second Aor. Act of 

Digitized by 




verbs in -/u. The characteristic- vowel, with some exceptions, 
IS lengthened, as in umjv, viz. a and c into 17, o into (d> I and i 
into I and v. This lengthened vowel remains, as in omyr, 
throughout the Ind., Imp., and Inf. The third Pers. PL in -i^eror 
(Char, a) and -vaav shortens the vowel, when the poets use the 
abridged form in -v, instead of -o-w, e. g. e)3ttv, ISvv, The Snbj., 
Opt., and Part, with some exceptions, wliich will be noticed in 
the following tables, are like verbs in -/u, e. g. /Scuitv (araoffyy 
a-fitCrjv (StL-qv), yvoirpr (Soii^v), yvov9 (Sovs). The Imp., like ot^^i, 
in the second Pers. Sing., takes the ending -St, and the stem 
vowel remains long through all the persons ; in compounds of 
PoLvui, firfSi is also shortened into pa, e. g. koto^u, irpopa, €Ufia^ 
fyifia, ivCfid instead of KaTafiiiSi, etc. 


a. Charactcris. a 

b. Charactcris. c 

c. Characteris. d. Character. 1 


BA-a, /9aiM», 

2BE-0, afidyyvfUf 

KM, to know. 



to (JO. 

to extinguish. 

Co trrap 19}. 

Ind. S. 1. 

^/31J-l^, / went. 

Ila fitly f I ceased to 

liSvy, /mtf n 



dfffins [bum, 


I^VT [ariMcfer, 
















P. 1. 














(Poet. i$&y) 

(Poet. Kyy»y) 

(Poet my) 

Subj. S. 

fi&, fi^s, fif » 


7f«, TKyy, 7Kv» 







0&tlt¥y VJTt, 

afivfity, ^€, 

yymfuy, wrr, 





ijTC, mai{y) 

Opt S. 1. 



TyofijH • 









D. 2. 

fiedrtrop et curov 

fffidriroy et f itov 

yyoirrroy C^ oTroy 


ficwfirtiv et airily 

afitvirniy et tlrriy 

P. 1. 

fiaitifity Ct cufAfy 

afitlrifityet ufisy 

yyoliifuy Ct Oi/Acy 


ficdrrr^ et curt 

fffifiijTt ct c7rc 

yyotrrrt ct oire 


fioity (seldom 


7yo«ey (rarely 




Imp. S. 

firjdi, 4iro»^ 


yy»^i, <^« ' 

80^1, ^m' 

firrroy, ^wy 

afirrroy, ^wy 

yyHroy, ^uy 

P. 2. 






^wrav and 

afi^Tcoiray and 

yy(&rwiray and 

5i5To«ray efe 











$isf aaa, ay 

afifis, run, 4y 

yyo{rs, oDcro, rfv 

Us, v<rat h 


G. fffiiyros 
iyafi^s, etc. ; euro 

G. TwJirrof 

G. 81W0S. 

* Compo 

ands, e. 1?. kyaBSi 

afiw'j Sicryvw; dvaS^w. 

•Aeschyl. Suppl. 2.30r21 
' Compounds, e. g. ^dfirii 

5) avyyy^yi *, but i 

n the Mid. form trvyyinnro. 

^1, oiyipjiTt ', dv<$<r/ 

Digitized by 


H 192 f 193. J VEBBS IN -0> LIKE VEEB8 In' -fU. 229 

Tli^vAJtir, The Opt. form 8di|y (instead of 9vhiy) is not found in the Attic 
dialect, bnt in the Epic (^ 227). 

♦ 192* Summary of Verbs with a second Aor. like 
Verbs in -fii. 

Besides the rerbs mentioned abore, some others have this form:— 

1. 9i9pdffK€Of to rtm away (§ 161, 10^ Aor. (APA-) ISjpOy, -ds, -&, -cvm^, -drc, 
•dffov (Dpdy Foet.)» Sabj. Spd, 8pf5, Spf, hf^rov^ Spdjucy, Sparc, 8fMM'((y), Opt. 
^paltivt Imp. Sp^i, -tirw, Inf. Sponu, Fart. 8pdf , •oo'a, -^, Gen. S/kbTos. 

2. viro/uu, to fly (§ 166, 29), Aor. (ITTA-) limji', Inf xr^rai, Fart, vrdt ; Aor. 
Mid. iirrdfinVf mda^eu, 

3. irpiaff^ai, see § 179, 6. 

4: <ric^AX« or (rjKc\^«, to (fry, second Aor. (2KAA-) £ir«c\i}v, to wither^ Intrans., 
Inf. fficXTiimif Opt. tricXa/ijr. 

5. ^;^-iw, to come before^ to anticipate (§158, 7), Aor. f^briy, ^dTJpmt ^dis^ 

6. ffo/w, to bitmy Trans. (§ 154, 2), Aor. (KAE-) ixdrit^t I burned, Intians. ; bat 
first Aor. Iicavo'a, Trans. 

7. f4w, to flow {\ 154, 2), Aor. ('PTE-) ^#*n*', I flowed.' 

8. x^P*9 ^ rejoice (§ 166, 32), Aor. (XAPE-) ix^^- 

9. oAio-Ko/ioi, to be taken, Aor. (*AAO-) ^X«y and iiXwy (§ 16', 1), oXSvcu, 
a\w, -4>s, -^f etc., &Xo{ijr, oXo^y (always A, except in the Ind.). 

10. $i6v, to live, Aor. ifiiuv, Subj. $iS, -^r, -^, etc., Opt. fit^v (oot fiiohiPf 
as yyoitip, to distinguish it from the Opt. Impf. /3u>(ijr), Inf. /Siwyoi, Part /Sio^s 
[oMTa, oin^] ', but the cases of $io6s are supplied by the first Aor. Fart, fit^as. 
Thus: kytfilotyt I returned to life, from hfofit^KOfuu (§ 161, 3). The Fres. and 
Impf. of /3i^« arc but little used by the Attic writers ; for these tenses, they em- 
ploy (» ] besides these tenses, only the Fut. f^trciy was in good use among Attic 
writers ; the remaining tenses were borrowed from fit6v *, thus, Fres. (& \ Impf. 
IfC^v (§ 137, 3) ; Fut. fiui^ofuu, more rarely ft<r»; Aor. dfiUf (X..0. 4, 18, has 
also ifilwrty) ; Ferf fitfiiwKa] Ferf. Mid. or Fass. fitfiUrrai, Fart. fitfiwfjJyos. 

11. ^6» (u or <;), to produce, second Aor. I^w, Intrans., to be produced, be bom, be 
natwraUy, ^vvau, ^5, Subj. ^(w (Opt wanting in the Attic dialect) ; but the first 

. Aor. I^w<ra, Trans. / produced; Fut. ^^w, Trans. / will produce. The Feif. 
v^^vica, / am produced, also has an intransitive sense, so also the Fres. Mid. 
^iCoiuui', Fut. ^ixrofuu. 

Remabk. Here also belong the forms o-x^s and o'vo^ify-of the second 
Aor. (^x^^ from fx»» ^ have (§ 166, 14), and vi^i of the second Aor. (mow 
from Tiiw, to drink (§ 158, 5). 

k 193. 11. Perfect and Pluperfect. 

Tlie Attic dialect, in imitation of the Epic, forms a few Per- 
fects of pure verbs immediately from the stem, e. g. AI-O, ta 

Digitized by 



VERBS IN •« Lin VERBS IN -/u. 


fear^ 3^-&-a, then rejecting the mode-vowel, in the Dual and PL 
Ind. Pcrf. and Plup., and to some extent in the Inf^ e. g. hi-h- 
^jfv instead of 8€-$i-a-/icv. In this way, these forms of tlie Perf 
and Plup. become wholly analogous to the Pres. and Impf. oi 
verbs in -fu, e. g. r-oro-ftcv. The stem- vowel remains short, e. g. 
8c8i/ji€v, rcrXa^uv, rcrXoi^aA; but in the third Pers. PL Perf., tiie 
' mode-vowel a is not rejected, e. g. 8c-&'-cUn ; with verba in -«s 
however, a is contracted with the stem- vowel, ei g" rc-rAa-cMn = 
Tc-rXtt-cri, * 

Rkmark 1. Except the forms of Alfi and ISmy/u, all the Perfects of this 
kind iHilong almost excluaively to poetrj, particnlarly to the Epic The Sing. 
B^Sm is not Attic. 

Rem. S. The Imp. of these Perfbcts is also in nse, and, since it not onhf 
wants the mode-vowel, bat takes the ending -^i in the second Pers. Siog., it is 
wholly analogous to the forms in -^u. So Uie Inf. Both append their termi- 
nations to the short stem-vowel ; 8c8i/mu is an exception. The Snbj. Pcrf. and 
the Opt. Plup. of verbs whose stem- vowel is a, are formed like rerbs m -^u, since 
the Subj. Pcrf. admits the contraction of the stem-vowel with the termination, 
and the Opt. Plup. ends in -o/iry, e. g. k<rriH»^ iarA^ -ps^ etc., rrrKmbgy, The 
Part, of verbs in -dm contracts the stem-vowel a with the ending -^s and 4t, 
e. g. ieroiAs — iar^s, irra-6t = iards and iffris, and also have a peculiar 
feminine form in -wra, e. g. iaruaa ] all the Cases retain the w, e. g. iarmras, 
iffr6ffJiSt etc. 

Rem. 3. The form resolved by « is retained in some participles, in the Ionic 
dialect, e. g. I^rc^t, ttanding firm ; so from ri^yfiKo, rt^y^dt (never rt^yAs) 
together with rtdyriK^s, is retained in the Attic dialect aUo. In these forms, 
« remains in all the Cases, e. g. 

4<rrc^r, itrrtwra, l^rfcSs, Gen. icrtAros, -«^i. 
Tt^tf&Sf rt^yt&au, rtbytds. Gen. rt^tHros, -dffJis, 

B//9i7K« and rirXifKa never have this form of the participle. 





Ind. S. 1. 







m^Ttaay (iMitaay) 








94-iri^t, «€af 

r«, etc 
-n, etc. 

t-crd-^iy etc., 
ktrrtLrttfrcof an 

3 Pers. PL 
1 "dyrcty 


Zt-m-ds, 'vtd^ -iJ*, Gen. -^os 

Gen. -«T0J, 

-6$ (-<*f ?) 

Subj. Pf. 


ia-TM, ^s, -fy etc. 

iaralijy. Dual itrrcdriroy and -cut 
etc., third Pers. PI. i<rrMy. 

or, PI. kirrai^ 

licy and fuvfy, 

Digitized by 


rf 194, 195.] VERBS WITH A PEttP. LIKE VERBS IN -fU. 231 

^EM. 4. The Opt. Flap, third Fers. Sing. 8«8icfir, Fl. Fh&edr. 251, a. is re- 
■tored according to traces m the MSS. The Flap, of 1<mifu, in this form never 
takes the strengthened aagment ci. — The Imp. Ferf. c(rrai^i, etc., and the Opt. 
Flap, iaraint^, etc., are poetic only. Bat the Inf. lor^cu is in constant nse ; 
jet iffmiKdnu is very seldom ; also the Fart, iar^s, -Aa-a, is far more freqacnt 
than itfTificif , -via ; toe neater i<rrnK6s, on the contrary, is more frequent than 
lirr^r. Instead of the Ind. Sing. Ferf., Flap., and Fart, of 8«8ld, the forms 
of Mouca are more freqaent; besides the Indie Ferf. and Flap., particalarly 
in the Sing., the Inf. and Fart, were used. 

} 194. Summary of Verbs with a Perfect like Verbs 

in -fii. 

Besides the two reibs aboTe, the following have this form of the Ferfect: — 

1. ^(TrofMu, to become^ ITFAA (stem FA): Ferf. (Sing, yiyopa^ -of, -c), Tryd 
ifjr, 7^7*r€, yiyda<n{p)j Inf. ywydfitr (Epic), Fart. yry^St yrytto'a^ yrf^St Gen 

2. fiaivtj to go^ Ferf. Mi^ko^ BEBAA: Fl. fitfi&fttrt -drc, -acri(ir), third Fers. 
Fl SnbJ. iJMfi9fiA(n{y) (Fl. Fhaedr. 225, e), Inf. /ScjKtMu, Fart. 0f^s (X. HclL 
7. 2, 3), /Sc^vM (/Sc/BeMTo, Fl. Fhaedr. 254, b), $tfit&s. Gen. fit^Aros', Flap. ^3^ 
B&fur, -arc, -^ay. These abridged forms are almost wholly poetic and dia- 
lectic (4 230). 

3. MtaKWf to dicy r^^xca, TEBNAA : Fl. r^^rS^urt t/^vAtc, Tc3ya<ri(ir), Imp. 
r^iMU^i, Fart. r^dtfJiKAs, rcdmiicvia, rc3vi|ir^f, or r^dvtAs^ r^vwra (Lys. and 
Dem.), r^rtSsj Inf. tc3f^« (Aesch. redySyoi from rt^ra4pat) ; Flap, ir^^rd- 
^OF, Opt. rc^Fo/ifr. 

4. TAAO* to bear, Ferf. r^Xi|Ka, TETAAA: Dual rirKSrov, Fl. r^TJiofuy, 
r^A&rc, rrrAoo-tf r), Imp. t^tAA^, -trw, etc, Snbj. wanting. Inf. rrrX^Uw, bnt 
Fart^ rvrKfiicAs', Flap. #r^rX^cr, irhk&frty irh-AJUray, Daal MTX&rov, irerktr 
n|y, Opt. rerXedtir, 

5. Hero belong the two participles of, 

$tfip^Kw (§ 161, 6), to eat, Ferf. 040pwea, poetic /Sc/Spcif, Gen. -Sros, 
wlrrw (4 163, 3), to fall, whrrwta, Att. Foet. irwicrAs (comp. § 230). 

Remark. There are also foand, in imitation of Homer, k4kp ay fitv and 
the Imp. xixpax^h from the Ferf. K^Kpaya (from KpdCw, to cry out) ; also the 
Imp. v^ri^^i, from ir^ai;^a, to trust (from tcC!^, to persuade)^ is found in 
Aesch. Enm. 602. See 4 230. The Fcrfects o78a and iouca reqairo a distinct 

i 195. 078a and ioiKa. 

1. 075a, Ferf. from 'EIAA (second Aor. ffTSov, / saw, Inf. IZuy, videre) 
properly*/ Aave seen, hence / ^nou;; for the syllable o7, see 4 140, 4; for the 
change of 9 into o* in toroi^, etc., see 4 17, 5; for the change of S into «- in 
UpMtf, see 4 19, 1. Its inflection is as follows : — 

Digitized by 


232 Ol8a AND loiMu [i 196 


Ind. S. 1. 



D. 2. 3. 

P. 1. 



o78a Sabj. cl8d Imp. 

tittr^a^ flips ler^i Inf. 

tarov, Xtrrw €i^ov^ -rfrov Xtrrotff Xtrrw 

Xfffify c28£/Acy Part, 

fore etB7jT€ f(trrc ctSc^s* -vm, -^i 

X<rwn{y) eI8fi<ri(v) fdrrftwiov 


Iiid. S. 1. 

^cty' Dual PI. j|f8ci/icy (Poet, ^(tmct) 

^8eiy and -cio-j^a* lySfiToy, Poet. ^(TToy ^Seire ( " V^^) 
pifi{r) iJ8««'n?i', " jf<mjy ji8c<raar ( " pa-ear) 

Opt Sing. c28c(i}i', -i}f, -ii] Dual cfScfip'oi', -^y; PI- tUttfifuv (seldom cflk7- 

fici'), eiitedrrc, ciScMy (seldom tiScdTfrai^}. 
Put. ctb-b/ioi (Ion. cIS^w, though Isocr. (nwciS^o-cis), / shaU buna or 

experience ; sometimes also ciSeyoi, cl5£, ciSefi}^, have the same 

meaning. — Verbal Adj. Jareov. 

S^FoiSa, compounded of ol3a, / am conscious^ Inf. <rvFci9^F«» Imp.* <r&mr^ 
Subj. fruvetSwy etc. 

M 116, 2, oTSos scarcely occurs in Attic. . 

'First person fjhi, second fZ-nv^Oy third fhiy are considered as Attic 
forms ; yet ]^8civ, fB^ur^a (also ^Scts), jIfSct, are found in the best Attic wri- 
ters. OtSc^icv, otSoTff, ot8ao't(y), instead of fir/tey, etc., are rarely found in 
the Attic writers. Comp. X. An. 2. 4, 6. Antiph. p. 115, 3. PI. Ale. 141, 
e. Eur. Suppl. 1047. A. O. 20, 14. o^as occurs in X. C. 4. 6, 6. The 
shortening of the ci into c in the Dual and PI. of the Opt. j8c/icy, is poetic 
and rare. S. O. T. 1232. 

Remabk. The Perfect, I have hunon, is expressed by fypwKOj and the Aorisli 
1 knewy by $yvup, 

2. IB OIK a, /am lihe^ I seem^ Perf. of *£IKa (of this the Impf cTjcc, is used in 
Homer), poetic clica instead of loiica, cIk^voi instead of ioucdtfcu, and (instead 
of iotKoai) the anoifialous Alt. third Pers. PL cf^^oo-i, even in prose (Plat.), Part. 
iouc^s, in the Attic writers only in the sense of like; Att. eiViir and c2ir/nu 
(instead of ioiK^s, ioiKivai) commonly in the dramatists, only in the sense of 
probable^ likdy^ right ; hence especially in the neuter eliciJy, as &s eiicrfj, as is 
natural; Plup. it^Ktiy (§ 122, 5), Fut. «y|« (Ar.). 

Here belongs the abridged form Hoiyfitv, among the Tragedians, instead of 
ioUofiw] comp. f<rtt«v. The poetic Mid. forms <Ji|cu (Eur. Ale 1065), second 
Pers. Sing. Perf, and ijlKro^ third Pers. Sing. Plup., are constructed according 
to the same analogy. 

§ 196. III. Present and Imperfect* 

There are also some Present and Imperfect forms, mostly in the Epic dialect, 
which, according to the analogy of verbs in -/«, take the personal-endingf 
without the mode-vowel. See § 230, under &y6wy raofCc^, ip^tt, <r€^, Giw, ^pm ' 
•Xuai {S 166, 24), of the Common language, belongs here. 

Digitized by 



♦ 197. Summary of the Deponent Passives 
(} 102, 2, 3). 

'^Aytquuj to wonder^ 96yafiM^ to be a&2e, icpdfutfuu, to hang^ 

aSS4ofiMf to reverence, hfsapwriofiM^ to be dissai- ?ioUiop4oftatt to revik, 

^JidoftoL, to wander, isfied^ ftaiyoftatt to be mad, 

ofuXXiofuu, to contend, ivoaniSoiutx, to resist, fMTafi4\ofuu, to regret, 

iem&oiuu (Poet) advenor, 4t^fi4o/uUf to lay to heart, fOHrdrrofiM, to loathe, 
iaropodofuUf to be distraded, ipyotofiou^ to consider, v9fu&dofuu. (Poet), to hi 

krop4ofuuy to be perplexed, iwiii4Kontu and -ioftat, to Justly indignata, 
itpuTTOKpariofuu, to have an take care, dtofuu, to suppose, 

aristocraof, iTtyo4ofuu, to reflect upon, , dKfyapx^/uu^ to have an 

i^4ofuuy to refuse 4iel<rTafuu,Ho know, oligarchy, 

tiX^fuuj to ^ displeased, Upoftai (Poet), to hoe, wttpdofuu, to try, 
fioOXoiuu, to wish, el^/i4ofMa, to be happy, irpo^fA^ofAU, to desire, 

fipvxiofuu, to roar, €v\ci$4ofuu, to be cautious, vpovoioiuu, to foresee, 

Z4ofuuy to want, €tyofi4ofuu, bonis legibus v4fioiiat, to reverence (Aor. 

94pia>nai (Poet), to see, utor, 4ff4ip^v, PI. Phacdr. 

9ntioKp€n'4opuu, to have a elnrop4ofuu, to be opulent, 254, b). 

democracy, liHofuu, to rejoice, ^t\orifi4ofuut to be ambir 

Bui\4yofuuj to converse, b4pofuu (Poet), to become tious, 
9uafo4ofjuu, to think, hot, * 6iroT<nr^ofuu, to conjecture. 

Rbmask 1. The Aor. of sevetal verbs have a Mid. as well as a Pass, form, 
e. g, aJb7^(ofuu, to lodge; \oiiiop4ofuu, to revile; 6p4yofiau, to strive after; wparyfjuf 
revoftdi, to carry on business (Pass, rarer) ; ^iXo^pov4ofuu, to treat kindly. Also 
several of the above verbs belong here, vet they more seldom have a middle 
Aorist, e. g. iyofuu, Aor. Mid. in Dem. at94ofuu, see § 166, 1, a/uAAio/ioi, Aor. 
Mid. in later writers, iipv4ofuu in Herod. Aesch. and in later writers, 9ia\4yofuu 
in non-Attic writers, 4Two4ofim in later writers, \oi9op4ofuu, Aor. Mid. in Isae. 
6, 59, wtipdofuu often in Tha., irpoyo4ofiai, £nr. Hipp. 683. Pans. 4. 20, 1. ^tKo- 
TifUopuu m Isoc. and Aristid. — several of the above list of verbs have a mid- 
dle as well as a Passive form in the Fnt : (dUofuu^ § 166, 1, tx^oitM^ § 166, 4. 
SioX^fuu, to converse with, 9taX4^ofuu and rar^r SioAcxdi^o'o/uiu, 9uaw4ofuu, to 
think, 4Tiix4\ofuUi S ^^% 21. -rpodvfUofuu, to desire, wpodvfi'fia-ofiau and rarer rpodv- 
fitl^^ofuu. Both Ifiofuu, to rejoice^ and the poetic 4pafjuu, to love, have a passive 
form for their Fnt: iiadiitro/iai, 4peurd4i<rottM, ^ 179, 4. 

Bem. 2. All the other DcpoMnts are Middle Deponents, or are used only 
in the Pres.. and Impf. ' 

Rem. 3. Among the Deponent Passives, are very many Active verbs, which 
in the Mid. express a reflexive or intransitive action, bat have a Passive form 
for their Aorist ; on the contrary, a Middle form for their Future, e. g. 4»ofi4v, 
terreo, to terrify; ^ofiTi^rjyai and ^ojB^crco'i^cu, timere^ to fear. Here belong all 
verbs in -aivttv and -dv^tv, derived from substantives and adjectives, almost 
all in -ovv, and most m-\(tiv, o. g. ^paiv^w, to gladden, th^poM^vai, e^p» 
vwitr^cu, and tv^paf^ctv^ai, to be joyfxd^ to be happy ; vrsodvtiv, to make npt, 
vewcofbyiwu, vtrrayuff^ai, mature8cere,'io ripen; tutrx^vtuf, to sJinme, aAeryyvh^ivat, 
tuaxui^tar^cu (rarer cdo'xwd^o'fff&m), to feel sliame ; iXwrrovv, to make less, iXar- ^ 
Tflii^Kou, iXXarT<&a'€ff^ai, to be inferior, to be conquered ; yoKovv, to make angry, 
XoAMJ^nu, xoKdfrttr^ai, succensere, to be angry; fiaXaKlifw, to make effeminale, 
ua^jBucw^vax (rarer luU^Urtur^ai), fuxXauciuir^at, to make one's self effeminate^ ts < 


Digitized by 





he effeminate ; hfrfi^tuf, to make angnf^ ^ivd^aw, ipyt€ur^ai^ and ^pymbi/rMbBtt 

ntccensere, to be angry ; there are very many others also, of which only those 
most in use will be mentioned hero: — 

"Ky^iv (from di^7ciy, come^ Amix^^mu and hwyvyifr^wut siipiifvin]^ to he earned 
to sm^ in mare provthiy but Fat. k^tobai), itytiptuf, kyt^ratf i&poiCtiw^ ojffx^rcvt 
&Kiay, ofpciy, tikkdrTuv (AXAoT^tro^uUt often also &\Xi^c<r3cu), apft^^tuf, iurx'^*^* 
a6|<iyciv, ik^wf^cir; — /SdUXcir; — Smroyor, SiorrSr; — i^tCmw^ iwtly^iy {ffrftx- 
dTfy), ItfTioK, ff^x**'' » — {frraif (F. VTi|d^<roua« and rarer n^-r^aofuu) ; « — f'j'^' 
— KtvuVj K\ly9ty, KonjMtt, K0fii(9Uf {icofuad^yaif to travel j but tcofdiiratr^ait sBm not 
perare, to recover for on^t w//*), Kpltf^iy, irvAii^cu'; — A^yvcf^, Aciircur, Akit, 
Ainrc«y; — iu^(nrK9Wy fuyy^iraif fufirfiffictaf \ — hp4yuv (dpmx^f'o*^ »n^ ™^ 
0p^^o<r3ai), ^fMy^ ^X^'^f — rrti^iv (Fut. vfitfnofMu, / in£f oA^, bnt ir€ia'd^ofiai^ I 
will be persuaded )y v/fyr^Mu, vAoivr, vX^ciy, vA^rTCtt^, wAirc^tftr (also ««Ajn^ 
o'CHT^ai), Toycvfiy; — /hryi^Mu, ^yy6tfat] — <rff/ciy, o^cir (<ra«i9MUy tf'ovi^cffdai), 
cic^Banf^yait aweof, tnrtipmy^ airtlotuff irr^AXciy ((TtoX^mu, trraX^tf-ccr^&ai), <rrpi^9 
{vrpa^ivat, orpo^^cadoi), cr^dAAeiy (fl'^oX^Mu, (r0aA.i^c<r;&«u, seldom tr^aXtir- 
boi)^ a^uv (o'cfd^MU, to fare on«^s m/)^ out tn^oo-doi, to «ave /Sv orttf*^ mi/.tSi 
servare) ; — rapdrrtuf, r^prciy, rp4w§iy (rpctir^yai, to toim oii«*0 f^^ to ftmi, rpHftg- 
dot, to put toJli(jht)^Tp44bfitfi — ^aiytty {fainiyai, ^arhertv^at and ^ai^eiffdtu, i» 
appear y but ^ov^ku, to he snoum)^ ^aanditiv {^Hunrao'Stfiirtffi^ai), ^/p€iM (^nx^ 
yoi, oifftff^ai and ^y«X'M<''«r3ai, rarer olerd^ofttu)^ ^^lp€Uf (^Aiuniyui, ^daf^ft^ 
dot [^cpcMr;^, Ion. and poet], ^fiw {^fi^iaeirdai and ^/3n3^<rc<rd«u) ; — ^ 
8c<y (^'cv^l^yai, ^'cvo'd^ro/uiu, to deceive one^s adf be deceived, oat ^c^ctf^doii ^ 
a-curi^cu, to /ic) ; — x***'* 

♦ 198. Summary 

"AiBv (4^«), to sing^ 
iucoitt, to hear, 
ij^joXdCmt to shoutj 
ofiaprdifw, to miss, 
ikxcarrdu, to meet, 
inFoXaAw, to enjoy, 
a(nrd(ttf to seize, 
0aSl(eo, to go, 
fialvu, to go, 
Bt6», to live, 
fiK4vw, to see, 
Mm, to cry ottt, 
y€\du, to laugh, 
yrif>dffK», to grow old, 
yiyv^Kw, to know 
^dxiftt, to bite, 
^9p^diw, to sleep, 
^^iiroi, to fear, 
^tatrdu, to live, 
^t^pdo-iw, to run away, 
^*«6iw», to pursue, 
^•^u^^tf, to priise, 

of the Active Verbs most in use nioitk 
Middle Future, h 154, 1. 

ffi/J, to be, 
hraufdtt, to praise, 
i^^lm, to tat, 
^avfid{w, to wonder, 
;^w, to run, 
btlpd^t di|/K^, to hutU^ 
^tyydaw, to touch, 
MitrKv, to die, 
^p^MTicto, to leap, 
Kdfjonf, to labor, 
tcKalu, to weep, 
Kk4irro9, to steal, 
iWftdC^t to revel, 
Karfxdvv, to obtain, 
\an$dyw, to take, 
\iXM-dwt to lick, 
fjLov^dyct, to learn, 
p4u, to swim, 
ift6<o, to nod, 
oTSo, to know, 
olf»^(m, to lament, 
6\o\6(m, to howl. 

S/ufufu, to swear, 

Apdat, to see, 

obp4m, urinam redere, 

rvdCw, to sport, 

irdlff'xw, to suffer 

wrfidiM, to leap, 

v£rw, to drink, 

wiirrw, tofallf 

it\4», to sail, 

vi^», to blow (but ^»f» 

wvlyts, to strangle, 
xo^4v, to desire, 
irposKupdtt, to reverence, 
pin, to flow, 
Po^«», to gulp down,' 
ciydM, to be silent, 
e'lctirdu, to be silent, 
aK<6irr», to mock, 
(nrov8(£C«> <o ^ zealouMt 
vvpirrn, to whistle, etc* 
rifcrw, to produce, 

Digitized by 



rp^x^i to vvn, rul^(», to rail at, X^f^^i to gape, 

Tp^TWf to ffnaWy ^€^790, to flee, X^C*** to ecue oii£*« sdf, 

Tvyxiaw, to obtain, ^dy», to come before, X^P^^i to contain. 

Rbmark. Some have both the Active and Middle form for the Future ; the 
Middle, however, is preferred, e. g. adw (^irw non-Attic), afnrd(tt, fit6v, ynp^' 
(<rir)«, 0\imw, 8t<6«c«», iyKVfudCv, irtaivito, ^ewfidfu, icA.^*tW| ^oipdw, VK^irrv, 
tbcTw, x»P^' — ^(^i di;pc^, Ko\i(to are also used with the middle form. 
The following compounds of x»P^» have an Active and Middle form in the 
FaL : ion-, wy rposx^^f^, but iya- and rpox^p^ have only the Active form. 


♦ 199. Prepositions and Conjunctions. 

Besides the Substantive, Adjective, Pronoun, Numeral, 
Adverb, and Verb, there are also the two following parts of 
speech, viz. Prepositions and Conjunctions. On the forms of 
these nothing need be said ; hence these parts of speech are 
treated in the Syntax, so far as it is necessary. 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 





♦ 200. Digamma, or Labial Breathing F. 

1. The Greek limgaage had originally, in addition to the Spiritns Asper (' | 
And .the LingnaJ Breathing ir, a Labial Breathing,* the sound of which corre< 
sponda nearly to the Eng./ or the Latin v. In accordance with its form (F), 
which is like one Qamma standing upon another, it is named Digamma (doable 
Gramma) ; and as the .Solians retained it longer than the other Grecian tribes, 
it is called the iBolic Digamma. It has the sixth place in the alphabet, namely, 
between c and (, and is named Bad, Comp. i§ 26, 1 and 25, 2. 

2. This character disappeared Tery early ; bat its sound was in some cases 
changed, in some of the dialects, into the smooth Labial fi, e. g. fila^ vis, Fh 
(later U); in other instances, it was softened into the vowel v, and, after other 
Towels, coalesced with these, and formed the diphthongs ov, jev, lyv, ov, »v, e. g. 
tfm (vdFs), ncLvis, x«w (x^^«) -^ol-» /Sows (/3^Ff ), hdvs, bds, Gen. bdvit ; in 
others still, it was changed into a mere gentle breathing, which at the beginning 
of a word is denoted by the Spiritus Lcnis, but in the middle of a word and 
before p is not indicated, e. g» Fis^ vis, ts\ 6Fa, ovis, 6is\ c^X^w, volvo; Fp^Sor, 
^S^r, etc. ; it was also changed, in the beginning of some words, into a sharp 
breathing, which is denoted by the Spiritus Asper, e.g. c^i-cpos, vespenu; tyyv/ju, 

3. In the Homeric poems, no character denoting the breathing Fany longer 
exists ; but it is yeiy clear that, in the time of Homer, many words were 
sounded with the Digamma, e. g. 6ryyvfu, &ya^, iafdcrereof aMycg, lUtp, rer, the 

* " The Vau, or Digamma, an important agent in early Greek orthography, 
less, however, a principal than a subsidiary letter, retained much of its previous 
character of vowel-consonant, or, in the technical language of the Oriental 
school:), of quiescible letter. It was chiefly used as a liquid guttural, or aspirate, 
somewhat akin to our English trA, to impart emphasis to the initial vowel of 
words, and possessed the power, with certain limitations, of creating metrical po- 
sition. But these vague and indefinite properties, were not such as to entitle it to 
a regular or habitual place in the written texts of the popular Epic poems. It 
was retained by the Boeotian states in monumental inscriptions till the 145 
Olvmpiad." — Mure^s Hist, of the Language and Liierature of Greece, vol. i, p. 85 ; 
Tol. iii, p. 513. 

Digitized by 


238 DIALECTS. [♦ 201 

forms of 'EIAa, video ; Uuca^ dicoo't, viginti ; €!fia, vesUs ; clre«y (comp. vocan}^ 
tKnkoSt tsyyvfUf vestio ; i6s and Bsf suus ; oS, mt ; oT, nbi ; ttnrtpost vespervs ; o3k»r, 
vicus; ohos, vinum^ etc. ; this is obvioas from the foUowmg facts : (a) words that 
hare the Digamma cause no Hiatus, e. g. rpb t^ey (= irph Fi^€y) ; — (b) henco 
also a vowel capable of Elision, when placed before a digammated word, cannot 
be elided, e. g. x/tci^ U i {— 94 /#), iarh to (= inch F4o) ; — (c) the paragogic p 
(§ 15) is wanting before words which have the Diganuna, e. g. 9ai4 oi (= Scu^ 
Foi) ] — {d) ob instead of obx or^ odx> ^ found before the Bigamma, e. g. ^ir4 
qC i^4p imi x^P^^^ ("^ ^ F^w)\ — (e) in compounds, neither Elision 
nor Crasis occurs, e. g. 9ta/tar4ftiry (=» SioFcnr/^y), iiarffis (= iFoyi^s); — (f ) a 
digammated word with a preceding consonant, makes a vowel long by position, 
0. g. yip li^cv (where the p and the Bigamma belonging to S^cv make a long 
by position) ; — (g) long vowels are not shortened before words that have the 
Digamma, o. g. ac^UXct re artXfimy xal tt/uurt (= iced F^ifum), IL y^ 392. 

} 201. Interchange of Voioels. ' 

Phbuxihabt Bbmark. The dialectic pecnliaiities in the change of row- 
els, as well as of consonants, never extend to all the words of a dialect, but are 
uniformly limited to certain words and fomu. 

1. The three vowels, €, o, &, called (§ 140, 2 and 4) variabU vowels {rp4^t 
t4tpo^ irpd^v) undergo various changes in the dialects : — 

a is used instead of e (Ion.), e. g. rpdir»f rdfiyuj fi4yo^os instead of Tp4x»^ 
r4fUfw, fi4y^os ; so also Doric rpd^^ (rKtap6sj "Aprofus instead of rp4^^ 
eKtsp6st "ApT^/us *, and in several 'particles, e. g. Aco, r^jco, w6iea instead of 

c instead of a in the Ionic dialect, when followed by a Liquid, e. g. r^o-o'cpcr, 
ip<niv, fit\os, p4p€^poy (Ion.) instead of T4<ra-ap€Sj four, iptrnPfa fnale, SoXor, 
pla89t fidpa^poy, gidf; also in many verbs in -^, e. g. ^ir/w, 6p^«» (Ion.) 
instead of ^ir^j dpAu, 

e instead of o (Doric), e. g. i^tfi^Koyra instead of ifiBofiiiKoyra, 

a instead of o (Ion.), in &J^»8ciy instead of 6f^ooiuy. . 

.2. The following -cases are to be noted in addition: — 

The long a is a special peculiarity of the Doric dialect, and causes, in par- 
ticular, the so-called PUudtum (i. e. the broad pronunciation) of the Dorians, 
e. g. iifi4pa, KOTOS, &8^s, Aafidrrip. ' The older and the later Ionic have softened 
this grave d into i?. The Attic uses both the Doric a and the softened 17, (4 16, 
7). Comp. Dor. afi4pa. Ion. fjfLtpot Att. rifi4pa (with the Ion. ri and Doric a) *, Ion. 
eroipiri. Dor. and Att. <ro^la; Ion. ;^dS^|, Dor. and Att. dc(pa{. — So, also, in 
the diphthong av, among the Ionic writers a is changed into 1) : yrivs^ ypvvs, 
instead of vavs, ypavs) likewise in the diphthong ou in the Dat. PI. of the first 
Pec., ^s and p<ri (Ion.) instead of ais and oMri. — StUl, in certain wonla, the 
Dorians retain the i|, as the lonians do the &. 

71 instead of ci (.£olic and Doric), e. g. {ro^^ov, r^i^os, ^(^o, so tlie InfinitiTe^ 
e. g, Ao^^v* KoKrjyf instead of <rrifi€7oy, K€'iyos, h^tToy Xafitoff Ka\ny, 

m instead of et (Doric), e. g. ^^fMv instead of ^e(pw. 

Digitized by 


H 202, 203.] CHAV6ES of the consonants. 239 

V often inBtead of b (.£oUc), e. g. cv^s, twviuk instead of ffv^s^ 6rofM, bo in 
Homer iyvpa instead of iyopd', and in the Common langnage, cvc^yvfWTi irai^ 
yvpiSf etc 

w instead of ov before a Liquid and a, and at the end of a word in the tenni- 
nations of the second Dec, and in the stem of several words; — oi instead of 
ov before the breathing <r in the third Pers. PI. oia-i(y) instead of own{y)^ and in 
the participle ending -oiffa instead of -ov<ra, and in Moio-a and *Ap4doura instead 
of Mouaa, and *Ap4^owra', the above nse of w instead of ov is Dor., yet not in 
Pindar; the nse of oi instead of ov is JEolic and Pindaric, e. g. 

Tw i<pd0» instead of rod i^fiov, &y (also Ion. and Pindar.) instead of o2y, 
SmXoi instead of 9ov\oSf wpcofds instead of ovpaM6sf fi&s instead of fiovs; — r^- 
roun[y) instead of T^vTov<ri(i'), r^wroura instead ofr^wrowa, ^i\4oitn[if) instead 
of ^iXovo'iy, txo^f^ instead of ix"***^^ 

Some other instances will be considered below, in treating of the Declensions 
mnd Conjugations. 

♦ 202. Interchange of Consonants. 

The change of consonants in the different dialects is according to the two 
following laws : — 

. Coordinate consonants (§ 5, Bern. 4) interchange with each other; and cog- 
nate consonants (§ 5, Rem. 1) interchange with each other. 

k 203. L Interchange of coordinate Consonants. 

A. Thb Mutes : (a) The smooth Mutes v and k. The interrogative and 
indefinite pronouns, t&s, tiJtc, -koios, &iro7oSf etc, are in Ion. k&s, jcifrc, etc 

jK instead of t : ir^e, vot4, It€, t^tc, 6iroT€, &AAore, are in Dor. xSko,. woKd^ 
{jca. T^Ko, AwSxa (Poet, ^^icica), &AAo«ca ; so Sku (shortened from BxaKa) instead 
of Bray. On the contrary, r instead of ic : riipos Dor. instead of Kuifos, ^kwos* 

r instead of r (JEol. and Dor.), e. g. irc/iirc instead of t/ktc 

(b) The Medials /3 and 7, e. g. Mx»^ (Axt), penny-royal^ is in Ion. yK4ix^i 
fiK4^apovj eye-lash^ is y\4<papoy, 

8 instead of y (Dor.), e. g. 8a instead of yrj \ hence ^tifi-frn/jp instead of 
8 instead of (Dor.), i9€\6s instead of 6fif\6s, 

(c) The Aspirates ^ and ^, e. g. d^p, beast, ^\ay, ^Xi$tiy, oZ^ap^ udder, an 
in Dor. ^p, ^\ay, (p\i$fiy, oZfap (uber) ; <frfip and <t>\lfifiv also in Homer. * 

X instead of ^: l^fjux is in Dor. fxM<^ ^^^ 6pyidos, etc. (from ipyis) is 6pyixM» 

B. Thb Liquids : (a) The Liquids interchange with one another : y instead 
of A before ^ and r, often in the Dor. dialect, e. g. ^y^oy, fi4yrurros (Dor.) 
instead of ^A^or, $4\TurTos', also (Ion. and Att. ) tAc^/amv, pulmOy instead of 
im6fwy, Xirpoy instead of ylrpoy, 

p is rarely used instead of X, e. g. xplfiayos, even, Att., instead of xA/iSayof. 

Digitized by 


240 DIALECTS. [i 204. 

(b) The Liquid p and the breathing <r in the later and^ often in the middle 
Attic : pp instead of the Ion. and old Attic pa, e. g. Apmitf and lE^^, a maU ; 
K6p<ni and K6f^, back; but pp remains where the augment is used, and in com' 

4 204. II. Interchange of cognate Consonants. 

(a}^The Palatals y and k, e. g. kvo/^s^ fuller^ is preferred bjr the Att. writen 
to the other form, yywptis, 
K and X in i^KOfuu (Ion.) instead of 94xotiau 

(b) The Lingoals ^ and r, e. g. c^u (Ion. and Epic) instead of oS^ci, again. 

Remabk. In some words a change of the aspiration, from one syllable to 
the other, occurs, e. g. ki^v (Ion.) instead of y't^k, ^vdaDra, hie, ^r^evrcy, iUnc; 
(Ion.), instead of ivraS^, iyT€v^r\ ic6^pfi (ion.) instead of x^P^ P^* 

0- and r, e. g. IlorctSay, hrerov, cticari, r^, ri (Dor.) instead of Uoa^iiB&w^ fwt- 
co¥y cficod-i, 0^, <r^. ^he Attic forms TcvrXoi^, 6ee< ; niXk, <iee« (from 0S(5w), 
ripfiri (from <r^fM»), fur6a ; Hififpoy, tthday^ and r^cr, t/its year (the two last onlj- 
in the comedians, but in tragedians and in other Attic writers c^pop, o^cs), 
are in the Ion. and Common language rcSrXoK, injAio, o^p/9i}. 

tra and rr. Instead of cror, employed in the older and the later Ionic, in old 
Attic and in most other dialects, — the new and often also the middle Attic 
in most words uses rr, e. g. rdcrau, y\&a<ra\ but Att. rdrr», yXSrra, (But 
when fftr results from composition, it remains unchanged.) Tet the Ionic 
•forms prevail, not only in the older Attic writers, but are also found in other 
authors, some words always having o-o-, e. g. wdcnrv, to scatter; mi^vm^ to 
crouch; fi^cos, a'deep ; irri<raw, to husk; irr^irto, to fold; fipdraw, to shaSot ; 
vr&airm, to cower; ipiccm {ip4rrt» is rejected), etc. 

<r and y in the Dor. verb-ending -fxts, c. g. rvrrofus (instead of the common 
form T^rro/icy, see § 220, 6) -, also cd4s Dor. instead of al4y. 

<rS instead of ( {JEol.^ so also in Thcoc.) but only in the middle of words, e. g, 
/uXier9rrai, fi4<r^09y instead of ftcAi^ercu, /i4Ctoy or fut(wy, not at the beg^inning of 
words, nor if 1^ precedes, or <r follows, e. g. /Mx^tCoyrt, iriipd^Coura. 

^and rr, &vplrreiy, apfiSrrtiy (Att.) instead of cvpl^tiy, apfiSC^uf. 

Here belong : — 
I and 0- and ar<r, e. g. ^iy (Epic and old Attic) instead of aw ; 9t^6s and rpi^is 
(Ion.) instead of 9iaa6s, rptaaSs ; leXdi Dor. instead of nXms (icXccf ) ; even in the 
Fnt and Aorists, th^ Dorians, and also Homer, in several verbs use | instead 
of f, see § 223, 5. 

(c) The Labials 4> and », — the first Att., the last Ion., — e- g- i<r<^f>oryoj Att, 
iunrdpayos Ion. So JEol. and Dor. », instead of ^, e. g. i/iirf ( JEol.) instead of 
itfi^i ; hence in the Common language, kfiHx^iyt etc. 

fi and ir, e. g. vM {MoL and Dor.) instead of firrd. 

(d) The double consonants ( and ^, and the two single consonants of whifh 
they are formed, though transposed, in the iEol. dialect, e. g. aK4yos, awdxts 
instead of ^4yo5, ypaXis, yet only at the beginning of a word. So a^ and f , 
e. g. 1^4 Dor. instead of a<p4. 

, Digitized by 


f 20t>.j contraction and diaeresis. 24] 

Chanob op thb Vowels. 
♦ 205. Contraction. — Diaeresis. 

. 1. In the Dialects, the following contractions, which differ from those men- 
tioned in § 9, are to be noted: co and cov, sometimes also oo and ot are con- 
tracted into cv in Dor. and Ion. — not, as commonly, into ov ; so oo, aovf and 
oov (Ion.) arc contracted into cv — not, as usual, into to and ov, e. g. ^lAcvfrom 
^tXdou = ^iXov; ie\fvpts from T\4oves ; rKriptumts froin v\7ip6oyr€S = vAiypow^ 
Tcr; iBucaltv from i9iKedo9 =» ^licolov; tlpdrtw from ^ipwraop == *ip^eop\ ye- 
Acvcra from ')rcXd(ov<ra = ycAMra ; diKcucvirt from StKcuooDirt == SuccuoiMrt. But 
commonly the Dorians contracted oc into » (instead of ov), e. g. rvp^cKra => 
Tvp&rra instead of rvpovyra, pty&v instead of ^tyovv. 

2. Ao, aov, and act are contracted in the Doric dialect into d (instead of »), 
namely, in verbs in -dtt^ in genitives in -ao and -^if, in substantives in -d(«y, 
Gen. -i(oi«of, and in proper names in -Aoo;, e. g. ^vcravrfi, xci^oo-t, 7€Xay from 
^wrdotrrts, x^f^^^h 7«^<^»'j — •»"«^ ifopay from T((»y KOf>dMu *= tw jcofwy;-* 
noo-ctSor, -ayos^ Att IXoo'ciI^wf, -«wf ; — McWAds, *ApK*crl\ast Gen. -a. Eat -^ 

S. Aff and ac« are contracted in the Dor. (but not in Pindar) into i} and p 
instead of d and f, in verbs, c. g. i^irrit ^tr^s instead of i^tolra, (f>oiras. Seo 
f222,in. (1). 

4. The Attic dialect is the opposite of the other dialects, particularly of the 
later Ionic ; since, while the other dialects often avoid contraction, and the later 
Ionic commonly, the Attic almost always admits it The tendency of the later 
Ionic towards uncontracted syllables is so great, that it even resolves the long 
sonnda (which are never resolved in the other dialects) into their simple ele* 
ments, e. g. ^lA^cw instead of ^lAp, which had been contracted from ^iKip. 
Epic poetry often uses, indiscriminately, contracted and uncontracted forms, 
according to the necessity of the verse, e. g. it4K»if and ixtty. 

5. On the contrary, it is a special peculiarity of the Ionic dialect, that while 
it delights to avoid contractions, it still, in particular cases, admits them, where 
the Attic dialect does not, e. g. Ip6s (i), ipc^s, Ip^ivturbat Ion., instead of UpSs^ 
etc., and especially the contraction of ori into », particularly in the verbs /Soujr 
and imuvy e. g. I'/Somto, %vwra {iyy^aaKtu Horn, from iiyvodw)^ ivviwKa instead 
of ifi6ii(r€tf iyiriffa, hv^vintKa \ so liy^daKovra in Homer, instead of hy^oiiKovTa. 

6. The opposite of contraction is Diaeresis (8m/pfcrif), the separation of a 
diphthong into its vowels. Diaeresis is specially used in the ^ol. dialect. 
The use of it in Homer, also, is not rare ; most frequently, in such words as 
icpanitc the two vowels by means of the Digamma, namely', aX in tJiXs ; aO in 
Jl&T/x^, breath (from JkF7ifu)\ hvcraxiosy dirty; cI in ttffKv^ to make Uke^ lucro, 
fimoy, itKTrjy-j cO very often in the adverb it (= c5, well), e. g. it Kpiyas, ^Orrf- 
fuwos i when /t, y, p, or o- follows io in compounds then they are doubled, e. g. 
i1if»fu\iflSi iCyyrrroSf itppws, itfffftXtios \ oX in tU (tFis^ ovts), hiotuu (comp. opt* 
nor), 6tffr6sf &X^a, &T^ay (from olyvufu). 


Digitized by 


242 DIALECTS. [i 206. 

♦ 206. Crasis, Synizesis^ Elision, N I*aragogie, 

1. In particular instances the Dialects differ from the laws of Crasis stated id 
1^ 10 and II *, namely, in the Ionic dialect and in Pindar and Thcoc^ the o of 
the Article coalesces with d and forms », and with « and forms w, e. g. rh tya^- 
ua ^ r&yaXiM \ so r&Xiyl^^s, rmhr^^ i»yhp^ it^pts^ Svdpwroi, ^^^Xm, from rh i\T 
b^Sy rh cund, 6 ai^p, ol AvSpcs, ol Ai>bpwvoi, ol tdwikoi. In HerodoC occur, tipi^oi, 
mvrds, 2aXoi, with the smooth instead of the rough breathing' (from 6 ipiaroi, 
i ain6sy ol &XXoi) ] Homer uses Crasis seldom, namely, only in Apurroti mink, 
tSaXo, ovijuSs (instead of b ifiSs), roCiftKaj ouytKn (instead of oV tr^ica) ; itieyA is 

2. Instances of Crasis in Doric are : r&Ky^ot, r&irrp^ instead of tov 6\y*»St 
T^ twTp^ \ so and c =» », oi and c = ij, c. g. 6 ll?iaipos — HXaupoSf 6 i^^^&i,'^ 
U = Jc^K, ical cTir* = If Jire, icol ii» or ^v = k^v, which last is also Ion. 

3. Ionic writers admit the common Crasis in ov, in the Mosc and Neat of 
the Art. and in crcpof , e. g. offrcpoT, Tofir§pov, 

4. The use of Synizesis (§ 12) is very frequent in the Homeric poems: — 

(a) In the middle of words, it is oftenest found in the following combination of 
Towels (the vowels over which the line is placed being pronounced as ooe 
syllable, whether consisting of two or more vowels) : co, cf, ecu, •as^ <•> 
coi, cov; ew, cy; e. g. crr^ca, i^/t/os, ^co(, xpv<''^ois, Tfj^ycwre ; much nv^r 
in oc, lo, lai, ii), 117, <o, c. g. dc^^Ac^r, ir^Xictf, w6Kios\ 00 only in 
fySooy; uot only in ZaKp{>oun\ rii in 8i)/oio, ^fvi', 8i}(oi(n, ffia; 

(b) Between two words in the following combination of vowels: i| a, 9 «i 9 f* 
1} CI, i| ov, ri oi\ ci ov; » a^to ov\ the first word is cither ff, 1}, S^i /c^r "'^ 
#rcf, or a word with the inflection^endings, 1}, y, e. g. j^, oft, W^ kp^uSraf^ 
tt^ &AX01, clAoirfyi) ^^ 7<W'? ita$4irr^ oW vl69. 

5. Elision (^4 13 and 14) is found very often in Homer, particularly as fol- 
lows: — 

(a) The a is elided in the PI. Ncut. and the Ace. Sing, of the third DeCi 
rarely in the Aor. ending -co, e. g. Axe^' ifki Od. fi, 200; commonly in 
the particle JSipa] 

(b) The c in ^/x^, /i^, tri^ etc. ; in the Voc. of the second Dec, in the Dual of 
the third Dec, in endings of the verb, and in particles, e. g. 8/, t/, t^'. 
etc. (but npver in Ue). 

(c) The I in the Dat PL of the third Dec ; much rarer in the Dat. Sing, 
and only when it could not be mistaken for the Ace, e. g. x^ ^ "^f 
ipyi^ 'OSiNTe^f, n. Ky 277 ; in Afifu^ iiAfit^ and v^i ; in adverbs of place in 
-;^c, except those derived from substantives ; in efooo-i ; finally, in all end- 
ings of the verb ; 

(d) The o in &t^, ifw6 (but never in t^), in 8^, in the Neut. of prononnf 
(except T^), and in all endings of the verb ; 

Digitized by 



(e) The ai in endings of the verb /mi, rat, o^ftoi (tftti only in ^o' h\pyrprf\4c^fj 

n. •, 245, and at in the Nom. of the first Dec. in i^t? M^mu, H. A, 272) ; 
(f ) The m in fioi, to mc, and in the particle, rot. 

6. The y paragogic (^ 15) is commonly rejected in Ion. prose, e. g. xS^ 

7. The Hiatus (i 8) is admitted bj Homer in the following cases : — 

(a) In long vowels or diphthongs either in the Arsis of the verse, e. g. 
iurrA4\ 9 'OSvI <r^4 ; or in the Thesis, in which case the long vowel or 
diphthong is considered short, e. g. obni f \ 9w \ 

(b) When the vowel does not admit Elision, or bat rarely, e. g. vwSl fyv9t¥\ 

(c) When two words are separated by a pnnctnation-mark, e. g. AAA' to«, cj 

(d) In the Fern. Caesura (i. e. the caesura sncceeding a short syllable) after 
the first short Syllable of the third foot ; — as this caesura here divides the 
line into two parts, it is opposed' to the close connection which would 
arise from eliding the final vowel, e. g. 

KtiAi I Si Tpv^ I A€ia R t^ I Xvmro \ x«ipl va | x«^!7} II- 7t 37<(* 
T«y o/ \\\ #y^ I vomo lU | yl [k^ \ pouri y | y^Aiy, H. •, 270 ; 

(e) In the metrical Diaeresis,' after the first and fourth foot of the verse, e. g. 

fyX*^ I 'Vioftti^os iryavov AcvkoA/Soo, B. /i, 117. 

W/A^fOi ^ *ATpc% ^Ayofiifiyoyt | od\op'^Oy€ipo¥y II. ^, 6. Comp. C ^^ i 
(f ) Where the first word has the apostrophe, c. g. Zivhp^ K^aKktv ; 
(g) Sometimes in proper names ; 

(h) Words, which have the digamma occasion no Hiatus (\ 203, 3), e. g. 
o^ I 8i atts\ ircuSof t \ affxw (= oltHk Folts), 

- ♦ 207. Lengthening and Shortening of Vowels. 

1. The following vowels are lengthened : — 

A in Homer is sometimes lengthened into ai ; this occurs in o/cr^r, oie/, ieytd* 
oftat, instead of &er^s, etc. ; so also vapai (also icaroi/SaTa/), in the tragedians 
Btaiy and analogous to these, ^of, instead of rapd, iid, ^6, 

A into 71 in Homer, in ^^pi^ovrax^ iryfp^oprat^ ^,y€fA4us in the Anis, conse- 
quently on account of the metre. 

a into ai before <r (JEol.) in the Ace. PI. of the first Dec. ; also in /a^Aou and 
rdXais instead of fi4\ds, rdXds, reus instead of tAt, Kd\cus instead of koaCs ; in 
Pindar, in the first Aor. Act. Part., e. g. r^cus, -aicra instead of -or, -iuru ; but 
always xas, 

Av into vO (Ion.) in rpav^to, i^at/fta and its derivatives: rp^Ofta^ Ml60fu^ 
bttOfidCu ; and in pronouns compounded with ain'6s into »v, c, g. imrrov, «-««»- 
Tov, i/uonnSr instead of iatn-oi/, etc. ; so also mirrS instead of raM. 

E into CI in the Ion. writers before a Liq. in a number of words, e. p. cImim 
(also in Attic prose), KtiySs, (tans, ffruv6s, ^tpuritt. Homer lengthens c inW 

> Metrical Diaeresis, is where a word and a foot end togethei. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

244 DIALECTS. [i 207 

«i according to the necessities of the Terse, in other words, also, which in lome 
prose have c, e. g. ctr, dre(p, ireipof, endy ^tara (from ^p4apf a well) ; also before 
Towels in adjectives in -eof , e. g. xp^o-uos ; in substantives and pronouns, e. g 
nrciOT, 4fAfto ; in verbs in -/«, e. g. tcXcIm, irvcfw, also in c7»f instead of lo», 
unfi/; sometimes also in the Augment and Reduplication, e. g. etX^Xoul^a, cum- 
Kvicu, 8c(Sta, SeiS^X'^^u* 

£ into 1) (Hom. and Dor.), in the Dec. of substantives in -cvt, e. g. /Sao-cXc^, 
Gen. -rjoss etc.; further (also Ion.), in adjectives in <etos, e. g. iScunX^tos, royo/; 
likewise in single words, e. g. icXiffs, kX.iji9os (Ion.), etc., instead of K\t(s, and 
in verj many substantives in a of Dec. L, e. g. iXtj^tri instead of oX^cio. 

H sometimes into cu (-Soi), e. g. hvaivKw instead of Mierxm. 

O into 01 (Ion. and Hom.) before a vowel in several words, c. g. vod?, Tooyccsv 
Xfiovtit potiit etc. ; in the Gen. of the second Dec. in Homer, e. g. ;^oib instead 
of ^fov, and in ^iyios, x^P*^'^'^'^^'^* 69oiir6piov, ii.yKolyptri{y)y and ^yo(i}0'e(y). 

O is changed into ou (Ion. and Horn.) before a Liq. or Sigma, still onlj in a 
certain number of words ; and, in the Dor., before a Liq. into », e. g. 

K^pos Ion. Kovpos Dor. Ktopos fi6yos Ion. fwvpof 

6yofia " oCyofta *' &yofia "OKvforos " OCKufiToSy 

also in the oblique cases of b6pv and y6yv, — But substantives, which have the 
variable vowel o, cannot be thus lengthened, e. g. ir6vQs from r^yofuu, Z6ftos from 

O into tt in Homer, on account of the verse, in Ait&yvaoSf m^rtict;, rpmxLm^ 
wwriopuu (and also rpoxd^t roraofjuu). 

T into ou often (Dor.), e. g. ^ouydnip instead of ^vydrrip^ In Homer, in 

2. The Epic dialect can resolve contracted syllables, when necessarj, 
namely, d into aOf f into aq. ; ri into «}, cii}, tpj ; w into oa>, »o, m» ; particular!/ 
in the inflection of verbs, e. g. 6pd^ instead of 6pfs, mp^yoy instead of icpir'«i% 
6p6o» instead of 6pu, ytk^vrts instead of ycXfirrcs, iifiJawra instead of itfimem 
also ^6ns instead of ^t, Ught (from ^s), and proper names in -^r, e. g. 

3. Another mode of lengthening a vowel in the Epic dialect is by resolving 
an original Digamma or a Spiritus Asper into a vowel, e. g. cl^myXof and cmiXm 
(F/in}Xos), olpos instead of 5/>of, bound; oZXos instead of 8Xos, ^A.u»s instead of 
Ij/aof ] (uros instead of Icros ; c[x/^o'» instead of ixiatrta (comp. vdvo), ji^s instead 
of 9WS, In the Ionic, and sometimes in the Epic dialect, the m ^contracted 
from ao and aw), is resolved by c, e. g. {Ik4tco) iKcrtw instead of uctrao, wXm 
instead of wxAuy, 

4. The following vowels are shortened : — 

Ai into & before a vowel, often in the ^ol. dialect, e. g. ipx^^f *A\jdbf 
instead of itpx^^'f *AXxa7os *, in Homer, in er&pos, irfytj^ ir&plCtifdat, 

El into e before liquids (Ion. and in Hom.), in the forms x^P^^f X^P^i ^^^ 
Xtip, hand, so also Att. X'P^^'y X*P^^i "^ i^^^- <^^ Dor.) before a vowel, in 
Proparoxytones in -fioT, and in Froperispomena in -cm; in Homer, only in a 
few Fem. adjectives in -vs^ e. g. 

Digitized by 



irvtifitost '(ri, -coy Ion. instead of -ciov atic^a instead of mcw from ouch 
WAcos, -^, -coy " " -cios fia^iri " fia^tta '* fiiMs 

c^p^ from cv^i '^ " -eta Sao-/}} " Soircta *^ Soo^f; 

80 also in Horn. 'Epft/t^ instead of *Zpnti^] also ci in Ion. is shortened into c, 
when two consonants follow which make the rowel long hj position, e. g. 
&s-^c{i5 instead of ^^69(1^15, fi4C»y instead of /xc^^mk, Kpivemv instead of Kft%lv» 
9WP ; fihally (Doric) in fonns of the verb, e. g. &cf8c5 instead of &c(8cif. 

Bemask I. In the i£ol. dialect, ci before a liquid is vei^ often shortened 
into c, and the Liq. is doubled, e. g. irr^yyv, ffirifpw, orrcAAcC, instead of irrcdw, 
0V€lp€§f ttrrciA^. 

H is changed into c in Hom. in hpyditf itpyh-oy from ipyiis, -rrroSf akimngj and 
in the Subj. ending -rrc instead of irrc ; also -ofitv instead of -»/icy, e. g. clScrc, 

Oi into o often in the Dor. and .£oL dialects, e. g. iro& instead of void. 

Ov into in Hom. in the compounds of rods, e. g. &cAX^05, kfrhros ; often 
in Theocritus in the Ace. PL of the second Dec., e. g. r^s \6kos instead of robs 
kUovsj also ^oL fi6\Xa instead of ^ouA4; so too in Hom. /S^Arrw, fiSktar^ 
fiom 0o6\ofJMu 

5. On the Ionic-Attic interchange of the Towels, see ^ 16, 5. 

6. The use of Syncope (§ 16, 8) is frequent in Homer, particularly in forms 
of the verb, as will be seen below ; he also has r/«Tc instead of rlwrt, yXoKro' 
^fdrfos instead of ydKcucro^dyos, 

7. Apocope {iaroictnrfi) u the rejection of a short final vowel before a word 
banning with a consonant. It is employed by the Epic and Doric poets, 
sometimes also by the Ionic, and in a few single forms even by Attic prose 
writers. It occurs with the prepositions, e. g. iufd^ xcrrd, rapd, rarely with iar6 
and iir6j and with the (Epic) conjunction Upa. The accent is then thrown 
back; &r before fi, v, ^, |a, is changed into A/a (§ 19, 3), e. g. &/a fittiun^i^ 
dt/tfiaiptty, iifi w4\ayos, hfi. ^yoy, iiiifUim \ the r in kJut is always assimilated 
to the fallowing consonant, except that the corresponding smooth mute stands 
before a rough mute (§ 17, 4), e. g. ir&d i^ofuy, Kkv ^dXapa^ Khac xc^oX^f, tAy 
y6w\ examples of iar6 and {nc6 are, &vt^/4ci, h^fidxx^iy (Hom.)j examples 
from Attic prose,* iLfifidrriSt V^SoAis, X. Cy. 4, 5, 46. 7. 5, 12, Hfiwwris, 

Rex. 2. In the concurrence of three consonants, assimilation is omitted, and 
the final consonant of the preposition is rejected, e. g. irdUroyc, Kdaxt^f ^^ttyif 
auy instead of ndxicratfif Kdorax^^t ^W*'*^*'* 

8. Frothcsis (§ 16, 10) occurs in Homer, in dorcpov^ (artpanrfi), i^4k» (i^^A«), 
4iKunf9 (Kctvof ), ip^fuu {f^fuu) ; Homer also often resolves the ^into the vowel 
c, namely, ifp<njy Mya, UIkocl, tUros^ Unrov^ UKZofuu^ UpyAvos* 

9. Sometimes, for the sake of the metre, Homer inserts c, e. g. &8cA^c((s, 
NCFciff, instead of &8fA^^s, Kiv6s\ so also in the Gen. PI. Fem. catrinv^ vpur4»y. 
To prevent the accumulation of short syllables, he inserts in several compound 
words an i) in place of the short vowel, e. g. roi^Acy^of , Mifio\os, inirreafSst 
6kiyrrr€\4», iXa^fi6\0Sf mstead of roio/A., 4vifi,y hner,, 6?uyov.y i\a^fi6\o9» 


Digitized by 


246 DIALECTS. . [{ 20S. 

An I is inserted in Homer after oi in d/MoUos instead of S/aotoff and in the Dual 
'Otuf instead of -oir. 

10. The later Ionic, also, sometimes inserts c before a long Toirel : (a) in 
some genitives of substantives an,d Fem. pronouns before », and in eZros^ xof 
oStos, and abrds before long inflection-endings, e. g. iiyip^vv, x^fcW, imu^4mw^ 
rovritow^ axniw^ abr4^ i (^) "^ some forms of the verb before a long vowel, e. g. 
/(rr^oo-i, 8uW»/iai, 9uy4citrrcu\ (c) some verbs in -w have forms as if from -/«» 
e. g. 0d\\w avfifia?i\€6fU¥os, ^tpfidWdtiv \ xi4(n vif(f6fifpos (also in Horn. 
vU(€w instead of iwU{€ov) ; also c^cc, ^i^cfxcc* 4^Ae«, from c^w, Mx»9 ^^^^^i 
finally, the three following forms of the Ferf. in -cc- instead of -c : o/xt^o^c, 

i 208. Change of Consonants. 

1. In the Ion. dialect, the rough breathing has no effect on the preceding 
smooth mute, e. g. ta^ oS, Mi/itpos, obx b<rt»Sj etc 

2. In the Hom., Ion., and Dor. dialects, a 8 or ;^ remains before fi in certain 
words and phrases (contrary to ^ 19, 1 ), e. g. i^inti instead of ^/t^, Oficr, Ipx^ 
fids, Mwil^fuVf KtKofm^u4tfos ; also in the Hom. dialect, the r remains before ^ 
(contrary to ^ 20, 2) in ia^irrds, hwx^Uw^ ireanrvdi^ instead of wareviipi 
finally x before m (M^i ^m* i) in heaxfidyos, acitte. 

3. The Metathesis {\ 22) of p often occurs in Hom. and in other poets, e. g. 
Kpaiifl instead of icapSIa, heart, icdpr^pos and Kpdr§pQs, strong, ndprurros, fidpSaaras 
(from fipcZ^i dow) ; also in the second Aoiists Hvpo^oyj li^podor, f^pcanm (from 
Wpl^cf, tf> datroy, 9apddiw, to sleep, ^fyicofuu, to see)', here belongs also l^afiponm 
instead of ff/ipcn-ov (= lifuiproPt according to 4 24, 2). • 

4. Homer doubles a consonant (comp. ^ 23, Bem.) after a short ToweU 
according to the necessities of the verse in the following cases :^ 

(a) The liquids and Sigma on the addition of the augment, mostly when 
there are three successive short syllables, e. g. lAAa/9or, Ififiodor, Irrtory 

(b) In compounds also, the liquids and Sigma are doubled, e. g. r^^XXmmg 
(from p4os and Xo6u) ; ifAfiopos, ^i\ofifi€i9fis\ ianfi^Xos, ithnnTros\ fiad^ 
Poosy ita'O'tKfJbOS] 

(c).In the inflection of the Dat. in -ci, and of the Put. and Aor., e. g. wdtcvea^ 

iSftoffffi] K(l(Xc<r<ra, oft^o-o-oi, ^pdanrofuu, i^tlvurtra', 
(d) In the middle of several words, e. g. ttrvov, r6v<rov^ iwUre^, wp^ffOftt, 

Homer doubles the mute ir in Interrogative pronouns which begin with Ar, e. g. 
ttnrvs, etc. ; — k in ifiKtKKOv, rcXciciccCw, — r in 5tti, trrw, 8tt«u j — 8 in I88curc, 

Kemabk. The doubling of p, which always takes place in the Common 
language when tiie augment is prefixed, and in compounds when a short vowel 
precedes, may be omitted in the Epic dialect, according to the necessities of the 
Terse, e. g. ip^Cov from ^^{iw, xpvo-^pvrox. For the same reason, one of the 
tonsonants, which is elsewhere doubled, is omitted in the Epic dialect, though 

Digitized by 


4 209.] QUANTITY. 247 

rarelj, e. g. 'OSmtcvs, 'AxiAc^, tpifivyot, instead of 'OSvo-o-c^s, Ax<AKc^t, 

5. Homer often places a consonant before a short syllable, to make it long 
by position, namely, a r in t^^tnf/iwot, ktrd^afiyos, f8p^3i}, hfu^^, ^wfurfifufxt ; 
a T after r in vrdXc/xor, irr^s, mroXfcdpor ; a ;^ after x ^ x<Mf*A^^> ''X*^^* 
Tptx^^ 'vcrpax^^ And after X or p in ftdk^eucos, iyfnrySp&aa't ; or he places a y 
before 8 in iply^ovwosf iy^oimifftt and a o* before fi and k in <r^uKp6s (also Att 
^ 24, 4), o'KcSflCrrv/u (comp. ic(8n}/u), fffuy^p^s (comp. fjLaytpws)^ fffUfM\tos. 
Here belongs also the Epic prefix of ft {=y, according to ^'24, 3), before fipo- 
r4s in composition, so as to strengthen the long syllable and give fulness to the 
irord, e. g. ififipmos, rtfrptfifiporoSf and in iifi^affiri instead of A^a^rfi^. 

{ 209. Quantity. 

Pbblimiwabt Remaxk. Only a few general mles will be giye^ here ; the 
quantity of particular words, not embraced in these roles, may be learned Trom 
rules preWoosIy given, or by observation. 

I. A syllable which has the vowels t or o, followed by another vowel or a 
single consonant,. is short by natnre, e. g. rlicdr, ^iis, /3^. 

'2. A syllable which has the vowel i| or », or a diphthong, is long by nature; 
6o all contracted and circumflexed syllables are long by nature, e. g. "UpotSp 
ohp€Uf6s<, txtitv (instead of iiixw), irifta (from irifiiU)^ tm, trirof, 4^^'t '^• 

3. A syllable which has a doubtful vowel (a, <, v), followed by another vowel 
or a single consonant, or at the end of a word, is short by position, e. g. *&cf- 

4. A syllable which has a short or donbtfhl vowel followed by two consonants 
or a double consonant, is long by position \ e. g. hdo'^cu, AKarififiri, 8i{airdoi, 

Exceptions t'o No. 3. 

(a) a of nouns of the first Dec, which have the Gen. in -as, is long in all the 
Cases in which it occurs, e. g. V^P^ ^iXfa, -af, -f, -dj^, etc. (Comp. f 45.) 

(b) a in the Dual of all nouns of the first Dec, is long, e. g. Nom. Sing. 
\4aja^ Dual \tedifd, 

(c) a is long in the Gen. Sing, in -ao and Gen. Fl. in -Auy^ e. g. *AT/>c/8fia, 

(d) the ending -as of the first Dec. is long, both in the Nom. and Gen. Sing., 
and in the Ace FL, e. g. Nom. rofddsy Gen. trxtas. Ace Fl. 96^as. 

(e) a of masculine and feminine participles in •of is long; so also other words 
in -Of where kt or k have been dropped, e. g. hco^ads {iucouaayrs), iuco6» 
0*00-0, MTrdf, iSdf ; yfyo* {yiyayrs), fi4\as {fitKatvs). 

(f) a in the third Fers. Fl. Fcrf Ind. Act., c g. rtriipiuru 

(g) V is long in the Sing, of the Fres. and Impf. Ind. Act. of verbs in -v/u, 
also in the masculine and feminine Sing, of the participle ; e. g. 9tiKr0fu, 
ii^licpwy Scuci^s, itucpvaa. — Other exceptions may be learned by obier* 

Digitized by 


248 DIALECTS. [1 20d 

5 In Epic poetry, a mute and a liqaid (§ S7, Rem. 2) commonly make g 
syllable long by position ; the vowel is shortened, for the most part, only wfaes 
the form cannot otherwise be suited to the verse, e. g. TMix^trirKiiTa. 

6. The final syllabic of a word in verse, is uniformly long by position: (a) 
when it ends with a consonant, and the following word begins with a conso* 
nant, c. g. nd^i | ady Tp» | ca] also (b) when the final syllable ends with t 
short vowel, but the following word begins with a double consonant, or with 
two single consonants, which are not a mute and liqaid, e. g. iZfi^ \ rrp^^ %y | 
9thrv I irft (vyhf \ Ijyaryty | &i^p, H. «c, 293. But a mate and a liqaid in thia 
case, always make the syllable in the Arsis long j on the contrary, the syllable 
m the Thesis, may be either long or short according to the necessities of the 
verse ; e. g. /i^ fioi \ BAp* ipa \ t& •rp6ip€ \ pi XP^ I ^^^1' 'A^/m» | ffinfs, IL 7, 64; 
on the contmry, in the Thesis, airrAp *6 \ -rKnaiop \ krrfi \ icci, II. J, 329 j hot 
Mpa I bvitrhv i I 6trra^ rd | Am ir€ | wpttfUvov \ aXtrg^ H. ir, 441. 

Rem. 2. In the names ^dfunv^poi^ ZJuew^s. ZcXeto, even <ric and C ^^ ^<^ 
make^ syllable long by position in Uomer; so also fw | ccrd <rW | iraftrwy Od 
c. 237, occurs. 

. 7. A long vowel or a diphthong at the end of a word, in Homer, commonl; 
becomes short before a word beginning with a vowel, when it is in the Thesis, 
but it remains long when it is in the Arsis, or when the following word has thf 
digamma, e. g. vfityij | iv fi4v \ btacw^ II. a, 358. vfcf, 6 \ fi^y Krc«C | ravy 6 If 
6p* I Evp^oH I ^AxTopi I tovosj II. iS, 621. atniLp 6 \ P/yv \ fair 4 \ fl ^pfcl \ ^nv 
\ff4y re {fiffiy = F^aty). But sometimes a long vowel in the Thesis is not short- 
ened before words which do not have the digamma, especially in the fourth foot 
of an Hexameter, e. g. r^ fvti \ tun xar4 \ pas tto^* 6 \ fioiff \ (ly^to \ rifipt ^' ^1 
410, and before a punctuation-mark,^e. g. KtTa-^aly | iAA' ixd \ yantoy^ D. e, 685. 

8. A long vowel or a diphthong in the middle of a word fcfore another 
vowel is but seldom shortened by the poets, and for the most part, m certain 
words and forms ; thus, e. g. in Homer, ^ir«i^ C""), tyncoxos ("""j, oros {^*)^ 3•■ 
/BXijoi C""), and often in the Iambuses of the Attic dramatists, e. g. i^osy »<»2>t, 
roioi^roT, roi^sSc, ofci (from (Ho\ijax)^ icoi^y'^ and always before the demonstratire 
i in pronouns, c. g. rovroxA^ aurout, 

9. In Epic poetry, a short syllable in the Arsis is usually considered long, 
if it stands at the beginning of a word, e. g. iunridos | ^wdfta \ roy wvp, IL «) ^ i 
or at the end, in which case it is followed either by a liquid (X, /i, k, p), or a ^ 
or 8, the sound of which is easily doubled in pronunciation, or by a word with 
the digamma, e. g. koI «-cS( | d X» | rciWo, U. /x, 283. dvycir4 \ pa Ijr (» Fil^h 
n. X, 226. 

Rem. 3. A syllable in itself short, may be used as long or short in the same 
woiti, according as it is or is not, in the Arsis, e. g.*Ap€f ^A | pts fiporo \ Xoiy4; 
— HyZpts "l I ffuffiv and rrXttova \ "iffatriy, 

10. Not unfroquently in Homer, frbm the mere necessities of the verae, 
a short vowel is measured as long in the Thesis, when it stands between 
two long syllables. This occurs in the middle of a word, and oflencst with 
», e. g. I<ry {nro \ ^t^i | t?, 11. 1, 73. p<ri vpo | ^fd \ pcri, II. jB, 588; tliis is rardy 
the case at the end of a word, e. g. irv«ryd' | pvydKi \ rfy^ Od. p, 198. if f W 1 
ukv Too I y^ SXoaru ( purls \ ioTfdHi \ y»yn Tl. X. ."^6 

Digitized by 


H 2 ] 0, 2 1 1 .] FIRST DECLENSION. 249 


^210. Homeric Suffix <^i (<^iv). 

1. In the Homeric dialect there is, besides the Case-inflections, a Soffix ^i(r), 
which properlj and originally denotes the indefinite vohere^ like the local Dat. 
(see the Syntax) \ it is also nsed to express other relations of the Dat., as' the 
Dat of the instmment, and with prepositions (sach as in Lat govern the Abl.), 
it expresses those relations of the Qen. which in Latin would be denoted by 

2. The SufiSx ^i is found with substantives of all the declensions, and is 
always annexed to the unchanged stem of the word : — 

I. />6c2enstofi only in the Singular: (a) Dat. kyiX'n^i^ kyKoiif^, (in tkB 
Aenf)) d'^fffl^h ^fire or without the door (in several ancient editions ly^i is 
incorrectly written with an Iota Subs. 27^1) ; (b) Gen. (Lat. Abl.) kwh 
y^vpvj^ loAAcir [to shoot an arrow from the string)^ i^ cii^i dopciV (to 9pring 
from bed)t Kparffni^t iBfiy^i, II. ^, 501 {with great force), h/i* 4ioi ^Kuyofi^tnf' 
^, Od. 8, 407 (aa $oon as the morning dawned). 
IL Declension both Singular and Plural. All these forms, without respect to 
the accent of the Nom., are paroxytone [-6^1^) : (a) Dat. dwepvS^ {with 
tears), fi4i<rr9tp irdXayros ^€6^w {an adviser equal to the gods) ; — (b) Geni- 
tive (AbL) kwh or U vaffff<oJ^iP {to take from the pin), 4k dt6^iw (through 
the gods), la^ 6ar€6^y (from the hones). 
UL Declension almost exclusively in the PI. *iy is here used with not a lai^ 
number «f neuter substantives in -os (Gen. -cos), also with «rorvXi|f^K and 
mvs, e. g. irplbs KaTvKrfioy6^i{y) (with the union-vowel 0), to the arms, vav- 
f<(y) (at the ships) ; in words in -os, the ending -or must always be restored 
to its original fonn -ct, since ^1 is always annexed to the pure stem ; thus, 
txw^i{i')i ffi» ^X^^^'t'')) f^^^ ip^^^{'')i &*^> 't^> ^f^ ffrfi^€fftpt{y). 

■J 211. First Declension. 


1. (a) The Epic and Ionic writers use i| instead of the original long a (which 
the Dorians use) through all the Cases of the Sing., e. g. riftd, -as, -f , -iy 
(Dor.) ; <ro^ti}, -ijj, -^, -riy, ^pVt i?*» ytvyhsf -v* 'V (Epic and Ion.) ; so IIijw 
A0«-c/i|5, Tlijy^Kowtljf, from Ili^y^Xoircia, ^frfrrpflf Bop4fis, Bop^, Bop^K. 

Exceptions in Homer are ^tA, goddess, -as, •§, -iy, NoiNrurdld, ♦ete, also Alyuds, 
Avytlas, *Epfuids, and some other proper names in -as pure. The Voc. of y6f»^ 
is y6fKpa instead of y^fupvi 11- 7> 130. Od. 8, 743. 

(b) In substantives in -€to and -out, derived from adjectives in ijf and -ovs, ai 
also in some other fcminines, the short 11 in Attic is also changed into yj in 
Ionic, e. g. iLXr^dn, iymZtlri, fbtrKohi, Kvlatrn instead of iA^etfi, hyal^tO^ 
cirirAoi&, icylffoSu 

(c) The iEol. and some other dialects have -A instead of -tis, as the Masc 
ending in the Nom. Sing., like the Latin. The Epic also uses tliis form, accord- 

Digitized by 


Z50 DIALECTS [t^i2 

ing to the necessities of the yerse, in a great nnmbcr of words, particnlaiiy ia 
tA, e. g. Imr&r&f aixH-vin Kvnanxiura^ ¥€i^\iiy9p4r&y Zirm^A^fi, f(ip-irr&, drp^wHL 
The Voc. retains the ending -& in all these words. 

2. The Gen. Sing, of mascalines in -fit and -as originally ended in -oa, -am 
was then contracted into -w (Dor. into -a). In Horn, both the nncontracted 
and contracted form is found; he also resolves the -w, originating from 
-oo, hj means of c (comp if 207, 3) ; it is further to be remarked, that the -m 
in respect to accent is considered short (f 29, Rem. 7) and the c is always pro- 
nounced with the Synizesis ;- -cct becomes •« when a vowel or p precedes (still 
Alyc(f«, n. c^534). Thus there occur in Homer, 'Epfuias, Gen. 'Epfuiaa and 
'Epfiftv] Bop4iis, Gen. Bop4do and Bop4v] *Ar/>c(8i}r, *Ar/>c£8do, and ^ArpcftcM* 
UciTQo and U4t«w ; if^fAfuxSm, *A<r(w. In Homer, then, the Gen. endings of nouiu 
in -as or -tis, are -oo, -«, or •#<# (not -ov). The Gen. ending •«», becomes, in 
Uio Ion. writers, the usual ending, e. g. toA/tcm, 'Arpc/Sco*. 

3. The Ace. Sing, and Fl. of masculines in -ris is commonly formed in the 
Ion. dialect like the third Dec, e. g. rhv Scoir^ca, robs 8c<nr^cas from Scffv^s, 
-ov, MiAricUca from MiKridSfiSf -ov. 

4. The Gen. PI. of all the endings was originally in -d»y ; -^Ur was after- 
wards contracted into -wy (Dor. in -ay). Homer uses both the nncontracted and 
contracted forms, e. g. d^daty and ;^»r, iraptidny and vopcwr. He can also, 
as in the Gen. Sing., again resolve, by means of c, the -&y originating from 
'4mv] the ending thus becomes -^»y, which is commonly pronounced with 
Synizesis, e. g. irvA./«if, ^vp4w^ kyopinv. The Gen. ending '4mp becomes in tho 
Ion. writers, the common form, e. g. Movo'lvi/, ntUwfi 

5. The Dat. Fl. originally ended in 'aiin{v) ; this ending is found in the Dor. 
writers, in the Att poets, and even in the older Att. prose writers ; in the Ion. 
writers, -oxo-i was changed into -i70't(y) and -py; and in the Att and Common 
language, -oKri was shortened in tus. In Homer, the Dat Fl. ends in -fy^i, ^s^ 
and -a», yet the last is found only in btcSs and htercSs, 

6. The Ace. Fl., in ^ol., ends in -air (as in the second Dec in -ocs instead 
of -ovf), and in Dor. in -&r (as in the second Dec. in -w instead of -ovr), e. g. 
raSs Tifuus (iEol.) instead of riu rifuds (but Dat Fl. T^JCBuO'l) ; roirat icovoar 
(Dor.) instead of vda-ds Koipas, ' 

i 212. Second Declension. 

1. Nominative Sing. Proper names in -Xaoj are changed in the Dor. dialect 
*iito -\&s (Gen. a, Dat f ), e. g. M€v4kas instead of McWAoos, Nuc^Ads, 'Apxtci- 


2. Genitive Sing. Homer uses both the common form in -ov, and that in -oco ; 
ihc tragedians, also, in the lyric passages, use tho ending -oio. Theocritus has 
tlic Dor. ending -o» and -oio. 

3. Genitive Sing, and PI. Some genitives are formed according to the 
analogy of the first Dec. (a) Herodotus has some Masc proper names in -ot 
with the ending -«« in the Gen. Sing., e. g. Bdrrtu instead of BiCrrov, KpoUrtm^ 
KKtoixfip^tof, Mtfi0\idp€w, and some Masc. common nouns with the ending 

Digitized by 



-AiF in the Gen. PI., e. g. Tw<r4iȴ\ (b) The ending -Jmw instead of tie Ion. 
•^MT belongs to the Dor. (comp. 0/701^ instead of uiyiuv from a7(, S 213, 5). 

4. The Gen. and Dat. Dual in the Epic dialect ends in -ouv instead of -ow^ 
e. g. 6iuM» instead of Aitoiv (4 207, 9). 

6.. The Dat. PL originally ended in-oio'i(r). This form, as irell as the 
abridged form in -ois is fonnd in Homer and in all the poets, and in Ion. prose 

6. The Ace. PL ends, in the Dor. writers (except Pindar) in <«f and in -ot 
(like -iks in the first Dec, 4 211, 6), e. g. riot ,6fms, v6fu>t, so also rcbs A«y^5, the 
hares; .£oI. in -01s, e. g. vaffadkois instead of -ovt. 

7. Attic Declension. The Gen. Sing, in the Epic dialect ends in -wo, instead 
of -«, in TliiPtKtAo (H. {, 489 ; though most M8S. have lliiytKioio) from ni|W- 
XcwT, and in Hrrwo from n^cvs. — In yJi^us, sister'in4aWy'^Adws and Kwr, the 
m originating hj contraction, is resolved, in the Epic dialect, hj means of o; 
hence 70X^1, 'A^^f, K6t»s, Gen. -^w. On the words yi?MSt i^p^s, $pwst see 
^ 213, 7. 

8. Contracted' forms of the second Dec. are rare in Homer, namely, rovs only 
' Od. K, 240 (elsewhere ySos), x^^f^h^f* I^- ^> ^^3 (but k, 138. x^V^^fih^^) '^^ 

Xf(fui^t B. 8, 452, also ndy^mn, Tldir^w, Tldi^, Homer does not contract 
other words; in words in -^os, -«oi/, he either lengthens the c into «i (^ 207, 1), 
or employs Synizesis, as the measure requires. 

♦ 213. Third Declension, 

1. In the Dor. uialect the long a here also takes the place of i|9 e* S- uiy, 
§Mi^s instead of /i^v, /ii^v^^s, etc., "EAAoi', 'EAAoycf , voiftiy instead of voi/i^i^, Gren« 
-iwos^ iftSras, -aros instead of tft&rnSf -^os. ^ 

Aidipt^f d^f^t> And all names of persons in -r^p, are exceptions to thit 
Dor. usage. 

2. In the Epic and Ion. dialects, on the contrary, if commonly takes the plac« 
of the long a, as also elsewhere, e. g. d«6^{, ofvi^, lpi}{ instead of J^pd|, I4pa4. 

3. The Dat. PI. in the Epic dialect, ends, according to the necessities of the 
measure, in -a-i(v), •^<ri{y)j -cirt (y), and -§ctrt (v). The ground-form is -co-i (y) 
and the strengthened form is •co'0'<(r). This ending is always annexed, like 
the other Case-endings, to the pure stem, e. g. tdv-ttrffi (from KvWf Gen. irvi^^s), 
vncO-tifci (from Wkvt, -if-os). The ending •c<n(r) is found in Homer only in 
iWo-u', ofetf'i, x^^P^^h and &vd[icr-c0'<y (from <iya(, dyAKT-os). In Neuters, which 
hare a radical c in the Nom., the tr is omitted when it stands between two 
vowels (§ 25, 1), e. g. Ar^ciro'i (instead of Mff-tirat from t^ ^os), Serti-ctf'a-ur 
(from T^ J/iroj). In stems in -ow, -€w, -ou (oF, cF, oF), the u (F) must be 
omitted, according to § 25, 2 j thus, $6-9a-tri instead of fi6F'wai, ImHi-wci 
instead of hnrfiF-wcu The ending -c^ri is annexed almost exclusively to 
stems which end in a vowel, e. g. W/ci^ffcri from yiavs -v-Ss ; but also tpt-^vi 
from Jpis (-i8of) and commonly votrcl from iro6s (iroS-rfj). The Dat. form in 
-curi never admits the doubling of v. — The ground-form -fffi is very common 
in the Dor. poets and prose-writers ; also the Ionic prose has this form fre 
quently in stems ending in -y, e. g. /A^K-co-i. 

Digitized by 


252 DIALECTS. [{ 213 

4. The Gen. and Dat. Daal in tho Epic dialect, ends in -oup (as in the 
second Dec, ^ 212, 4), e. g. iro8o7u', Seip^votiv. 

5. The Gen. PL in tlie Ion. dialect often ends in -^«i', e..g x^Wvr, itf^p^ttp 
(§ 207,' 10). Theocritus has ray euyay (instead ofr&y edyay) from ^ oZf, a goat 
after the analogy of the first Dec 

6. The Epic dialect sometimes forms the Ace. Sing, of words in -vs (stem v) 
in a instead of y, e. g. tlpta trdtfrouj ix^^ ^^ ^I'om yavs, 

7. The words y4Kus, laughter; IBpAs, sweat; Upwst love, which properly belong 
to the third Dec, in Homer follow the Attic second Dec in some of the Cases, 
e. g. tSpw, /8py instead of l^ftwra and iSpepri ; yi7\M and yiKmy^ y^\^ instead of 
yiXmra and y4?iMTi, iptf instead of tfnori, 

8. Words in -if,' Gen. -iZos, The Horn., Ion., and Dor. dialects often 
inflect these substantives, particnlarly proper names, in -tos, e. g. iiiiytos^ Horn., 
6c^os, Herod., S4tios, Dat. Sirl, Horn. Those ending in -is, -tSos, in the Epic 
dialect have the Dat. only in -i instead of -8<. Substantives in -i}tf, -iftSaf, 
are sometimes contracted in the inflection, by the poets, e. g. vofnits, n^8o9 
(instead of vapTftZos), iftipTfts, Niyppdc j. See § 54 (c). 

9. The Neut. o3j, ur6s, ear^ is in Dor. &s, «toj, etc., and in Horn. oSar, Gen 
otfoTOf, PI. otfcrra; the Neuters, ariapyfai; oSi^ap, udder, and ircipa^, end, haTB 
-OTOT in the G«n., namely, {rrdaros, oC^ra^' rrtlparei, vtipaeru In the words 
T4paSf K4past Kp4aSj the Epic writers reject t, e. g. r^paa, -duy, -deaaiiy) ; mtp^ 
Dat.; PL K4pa, xtpdwy, ■4€ff<n(y), and -<wri(i') j PI. ifp6», «p€({«fr, jcpcoF, and ir/wuir, 
iip^mn(i^). Among the Ionic writers these words, like fipiras, etc (§ 61, Bern. 
1), often change the a into c, eg. jc^peoj, jccpco, ircp^vr, rit rtpta, Kp4urffi(y). 
See § 54 (c). 

10. In the words ror^p, tiiirnp, etc, Homer either retains or rejects the € 
through all the Cases, according to the necessities of the verse, e. g. ity4pos and 
iLyBp6s, ky4pL and h^pi, etc, but only ky^p&y^ ay^pdai and -4cro-t; yarHip, ywr- 
r4poSy '4pi, and ya<rrp6s, yturrpi, yturr4pix, yaar4p€S', ATifiiirtip, -rn^pot, and -^poi, 
A7ifirrr4pa] ^vydmp, 'r4posy and -rprfy, etc., dvyoT/pe<r<n(ir), but ^vyarpw\ fi^ril^ 
and iroT^p, ^/pos, and -rprf*, etc. See 4 65, 2. 

11. In Homer, the word lx<&pj blood of the gods, has in the Ace ix& instead of 
Ixfipo, and teuKtw, 6, mixed drink, has in tlie Ace rvkc& or icv«et». See ( 56, 
Rem. 1. 

12. In 'avs,-fvs,-ovs. Of 7pot;y, there are found in Homer only the Norn. 
ypnvf and ypv^s, Dat. ypni and the Voc ypriv and 7^0. In the Ion. dialect, 
also, the long a is changed to 1} ; thus, Gen. ypri6s, PI. yprjts ; this also appears 
in wOf, nam, see the Anomalies.— The word fiovs is regularly declined in 
Her., hence Nom. PI. fiots, Ace jSoCj; in the Ace PI. Homer uses both pSas 
and fiow. On the Epic Dat. fiS^a-a-i, 'see No. 3. In Doric, the Nom. is $ms^ 
Ace $&y, Ace PI. fi»s. This form of the Ace Sing., occurs also in the IL i|, 
238, in the sense of bulPs hide, a shield made of buWs hide. Sec § 57. 

The student may consult the first part of the Grrtmmar, where similar 
words are declined ; references to the particular section will be given at the eoA 
of the paragraphs here. 

Digitized by 



13. In common nouns in -«^yy and in the proper name 'AxiAAc^s, tf is used in 
the Epic dialect, instead of c, in all the forms which omit v (^ of the stem, 
this is done to compensate by the length of the vowel for the omitted u (F) ; 
thus, 0€un\tvs, Voc. •€!/ ; Dat. PL -cuirt (except api€rT'fi€irai{v) from &pi<rrcvf ), bat 
ficurtKijos, -j^r, -Tja, -^cr, -^if, -riSs, Yet the long a in the Ace. -ca, -cdsr of the 
Attic dialect, again becomes short. Among the proper names, the following 
are to be specially noted : *09v(rtr€i6sf Gen. *Olivtrarios or *09uff7ios and ^O^wra4os, 
also 'OSiMTcvs (Od. «, 398), Dat. *08ua-^r and 'OSvo-c?, Ace. 'G^vatrrja and 'OSvir^ 
9 /a, also *08wr^ (Od. t, 136) ; IliyXc^s, IIi)A^of and UiiK46s, nijAij* and IliiX/r* 
IIifXiTa; the others, as 'Arpc^s, TvSc^j, geneially retain the -c and contract -wa 
in the Gen. by Synizesis, and sometimes -ca in the Ace, into ti ; thus, TvS^y, 
-f r, -A^ and -^. — In the Ion. of Herodotus, the inflection with ly in common 
nouns is very doubtful ; in proper names, the c is regular, e. g. Tltf>a4os, AttpUts^ 
^»Kii»yt Alo\4as. 

14. In-i}s and -cs. Gen. -eos. In Homer, the Gen. Sing, remains uncon- 
fracted. In the Epic and Io;i. dialects, both the uncontractcd form -«es, and 
the contracted form -«u is used for the Kom. PI. The Gen. PL remains uncon- 
tractcd (except when a vowel precedes the ending '4ay, e. g. (axfrn^ from 
Ca-xfrn^Mv) ; so also the Ace. PI. ending -ecu. "A^s has in Homer "A^nos and 
"Apcof, "AfTi* or ^Apj7, 'A^r, "A^ and "Afwiy, U. «, 909, 'Ap« and "Kpts (§ 209, 
Bern. 3). See \ 59. 

15. Ip proper names in -«\^*, the Epic dialect contracts ec into iy, e. g. 
'Rpajc\^5, 'KXy^os (instead of icX^eoj), -^J, -^o, Voc. *H/h(icA«ij; but in adjectives 
m 'his it varies between -«i and ij, e. g. &7airA.c^r, Gen. 470^x^0 j, but ^OkXcms 
(Ace. PI.) from ifjKXefi^y ^v^h^St Gen. iQ^uos, The Ion. and Dor. writers, and 
sometimes the poets for the sake of the verse, reject an c in these words, e. g. 
ntpuc\4ost -^, etc.; so also in Homer, BvskX4&, H. jS, 115, and t>ircp5/a, B. p, 330. 

16. In (a) -»i, Gen. -«oj. In Homer, the contracted forms, Ijp^ Dat, and 
M/m» Acc. occur. — (b) -cJj and -», Gen, '60s. Words of this kind even in the 
Epic and Ion. writers, as well as in the Attic, always have the contracted form, 
except xfK^j and its compounds, e. g. xpo<^»i xpof, xp^o. — The Ion. dialect fre- 
quently forms the Acc. Sing, in -ovy instead of -«, e. g. *Ii6, 'lovr, ^^s, ^vv. -> 
The -^EoL Gen. Sing, ends in -»j, e. g. eCtdwSf Setx^ws instead of al8ot/r, 3air^ovf , 
thus, in Moschus, ras 'Ax»s. See f 60. 

17. In (a) -o J, Gen. -ooj. In Homer, the Dat. Sing, is either uncontracted 
or contracted, according to the necessities of the verse, e. g. yiipcit and yfip^t 
8«r^ (r4X/^ But the Nom. and Acc. PI. is always contracted, e. g. 8/ira. — On 
those in -as. Gen. -coj, see § 61 (a), and Rem. 1. 

(b) In 'OS, Gen. -cof. The Epic dialect, according to the necessities of the 
verse, has sometimes the nncontractcd and sometimes the contract forms, 
except in the Gen. PI., which is always uncontracted. The Gen. Sing, is also 
uncontnu;ted, except in some substantives which contract -cos, as in the Dor., 
into -<vs ; thus, 'Zp4fifvs, ^dpcws, y4vfvs, ^dfifitvs, ^4pfvs ; Dat. Sing. ^4p€i and 
^pttj KdWti and KoWti. Nom. and Acc. Plurals in -€a, commonly remain 
nncontractcd, but they must be pronounced with Synizesis, i. c. as one syllable, 
a, g. ufUetif fi4\€a, — The Ion. dialect is like the Epic. — In <nrco5, kAcos, 94of, 


Digitized by 


254 DIALECTS. [♦ 214. 

XP^i the Epic dialect lengthens c, sometimes into ci, sometimes into ii; thiu. 
Gen. tnrtiovsj Dat. tnnjl, Ace. aw4os and aw€ios, Gen. FI. (nrcW, Dat. w4aat{tt) 
and oTrfita<ri(p) ; xp^<*f ^^^ XP^^^^i "^^ ^^^ leAcM. 

18. In -ISf Gen. -I of, -vs, Gen. -Hot. The Epic dialect contracts those in 
-vs in the Dat. Sing., e. g. ilCviy irAc^t, Wirvi; the Ace. PI. appears with tha 
contracted or uncontracted forms, according to the necessities of the verse, 
though more nsnally contracted, e. g. tx^' instead of Ix^^i ^p^ ] pdxvas U 
always uncontracted ; the Nom. PI. never stt£fers contraction, hut is pronounced 
with Sjnizesis. The Dat. PL ends in -^trt and -^vi (dlssyllahle), e. g. l}^i^* 
aiP and Ix^^aaiv, See \ 62. • 

19. In -If and -7, Gen. -Xos^ Att. >«cis; -0s and -0, Gen. -Cos, Att -cwsi--^ 
(a) The words in -7r, Att. Gen. -ct»r, in the Epic and Ionic dialect, retain c 

of the stem through all the Cases, and in the Dat Sing. aZways suffer contract 
tion, and usually in the Ace. PL in the Ionic writers, and sometimes also in 
Homer (-a « .f, -tas = -if), e. g. r^Xis, v^Xior, «-^M, r^Xiv, ir^Aics, iroXW, vikittj 
96XmSy and v^Xif. In the Dat. Sing, however, the ending -cI and -ci is found 
in Homer, e. g. T6ff^l and jritru from rt6iris *, in some words, the i of the stem is 
changed into c in other Cases also, e. g. /ircU|€if instead of ^rdU^ior, lvdU{c^(y), 
especially in r^Ais, which, moreover, according to the necessities of the verse, 
can lengthen c into t; ; thus, Gen. w6\uis^ r^Acof , and x6Kiios^ Dat. «-^Ac7, vtfAci, 
and WAi}i, Nom. PI. r^Accs and «-({Ay}cs, Gen. toA^mv, Dat. roA/cfrcri, Ace. it^Ami, 
r^Acis, ir^At;af ; from 2(7f, ovia;, Dat PI. itc0'(ri(y), ofcflri(i'), ttvi(v). See 4*63. 

(h) The words in -Cs, whose Gen. in the Attic ends in -fws, in the Ionic 
make the Gen. in -cos, e. g. ir^x^^'t except fyx'^^s, Gen. -vos ; in the Dat Sing., 
hoth the contracted and uncontracted forms arc found in Homer, e. g. cvp^ 
v^X^'t TAorciL In the Nom. PI., the form can ho either contracted or uncon- 
tracted ; in thence. PL, the uncontracted form in -cos is regular, which, when 
the verse requires, can be pronounced as a monosyllable, e. g. rcA^Kcar (tri- 

J 214. Anomalous and Defective Words, — Metaplasts. 

1. r6yu (vb, knee) and 96 pv {rh, spear ^ \ 68, 1), are declined in Homer as 
follows : — 

Sing. yoiyaros and yow6s ^o^paros and iovp6s 9o6paTi and dwpi 

PL Nom. yoi^MiTa " yovfa Soi^perra " Zoupa — Dual 8oi^ 

Gen. yo^yuy Zoipoov 

Dat yoiv9ffi(v) and yolv€ir(ri(v) 8o^pao-i(fr) and 8o^c<ro'i(K). 
The form yo<t¥air<ri (D. t, 488, p, 451, 569) has critically little authority. 

2. The following forms of k dp a (rb, head^ § 68, 6) arc found in the Homeric 
dialect ; — 

Sing. Nom. itdpii Gen. xdp^os Kop^oros Kpar6s Kpdaros 

Dat Kdpvrri Kop^ari Kpar( Kpdart 

Ace Kdffi (rhy Kpara, Od. », 92, and M #r^, IL v, 392). 

Digitized by 


f 215.] ADJECTIVES. 266 

PI. ^om. icdtpa Kopffiwra \ secondary fonn jc^Cpijya 
Gen. KfAroBV ** Kapii\imv 

X>at. Kpa4r£(y) 
^cc Kpdara ** Kiifnira 

3. Aaaf (6, sfone, Horn., instead of Aaf), Gen. Xoos, Dat. Xa7, Ace. Xooy, Gka 
PI. A^Cfltfi/, Dat \d(c0'(n(i^). 

4. Mc($ (d, month), Grcn. /ifjyJs, Ion., instead of fci^v, -^s, bat also in Plato. 

5. NaDs (^, sAtp) is inflected in the Epic, Ionic, and Doric dialects ai 
follows: — 

8. Nom. Ep. and Ion. vTfis yrj 9 Dor. vavs 

Gen. y7i6s (also Tragic) yc^s vcuJs (also Trag.) 

X>at. rni vat 

Ace . y^ yla yavy and yor 

D. Nom. Ace. Voc. yri§ vat 

Gen. and Dat. vcoly yooiy 

P. Nom. tnjts ydts ra» 

Gen. ytj&y {yav^i only Ep.) yt&y yauy 

Dat yQuo-r (rai^i only Ep.) i^«ir(ri(r), Wco'in(y) yai;(rr(y) 

Ace. yijas v4as yuas. 

6. "Opyis (6 ^, 6tr(i), Gen. tfpyt^-of, Dojic tpylx'os, etc. (§ 203). 

7. Xe(p (^, Aoiu^), Ion. xcp^^i X^P^i X^*^ Dual x'<pct X^P^^ (poet, also x«po2r), 
PL x4p€s, X^P^'^1 X^P^^M (x^^^^(^)i <^d -c<r0'i(r) in Homer), x^P^' 

Rkmask 1. Metaplasm (4 72) occurs in Homer in the following words : 
i^^Mi|, ^, atrenath, Dat iXiti (from Nom. 'A/VH) ; *A/8?}S, -ov, ^, Gen. &^f, Dat 
tfSSi ('An); Ajrri^Tijs, -oo, ^, Ace. 'Ajn-t^TfJo f ANTI#ATET2) ; ttaic^, rj, pur- 
statj Ace. iwica (*iaE) ; inrnhnu, ^, 6a/^/e, Dat {iciian [&<rfus) *, — Tl^r^/cAos, Gen. 
narp6K\ov and -icA^of, Ace. -icAov and -irA^a, Yoc. -«r\cis (nATPOKAH:S) ; hy^pd- 
iroSoy, r^, slave^ Dat. PL &ir8pcnr({d<(ro'i(v) ; wp6swroy^ rb, ^€«, PI. irposcinraTa, 
wpos^euri ; vTof , d, «m, has from 'TIETS and Tl2 the following forms : Gen. 
vUos and vTo; , Dat v/c7 and vfi, Ace. vUa and vta ; Dnal vfe ; Nom. PL vUts and 
tf/«iT and vfef , Dat vc<i<ri, Ace vi4as and vfo^ ; — Oi9lwovs, Gen. OtSiir^ao 

Rem. 2. The following arc defective in Homer :^ Dat and ri xtro, /men ; 
XTy and aIj"^ X^oii/ and \4oyraj yJxrrt and ydirriy = fidoTtyi and -o; artx^s, 
artxfSy arlxoifi tow ; 6<rff€, r^, Nom. and Ace. Dual, both eyes ; t^tKos, advantage, 
and ^801, pUasurey in the Nom. only ; i^pa, something pleasing, and B4fias,Jbnn, in 
the Ace. only ; 4\c^s, infatttated, Voc. ^A^ and ^Xc^ ; finally, $», jrpT, &A^i, as 
Nom. and Ace. Sing., J'rom which come the forms 9wna, house^ Kpil^, barley, 
$\ipiroy, dried hurley. 

S 215. Adjeotiyeb. 

1. Some adjectives in -vs, -cm, -w, have sometimes in the Homeric dhilcct, 
the feminine form -ca or -ei} ; viz. »K«a (instead of ai«ccta), fiQ&4a (instead of 
jScb^cia) ; Gen. fia^4ri5 (and fid^tl-ns) , Ace. fiab4ny \ so also in Herodotus, -f a, 
seldom -era, e. g. /Sod^^a, -4n and -c7a, /Sopco, cvpc-o, l^h, -4a and -cio, d^Aca (from 
I^^Aws), ijfilffta. 

Rehabk. In Epic and Doric poetry, some adjectives of this kind, and also 
some in '4* IS and -^c is, are of the common gender, i. e. they have bat on« 

Digitized by 


256 DIALECTS. [i 2l6w 


tennination for the Masc and Fern., e. g.'Hpiy dijlus iovaa, IL r, 97 ; so i^Slk 
iOr/i^t Od. fi, 309, and the irregular roMs: iro\^ ^^* iypfp^, H. it, 27 ; so ^fto" 
j^cts, iy^tfti69ts, hpyiv6tLi, roefffiSt agreeing with feminine substantives. — The 
Epic ifi* or iits, Neut. -^0 (46 and cS only as an adverb), wants the feminine 
form ', in II. w, 528, is found idpnv ota S/Swai kwcwv, crcpos 6h 4dwy {sc ^Apvm)^ 
therefore i^otv as the Gen. Fl. Ncut., unless perhajis from ZApmv the cognate 
8^<rc«y is to be supplied for i^Mv to agree with, as in Scrr^pef iAoov so. 8^cwr j 
the Gren. Sing, is ir^os, 

2. Adjectives in -^cts, -^co-o-o, -^cy, are often found in Homer in the contracted 
form -p J, -^iraf -^v, e. g. nft^s (and rt/iZ/cif ), ri/t^Kra ; those in •^ts, -^tcau^ 
•6€y, contract -oc into -«v, e. g. irc8(ci>AxvT€vrra. 

3. In the Epic dialect, iroK^s is regularly inflected in the masculine and 
neuter, viz. Nom. iroA^s and irovK^s, Ncut iroXi), with the secondary forms 
wo\}Js, wow6y^ Gen. ito\4os, Ace. roXvv and rovX^, roA^ and iroAX^r ; Nom. 
PL iroA^cs and noKtis, Gen. iro\^»y, Dat. iroA.^(ri(K), roX/oro'iCi'), and iro\/c0'0'i(r). 
Ace ToX^M and xoXus, — The Ionic dialect inflects wo\x6s, -^, -6^, regularlj- 

4. Compound Adj. in -os (comp. f 78, 1.) often have in Hom. a feminine ending, 
viz. -71, e. g. i^aydrri, iurfitarri, iroKu^pfiri, iiptffiKri (but also itpi(ti\oi aiyal^ IL 
X, 27), iLfi^ifipSrn, &7xi(itX)7> ikfrfvpciK4(a, iLfi^ip6rii ; on the contrary, k\vt6s as a 
feminine is found in II. /3, 742. Od. c, 422, from the simple KXvr6s, -^, -6^, Also 
the ending -os of the superlative is sometimes found as feminine, e. g. oXoArarot 
iifxfi, Od. 8, 442. Kctrit vp^urroy hwu^Hiy, H. Cer. 157. Comp. ^ 78, Rem. 1. 

5. Compound adjectives in -imvs, -irow, Gen. n^s, in the Epic dialecti can 
shorten -irovs into -iros, e. g.'^Ip» iLtWSwos, U. ^, 409. rplwos, IL Xt 443. 

6. *Eptiip€s from 4plripos, 4pvaapfWTts and •« from 4pwrdpfiaT0Sf are examples 
of Metaplastic forms of adjectives in Homer. 

§ 216. Comparison, 

1. In the Epic dialect, the endings -^€pos and -^aros are used for the sake 
of the metre, even when the vowel of the preceding syllable is long, c. g. 
hxppi&rtpos, hX^pdyraroSf Kcueo^tty^TtpoSf Kapdercnos, — ^Ayn\p6st tivubtesomeyYiBA 
tlie Comparative kynip4<rrtpov, Od. jS, 190, and Jix^^P''* disagreeabU^ kxapt^rr^pos^ 
Od. v, 392. Comp. S 82, Rem. 6. Adjectives in -vs and -pos, in the Homeric 
dialect, form the Comparative and Superlative in -i^y, -toy, and 'urros, if, -oy, 
sometimes also regularly, e. g. 4\ax^Si little., 4\dxi(rros, y\vK{fs y\vKicoy, $d^t^ 
fid^toros, Kv^p6sf KvSioToSf oiKTpSs oIktiotos and otKTpiraToSf irax^s rdxi^rroSf 
irp4<rfivs •irp4(r$i<rTos, vk^s Ukuttos. 

2. Besides the anomalous forms of comparison mentioned under § 84, the 
foUo^^ing Epic and dialectic forms require to be noticed: — 

ii.ya^6i^ Comp. &^(W, Koitoiv, Xutrtpos (Ion. Kp4<r(rvy, Dor. xd^^y), Sup. 

Kaic6s, Kcuc<&T€poi, x**P^^*P***» X^P*^*"'» x*P**<^^*poy (Dor. xcp|7«i'> Ion. terermy). 

Slip. fiKurros {U.ilf^ 531, with the variation iiKitrros, which Spitzner prefers). 
iKiyos, Comp. 6KlCuy {6\lCoy€s ^<ray, populi suberant statura minore<«. II. 9, 

519); fiiiuy, B'lon, 5, 10. 
fifi^ios, ion., Comp. prfiTtpos (Ion. ^tw), Sup. jnfirvros and ^ffiffrot. 
fipaUvs, ftloio^ Com]), fipdaawy. Sup. fidpSurros (by Metathesis). 
SimKp6s, long, fAdtraatv, — irax^r, thick, irdieravy. 

Digitized by 


♦ 217.1 



Hbmabk 1. The positive XEPHS ix^fnut x^F'ifh X^pn^ff X^P^) ^ovaid iq 
Somer, and belonging to x^P*^^''* always has the signitication of the Compara- 
tive, UsSt baser, weaker. The PI. irA^cs and (Ace.) irAcas arc found in Homer 
froTii tho Comp. vK^ctp. 

Rem. 2. In the Epic dialect, the forms of the Comparative and Superlative, 
in mauj instances, are derived from Substantives; some of these forms have 
V>cen transferred to the Common language: 6 fiaaiKtis ^cun\€^fpos\ rh 
K 4 p9of, gaitij K4p9iov, more lucrative, K4pBi<rros] rh liXyo's, pcUn, Aa^/mk, mote 
painful, iKyurros ; rh ^lyos, cold, piyutv, colder, more dreadjful, piyurrosi r^ jc^<- 
ias, care, leffiiffTos, most dear; 6 ^ km»k, dog, K^m-epos, more shameless, kIwtvtou 

§ 217. Fbonounb. 







iy6 and (before a vow- 
el) Mv Epic; ^yw 
and iy9i9 ^olic 

Epic and Ion. 
^ficZo Epic 
i/J&ty Epic 
i/itvs, ifious Doric 
ilioljfjuol (/ioi),l/Aoi MoV 
ifdif Doric 

ifi4, fi4 {fit) Epic 

ySl 1 

illius'Ei^iQ', iifi^tslon. 
aft4s Dor. ; j(/i]ucf Epic 
iffittty Ion. and Epic 
^fulcov Epic 
ififitur ^olic; afiuy 


iffjuy, ffur, rifdy Epic 
&tAfu{y) JEol. and Ep, 

afwf andi'iudp Dor. 
i^iti4<n(v) iEk)I. 

^ Epic; ri Dor. and 
iBol. ; r^mii Epic 

T€v Dor.; a4o {vto), 
tr*v (a-fv), Ep. and Ion. 
ouo and rtoTo Epic 
a4^ty Epic 
rtvs, T€ov5 Dot. 
trol Epic 
riy Dor. ; r€iy Dor. et 
Ep. (usually Orthot.) 
rol (roi) Ep. and Ion. 
ir4 (tf-c) Ep. ; r4 Dor. 
T^ (rv) Dor. 
rly in Theocritus 


v^iy ((T^Xy) 
fftp&J, tr<pii . 
<rip&lv, tr^y 

hfktts Ep. ; hii49s Ion. 
bfUs Dor. ; 0ft/iff Ep. 
vfA,4wy Ion. and Epic 
hliiiwy Epic 
vfj^469y ^ol. 

^/uyf t/tty, tfdy Epic 
1ilitu{v) Epic 

a^4wy (c^cfltfy) Ion. 
and Epic 
ff^y Epic 
c^Uey Epic 

v<pl (<r6i) Ion.: tr^l- 
ic<piy), ff^i (<r^i) Ep. J 
iffpt i&ol. 

(r^4as (<r^caf) Ion. 

and Epic 
(Ttpas, a^(7as Epic 

iff<fk€ JE.0I 

TlKifATtK . The forms susceptible of inclination are those written without 
■n accent. 

rifUcu Ion. and Epic 6fi4as Epic and Ion. 

^juof, Tifidi Epic I Ifuis, ^fids Epic 

&f»fie Epic ; a^^ Dor. I CfjLfit Epic ; 6/tc Dor. 

lo (Jo), «S (c6) Epic 
and Ion. 

cTo Ep. ; iuo later Ep. 
c;^ci' ii^4y) Epic 
4ovs Dor. 

1> Dor. (usually or- 


Jdi,<^(oI)Ep (Reflex.) 
U,^{^) (asNeutll. 

yly (yiy) Dor. f and Att. 

poet.) (Aim, her, it) 
fdy ipuy) Ion. (him, her, 

it; seldom PL) 
tr^9 Dor. et Att poet. 

ff^4, ff^t ^ Epic 


Digitized by 


258 . DIALECTS. [♦2ia 

2. The compoand forms of the reflexive pronouns, iftaurov, o-cavrov, etc^ m 
.never found in Homer; instead of them, he writes the personal pronouns and 
the pronoun alnds separate, e. g. l/t* aMv, ifjuli avr^, i/uv alnifs^ I ovr^r, «I 
axnf. When the pronoun abros stands first, it signifies himadf^ hendf^ it^/t 
even. But the Ion. writers use the compound forms iMwvrov, o-cwvrov, Iantt-ov, 
etc. Comp. \ 207, 1. 

3. Possessive pronouns : rt6st -4, -^y Dor. and Epic, instead of vh ; 1^, -4, 
-^y, and 8f, 4}, 8y, AitM, Epic ; V^s , -4, -^y Dor. and Epic, ifi/tost kfifJrtpos JEoL, 
instead of iffUrtpos] imtr€poSt of us botk^ Epic; 6/i6s, -^, -6y Dor. and Epic, 
HfifMs Mo\., instead of vfUrtpos ; tr^^tr^pos, of yoa both, IL a, 216 ; o^s, -4* -^ 
u£oL and Epic, instead of ff^irtpos, 

4. Demonstrative pronouns : (a) d ^ r6 (Dor. 'd instead of 9) ; Gen. rd Dor., 
roio and reii Epic, tSs Dor. ; Dat. t$ Dor. ; Ace rdy Dor. ; PL rot and to( Dor. 
and Epic; Gen. rAuy Epic, ray Dor.; Dat. rotct, rcuatt r^trt, and rfs Epic; 
Ace. T^Sf r6s Dor. 

(b) 88c: Epic Dat. PI. roIsSro-i and ToisSco-ot instead of roSsdc; Epic Dal. 
Toio-fSc instead of roisdt is found also in the Tragedians. 

(c) oItos and alrSs: an c stands before the long inflection-endings in tho 
Ion. dialect (4 207, 10), e. g. rovr^ov, raur^Sf rovri^^ rovr4ovs, air^, tdnimp. 

(d) intivos is written in Ion. and also in Att. poetry jccu'of, .£ol. ic^ivr. Dor. 

(e) On the Ion. forms »hr6i^ rmM instead of & ainds, rh aMy see §( 206, 1, 
and 207, 1. 

5. Relative pronouns: 8 Dor. and Hom., instead of 85; oto Ion. and Epic; 
80V Epic seldom, c^f II. t, 208 ; ftri and fs instead of oft. Besides 5f, 4}, tha 
other forms of the pronouns are supplied, in the Dor. dialect, bj the forms of 
the article, e. g. r6 instead of 8, rov instead of oZ, rTjs instead of ^s, etc. The 
Epic dialect uses both forms promiscuously, according to the necessities of the 
verse. In the Ion. dialect also, the forms of the article are frequently used 
instead of the relative. 

6. Indefinite and interrogative pronouns: (a) rls^rl: Gren. r4o (rco) Epic 
and Ion., rev (rev) Epic, Ion., and Dor., Dat. r^y (rcy), ry (ry) Epic and Ion.; 
PI. &ff<ra Neut., imroT it<r<ro, Od. t, 218, Gen. t4w {rtwy) Epic and Ion., Dat 
Wouri Epic and Ion. (rourt, S. Trach. 984). 

(b) tIj, rl : Gen. Wo Epic and Ion., rtv Epic, Ion., and Dor., Wy Ion. 

(c) isris: Nom.8Tu,Neut.8Ti,8TTiEp. 
Gen. 5T«wEp.and Ion.,8T(o, 

8tt«o, trrtv Epic. 
Dat. 5Tey,8r9»Ep. and Ion. 
Ace. &rtva Epic, Ncut. St*, 

8tti Epic. 

Neut. PI. Urum Iliad. 
8rr«v Epic and Ion. 

Sr^ouri Epic and Ion., irl^ai Her. 
oTivas Epic, Ncut. firtya and t^aa Epic. 

4 818. The Numerals. 

The -ffiol. and secondary form of /tfa is fa, ftjr, fjj, fov; also Jy, IL f 422, li 
iwtead of kvU a6o and 81^ are indeclinable in Homer ; the secondaty fonnt 

Digitized by 



are 8a«& (IndecL), 8oio(, 9oud, So«£, Dat. HoioTs, 9ouu^ , Ace. Sot^ (indecL), Jhiois, 
•^y -d. — n/0vpc5, -a JEol, and Epic, instead of W<rirop«s, -a. — Ave68cjca and iw^ 
KoiSiKa Epic, also StiScica. — 'Ef(«ro<ri Epic, instead of rl/cmri. — *Oy^K0tna and 
iwr^Koma Epic, instead of ^So^iroyra, it^arfiKOirra. '£yy((ixtA<o< and 8€/r«Cx<^o< 
£pic, instead of iytnucisx^^"*^ ^^^ fiipioi. The endings -^orra and -aKSetoi in 
t]ie Epic and Ion. become -^kokto, -7iK6<nou The Epic forms of the ordinals 
«re rpHroTOS^ rhparos, ifiMfutros, iy96aTes, fmros, and cfiwror. 

The Verb. 

♦ 219. Augment. — Reduplication. 

1. All the poets, except the Attic, may reject the augment, according to the 
necessities of the verse, e. g. Kwrt, ortiJiarro, ^^tray, SpSro, cXc. The Ion. 
prose, as well as the Epic dialect, may omit the temporal anient; it may also 
omit it in the Feif., e. g. ififuUf Kpyaa-fuu, otcrifuut which is done by the Epic 
writers only in (bwya and Ipxaroi from cfpTw. 

2. On the omLssioB of the Epic dialect to double the p when the augment is 
prefixed, e. g. ip^^as, and on the doubling the liquids, e. g. fvo'tva, see \ 208, 
4, and Rem. 

3. d in the Dor. writers is changed into a by the augment, and ai suffers no 
change, e. g.' Syoy iustead of ^tot, cSpioy instead of jjfpcov. 

4. Verbs which have the Digamma, in Homer take the syllabic augment, 
according to the rule, e. g. &jr3«Ur», to please^ Impf. idyZayov, Aor. tHZoyf — cX8o- 
fwij mdeoTf Uiffifofy^ also in the participle 4turdfi€yos, On account of the verse, 
the c seems to be lengthened in ftoucvTa, etfoSc (IFoSc) from Mdyot. 

5. In Homer, the verbs oiyoxodat and &y8^bw, take at the same time both the 
syllabic and temporal augment, viz. i^yoxi^h ^- '> 3? Jct more frequently ^yo- 
X^< ] HrSoTf and liySayt, 

6. The reduplication of p is found in Homer, in ^tpinrcffUyot, from ^vr^, to 
make dirty. On the contrary, the Epic and poetic Perfects, ffiftopa from fuipofuu 
and Hmvfim from o'cvw, arc formed according to the analogy of those beginning 
with p, i. e. by Metathesis ; hence l^fi/iopa, etc., instead of fUfwpa. — The Epic 
and Ion. Teif. of icrdofuu is iitrnijm. A strengthened reduplication is found in 
the Horn, forms Z9iUx<ffOA and 8c/8ckto. 

7. In the Epic dialect, the second Aor. Act. and Mid. also often takes the 
reduplication, which remains through all the modes. In the Ind. the simple 
augment € is commonly omitted; thus, e. g. k^ilvw^ to grow weary ^ Snbj. Aor. 
iccK«(fu»; K^Xofiai, to command^ iK€KK6fi7jy) icA^w, to hear, Aor. Imp. /ccxXfi;^, 
K^jcAvrc; \ayxdy», to oUain, \iKaxov\ \afi$dytat to receive^ \f\afi4cr^9i ] 
\ayddyw, kUeo, to escape notice, K^Ka^oy] vti^w, to persuade, ir^i^oi', irrwi^S- 
imy, rdpxufto delight, r(Tpair6fi7iy ; rvyxdy^tto obtain. rtrvKuyf rtrvKda^cui 
♦ ENn, to murder, iv€^yoy, W^mj/j ^prffw, to say, to shc^r, w4<l>paSoy, M^poioy, 
Aorists with the Att. reduplication (comp. f 124, Bern. 2) commonly take the 
augment: *APO, to Jit, Ijp-^^] *AXn, to grieve, IlK-axoy, &A.^4«, to ward off^ 
ffA.-ciAicoi', hXaXKitiy j tfpv vui, to excite, &p^poy ; iyi-rrtf^to chide, iy^pnroy. Tw9 

Digitized by 


260 DIALECTS. [t220 

verbs in the Aor. take the reduplication in the middle of the word : yiz. iytvrm^ 
lir-traxty, and 4pvK», to restrain, ^pi-Koucw^ ipvKcucdtty, Comp. the Presenti^ 

8. In the Dialects, there arc still other forms of the Perf. and Plup. with the 
Att. reduplication (§ 124) ; thus, e. g. alp4w, to take^ Ion. iLp-tdpn/iKo^ hp-olptnuwi 
^KdofAuif to wander. Epic Perf. with a Pres. signification iX-^iiftM] 'APa 
(Apop/o-Kv), to fit. Poet ip-apoy I fit, (Intrans.), Ion. Hpfiipa', 'AXO (htaxii^)^ te 
grieve. Epic and Ion. iuc-^x^f'^t ^-dxtfut^] 'ENEKfi (^fw), to cany, Ion. i^ 
il¥uyfiou', iptivm^to demolish, Poet, ip-^para. Epic ip-ipirro] 4pi(cf, tocoHtmdf 
Epic ip^pur/juu. 

J 220. Personal- endings and Mode-vowels, 

1. First Pers. Sing. Act. The original ending -fii of the first Pers. Sing., is 
fonnd in the Epic dialect in several subjunctiTdt^ e. g. fcrcdwfu, iydytf/u, r^m/u^ 
UvfUf i^i?iM/u, ySv/u. Comp. ^ 116, 1. 

2. Second Pers. Sing. Act. In the Dor., and particularly in the ^ol. and Ep. 
dialect, the lengthened form '<r^a is found (§ 116, 2). In the Ind., this 
belongs almost exclusively to the conjugation in -fu, e. g. ridriada, ^«'d«, 
9t9our^a, xapfia^cu In Homer, this ending is frequent in the Subj., e. g. i^Kpv^ 
da, «fr2}o-;^a, more seldom in the Opt., e. g. irAa/ourda, fidKour^, 

3. Instead of the ending • c<s, the Dor. frequently has the old form -ct, e. g. 
Twirrcj instead of t^*t«is ; so in Theocritus crvp/o-Scr =» ovpl^tis. 

4. Third Pers. Sing. Act. In the Epic dialect, the Subj. sometimes has the 
ending -tri (arising from ^i) appended to* the usual ending of the Subj., e. g. 
^c\77<n(y), JiTpo-i, &XcUicp<n; the Opt. only in irapa/p^tdfivt, 

5. Instead of the ending -ci in the Pres. Ind. of the Dor. dialect, the form -ii 
is used, though seldom, e. g. Mdriai instead of (iSi^Kci. In the second and 
third Pers. Sing. Perf. Act., Theocritus uses the endings -i|j, -ti instead of -«, 
•c, e. g. w€ir6y^s, 6T(ivri instead of niitoy^tis, 6irwwt, 

6. First Pers. PI. Act. The Dor. dialect has retained the original ending 
-fus, e. g. T^Jirrofie* instead of r^m-ofity {\ 204). 

7. The third Pers. PI. Act. of the principal tenses, in the Dor. dialect, ends 
throughout in -yri, e. g. r^m-opn (instead of r^m-ovai), rw^orrt, r^wrum 
(instead of r^rrcM'i), rrrit^aarri^ iicaiv4oim, i^airarmmi. In the JBol. and Dor., 
this ending in the Pres. and Fut. is -ocri instead of -ovtri, e. g. wtpiwr4owt{¥), 

8. Personal endings of the Plup. Act. In the Epic and Ion. dialects, the 
following forms occur: — 

First Pers. Sing., -co the only Epic and Ion. form (-ij old Att. Ml^» ^)i 6- g* 
ir t^'^nta, fBta, w€noi^€a instead of irtd^tiy, etc. 
Second " " -€oj, e. g. irtd^nrtai^ Od. «, 90, instead of ^red^ciy. 
Third " " -«e(K), c. g. ^^cy^ircr, JcaroAcXodrcf, ^jSc/S/N^Kcry (not Horn.). 
Second " PI. -4art, c. g. <ruiTj8^oT€, Her. 9, 58. 

Bbvabk 1. The third Pers. Sing. Plup. Act in -«, as well as the same 
Pen. of the Impf in •«, is found in Homer before a vowel with the i^paragoglc; 

Digitized by 



Utvs, l<rHi«c»y, H. i^, 691. iSc^X^jcciy, H. e, 661. », 270. ^412. ScScnry^Kciy, Od. 
^ 359 ; — liaictty, II. y, 388. 

9. The second and third Pers. Dual of the historical tenses are somctimef 
exchanged for each other. Thus in Homer, the forms -to v and -trdov (second - 
Pers. Dual) stand instead of -tjiv and -chriv (third Pers. Dual), e. g. Su^Kcroy, 
n. jc, 364. ^ap6<r<reroy, B. <r, 583. ^pviaattr^ov, II. v, 301. On this inter^ 
charge in Attic, see 4 116, Rem. 

10. The second Fers. Sing. Fres. Ind. and Suhj., Impf. Ind. and Opt. Mid. or 
Pass., the first Aor. Mid. Ind., after dropping <r, remain uncontracted in the 
Ion. and often in the Epic dialect, e. g. irtriWtai ; Homer ises either theso 
forms, e. g. Acdrccu, AiAotcoi, A^finiai, ip(tc<rwif httcOpvicUt j^c> ^oo, iytiifoo, or 
the contract forms, -p (from -coi), -#v (from -«o), -« (from -ao), e. g. IfrAcv, IjpxfVf 
^yMCCcv, iicp4fu0. When the characteristic of the verb is e, it is very freqaently 
omitted in the Ion. dialect, before -ecu and -co, e. g. ^i\4at instead of ^iX^com, 
^iX4o instead of ^<A^co ; so in Homer, iK\4\ II. a», 202, yet with the variation 
l«Ac* from K\4ofiat. Com p. 4 222, B (3). — The ending -co in Homer is 
lengthened into -cio, e. ^. fpno, oyc7o, and the ending -^ccu is contracted into 
-cuu, in Tcrbs in -4w, e. g. fivdtiai, yucu. Homer sometimes drops <r in the 
second Fers. Sing. Ferf. and Plup. Mid. or Pass, also, viz. iiiiunftu (and m4^)i 
fi^jSAiKu, tffffvo, 

11. The Dual endings -r^y, -drdiiy, and first Pers. Sing, -/ai^k, in the Doric 
are, -rdK, -abav, -/lav (§ 201, 2), e. g. i^paadttay. In the later Doric, the 
change of ij into a is found, though seldom, even in the Aor. Pass., e. g. ^r^irar 
instead of irvrify. 

12. The personal-endings -fu^oy, -fAt^a, in Epic, as well as in Doric, Ionic, 
and Attic poetry, often have tlie original forms -fitir^oy, -fAt<r^f c. g. rvwr6fue' 
dor, rvrT6fi€<r^a. 

13. The tlyrd Pers. PL Perf. and Plup. Mid. or Pass., in the Ionic and Epic 
dialect, very generally ends in -ar a i, -aro, instead of -vtou, -vro, e. g. tctcI- 
doTfiu, Tcira^oi, ^i8«/3ovXc^aro, ierJXaro \ very often also the third Pers. PL 
Opt. Mid. or Pass, is •oiary^-aiaroy instead of -ouno, -cuyrOf e. g. rvwroiaro 
instead of r^mourro, iLfftieolaro (Homeric), instead of kp4ictMrro. Also the 
ending -^nfro, in the Ion. dialect, has this change, though the o before v becomes 
c, e. g. 4fiov\4aro instead of ifioiXovro, In verbs in -du and -^m, the tj in the 
ending of the Pcrf and Plup. -rivreut -riyroj is shortened in the Ionic into c, e. g. 
oor/orai instead of f'^'^oi from otic/w, irerifi4»ro instead of irerifirjyro from 
rifidat. Also instead of -ajToi, the Ionic dialect has -/arcu (instead of -^rw), 
e. g. ircvT^Tcu instead of w^wrayreu. 'Ait^kotcu, in Herodotus, from the Pcrf 
kpiyfjuu (Prcs. o^ixWo/iot) is the only example in which the rule stated § 116, 
5, is not observed. 

Rem. 2. Two Perf. and Plup. forms are found in Homer with the ending 
•9arai, -daro, from verbs whose characteristic is not 8, viz. i^MOyw {i\d») 
iX^Katuu iKiiXdisero, Od. i}, 86, and &icax^C» iuc^X^f^ dm^x^^crroi, H. o, 637 ; the 
8 seems to be merely euphonic ; yet it is to be- noted, that the reading is not 
wholly settled ; the forms i^diartu and i^pdZaro (from ^jw) must be derived 
from the stem 'PAZA (comp. ^duraartt Od. v, 150). 

Digitized by 


262 DIALECTS. [f220 

14. The third Fers. Fl. Aor. Pass, ^qa'a^ is abridged into -cy, in theDoric^ 
and also frequently in the Epic and poetic dialect, e. g. rpd^€w instead of irp4 
^fia-aar. In the Opt. this abridged form is regular in the Common langnaga 
(4 116, 7), e. g. Twp^Mv instead of rtHp^tiriffay, 

15. The third Pers. PI. Imp. Act in -rwray, and Mid. or Pass, in a^mw^ is 
abridged in the Ionic and Doric dialect (alwajrs in Homer) into -a^wrand -vdm0 
(4 116, 12), e. g. TV7n'6trrwy instead of rvwrirwa'ctyf ircroi^i^Krwy instead of vctim- 
l^4rmray, rvwrdc^p instead of rvrria^wraof. 

16. The long mode-vowels of the Snbj., viz. « and i), are yery frequently 
shortened in the Epic dialect into o and f , according to the necessities of the 
verse, e. g. to/ur instead of t»fuy\ ^i^Ac^^a instead of -li/icda; aTp4^€u 
instead of irrat (§ 207, 4). 

17. The first Aor. Opt. Act., in the ^olic dialect ends in -cio, -cios, -cie, etc^ 
third Pers. PL -ciay, instead of -ai/u, -ais, -ai, etc., third Pers. PL -cucir. See 
4 116, 9. 

18. Infinitive. The original full form of the Inf. Act. is -/a era t, and with 
the mode-vowel, '4/iwait which is found in the Epic, Doric, and .£olic dialects. 
This form is sometimes shortened into -fity {-4fi€y) by dropping ai, sometimes 
into -yai by syncopating juc («Mc)- ^^^ i° ^^^ Epic dialect, the ending -€ip also 
is found, formed from -4fuy, and in contract verbs, and in the second Aor., also 
the endings -dtiy and -civ. The Pres., Put., and second Aor. take the mode- 
vowel c and the ending -fity, hence -ifity, e. g. Tuwr-d-fity, rwlf^/uy, ^Mfur.-^ 
Verbs in -^w and -^w, as they contract the characteristic-vowel a and the 
mode-vowel c of the Inf. ending -dfuyM, have the form -iifAtyai, e.g. yoiifitytu 
(yo^), ^iK-fifityai (^(\^a»), ipop^ifityai {^p4w). — With the ending -^fityoi corre- 
sponds that of the Aorists Pass., e. g. rvirfififvat instead of nnrnrai, ioAXur 
d^fitpcu \ so always in the Epic dialect ; but the Doric has the abridged form in 
-^ficy, e. g. nnrnjucF. — In the Pres. of verbs in -/u, the ending -fi^y and -fieym is 
appended to the unchanged stem of the Pres., and in the second Aor. Act-, to 
the pure stem, e. g. Ti^4-fi€y, Ti^4-fi(ycUf iard-fuyf lard-fityeu, 8i8^Mcy, 8i8^/icycu, 
9€ucy^fityf BeiKy^-fuyaij ^4-fuyy d^-ficyai, 8<^/ack, 96-fityai\ so also in Perfects 
derived imq^ediately from the stem of the verb, e. g. rtdydfity, fitfiduey. The 
following are exceptions, viz. rtb^fuyai, H. ^, 83 (with which the forms of the 
Pres. Part. Mid. ri^jfuyot, Kix^fuyos, correspond), SiSovvcu, B. 00, 425, also the 
Inf. second Aor. Act. of verbs in -a aind -v, which also retain the long vowel 
(4 191, 2), c. g. (rr4-/Acyai, ^-/tcMu, 8d-/Afvcu, instead of ffrriyxu, 8t;rai. 

19. Besides the forms in '4fi(yai and -^/ack, the Doric dialect has one in -er 
abridged from these, e. g. iyty instead of &y(ty ] Put hpyuicfv instead of opM^ 
vtiv \ second Aor. lUy instead of iZuv^ \a$iy instead of Xo/Seu'* etc. In the • 
Doric of Theocritus, the Mo\. Inf. ending -i|k is found, c. g. x^f^pV^t wcond 
Aor. XafiTiyf instead of x"*^?*^^* \afieiy. 

20. The Inf. ending of the Aor. Pass, -^fityaij -^a^v, is abridged into -iiy in 
the Doric writers, yet only after a preceding long syllable, e. g. /ud^a&riy instead 
of -diiyai. The Inf. ending of the Perf. Act. varies between -iiy and -fir in 
the Doric and iEk>lic writers, e. g. rt^tt^Kijy, y*y6y€Uf instead otr^trnvK^vm^ 

Digitized by 



21. Participle. The JEolic dialect has the diphthong oi instead of ov before 
•- in participles, and at instead of d, e. g. r^wrwy^ r^irroio-o, r^wroy, Ax^mto, 
A«vo«m instead of -owra\ rv^s, -Mva^ instead of r^r, -cura (4i 201, 2. and 
207, 1). The Epic dialect can lengthen tlie accented o into w in the oblique 
cases, e. g. /ucfiadros, Tt^vuras. — The Perf. Act. Part., in the Doric dialect, 
sometimes takes the ending of the Pres., *e. g. Trt^pUcovm instead of irc^pix^rcs. 

} 221. Epic and Ionic Iterative form, 

I. The Ionic and particularly the Epic dialect, and not nnfrcqnentlj, in 
imitation of these, the Tragedians, hare a special Impf and Aor. form with the 
ending •o'le or, to denote an action often repeated, or continued. This is called 
the Iterative form. It is regnlarljr without the augment 

S. It is generallj found onlj in the Sing, and in the third Pei«. Fl. Ind. of 
the Impf. and Aor., and is inflected like the Impf.; for in the Impf. and 
second Aor. Act. and Mid., the endings -<ricoy, •<ricef, <r«c(r), ><rjc^fii7r, -<r«ov(co, cv), 
•^KCTo, preceded by the union-Towel c, are used instead of -ov, -^/i^y, and in the 
first Aor. Act. and Mid. the endings -fluracov, -turicdfiiir are used instead of -a, 
■d/airy e. g. 

(a) Impf. Scrc^co'Kor, j^/\-€0'ircs, cir-€0'jcc(K), ircA-^irircro, fiovic-icKamro, In 
Terbs in -^, •^Uo'jcovls abridged into -oo-icor, which, according to the necessities 
of the verse, can be again lengthened into -doffKOVy e. g. pucda-KOfuVf yaierdBur- 
Kow. Verbs in 4c» have -Ucmv and •eo'icoy, e. g. itoA^-co'kc, fiovmoKiwM \ otx^te- 
icov, wXdcKvro, icaXdaKtro ; when the verse requires, -^taieov can be lengthened 
into -^UcKWi e. g. ptiKtitenov ; verbs in -^ do not have this Iterative form 
among the older authors ; verbs in -fu omit the mode-vowel here also, e. g. 
ri^-CKovy tiZo-iTKovy 9€iKvu-o'KO¥ ] iu somc verbs the ending -aurKov has taken the 
place of -WKoVy e. g. plwr-affKoy^ Kp^rr-ourirov, from ^Itrru^ Kpvrrw, 

(b) Second Aor. cA-co'kc, fid\-€<rK€, ^vywKt ; in verbs in -/u, without a mode- 
vowel, e. g. arA'CKt (= Ifonj), xaptfidaM (= irap^/9iy), 8^frc, S^irt ; also an 
Iterative form of the second Aor. Pass, is found, viz. ^dtrwKt instead of l^^t 
II. A, 64. Od. /i, 241, 242. • 

(c) First Aor. ixAa-aj^KWy a^o'-ao'iccy, £<r-a<rirc, lunttr-daKero^ iyv^v-ofict 
(instead of kyiwh^wrK* from hrp^Utt), 

k 222. Contraction and Resolution in Verbs. 

L The Epic dialect. In tha Epic dialect, verbs in -lU, -/«, -^, arc subject 
to contraction, but by no meaus so generally as in the Attic. The contraction 
is made according to the general rales, with a few exceptions, as will be seen in 
the following remarks. 

A. Verbs in -^a». (1) In these verbs, the uncontracted form occurs only in 
certain words and forms, e. g. xipoov^ kotwicImv^ veuerdovcri ; always in 6Ail«, and 
in verbs which have a long a for their characteristic, or whose stem is a mono* 
lyllable, e. g. Snfr^r, Tturimy, txf^^ ^XP^^ (^i^™ XP^t ^ attack) 

Digitized by 


264 DIALECTS, [f22? 

(2) In some words, a is changed into e, viz. /MiwCrcoir from /ufojmU», ^ftw 
from &rrdU, 6/i6k\9ov from 6fu>K?Jw, Comp. ^ 201, 1. 

(8) Instead of the nncontracted and contracted forms, the contracted sjllable 
is resolved, as often as the measure requires it j this is done by inserting a simi- 
lar vowel, commonly shorter, more seldom longer, before the vowel formed 
by contraction ; in this way, a is resolved into dd or ad, and w into o« or m* 
(^ 207, 2). The short vowel is used here, when the syllable preceding the 
contracted one is short, e. g. (Spw) 6p6t» ; but if this syllable is long, the long 
vowel must be used on account of the verse, e. g. iifi^iwra. The resolution does 
not take place with the vowel d before a personal-ending beginning with r, 
C. g. Spa-TtUt ^pfi-To, Thus : — 






























Remark 1. In Od. (, 343, the form tpifoi (from 6pi«u) occurs instead of the 
6prtai^ which Eustath. cites. In the following. Dual forms, etc is contracted into 
i| : TpostmMrniVf cvKti^v^ trvyayrfiniv, ^it^tv}!' instead of -drriy ; so also in the 
two verbs in -^», dfUMprrrniyj &rciA.^n}y instead of -tiniv. 

4. When rr comes after a contracted vowel, a short vowel may be inserted 
between rr and such a contracted sylhible, e. g. ^/Si^ovra instead of iifi&rra, 
yt\^vT(Sf fiy^omo'j in the Opt. also, the protracted -a»oi instead of -^ is found 
in Tifidoifu (instead of iifidoifu =: iifi^/u). The following are anomalous forms: 
pvufrducra (instead of -Swra), <rdw, second Fers. Imp. Frcs. Mid. and third Pers. 
Sing, Impf Act. from^SAfi, to save. 

Hem. 2. On the Inf in -^ntvcu of verbs in -cU and -cw, see § 220, 18, and on 
the Epic-Ionic contraction of oi} into w, see § 205, 5. 

B. Verbs in -^w. To this conjugation belong also all Futures in -4m and 
•^ofuu, all second Persons in -co, -coi, and -iicu, second Aor. Inf. Act in -^cir, 
and the Ao% Pass. Subj. in -^a» and -cf». 

(1) Contraction does not take place in all forms in which c is followed by the 
vowels w, w, 1}, p, 01, and ov, e. g. ^iKdwfity, ^iKioi/u, etc. ; yet such nncontracted 
forms must commonly be read with Synizesis. In other instances, the contrac- 
tion is either omitted according to the necessities of the verse, e. g. ^xAcci, 4p4it 
Fut., irpwdowra Fut., fia\4tiv second Aor. Act., Ttwiw^oL Fut. Mid., luyUtvi 
second Aor. Subj. Pass. ; or contraction takes place, and then, when co is con- 
tracted, it becomes cv (^ 205, 1), e. g. a/pc^/iii}v, atrtvy, yivev ; except ky^p^irrow 
and iir6p^ow. 

(2) Sometimes the open c is lengthened into ci (§ 207, 1), e. g. frcXc/cro, 
M\uoy, T\tUiy, ixytlv] — 9afi%tw instead of So/aA, fiiyttji instead of iwyp 
(second Aor. Subj. Pass.). 

(3) In the ending of the second Pera. Sing. Pres. Mid. or Pass., two Epsilons 
coming together are either contracted, as in the third Pers., e. g. av^^^-cai 
B /tv^cicu, like /Aut^circu, ycZai, like pcircu, or one c is elided, e. g. /tMtu, 

Digitized by 


i 222.] conthaction and resolution in verbs. 26^ 

«o»x/<u. This elision commonlj occurs both among the Epic and Ionic wiiter*, 
in. the second Pcrs. Impf. and Imp. Prcs. Mid. or Pass., e. g. ^fiio, ixio, oArio, 
i^rry^o. In such coses, tho accent is on tho penult, whether the word ends with 
^ or -co (§ 220, 10). 

Heh. 3. On the irregolar contraction in tho Dual, see Rem. I ; on tho Inf. 
in WSyuMu, SCO 4 220, 18. 

C. Verbs ia-6». These verbs follow either the common rules of contrac- 
tion, e. g. yowovfuu, yovvovcbatj or they are not contracted, but lengthen o into 
», and then the forms of verbs in '6<a resemble those of verbs in -cU, e. g. 
lZp6owTay tdp^vaa, tirv^rras (comp. ^/S^Soyro, 4 above) ; or they become wholly 
analogous to verbs in -d(«, since they resolve -owi (third Pers. PI. Pres.) into 
'6»<riy -owTo into '6vtfTo, and -oi«v into -Sqttv, and consequently suppose a 
contraction like that of verbs in -dU: {iif>Uv<ri) iipowri hp66oai (comp. 6p6wn), 
(^Uwro) hfimhrro 97iX6»pro (comp. ^p^wrro), {hiUot€v) it, kiv Si^i^y ci' (comp. 
6p^€v). But this resolution into '6u or -wo is confined to such forms as admit 
it in verbs in -^m ; hence, c. g: the Prcs. hpo7s^ iLpoT, apom, and the Inf. itpavv, do 
not admit this resolution. 

n. Ionic dialect. (1) In the Ionic dialect, only verbs in -<(» and '6w suffer 
contraction ; verbs in -^w commonly omit it, except the contraction of -co and 
'€ou into -cv, which frequently occurs (§ 205, 1), e. g. ^iXttfitv instead of ^Mo- 
ficy = ^iXovfUPf i^tXfify instead of i^i\€0¥ =^ i<plkovy, ^iXcS instead of ^t\4o» 

(2) The uncontracted forms exhibited in tho table (§ 135) of tho second 
Pers. Sing. Pres. and Impf. Mid, or Pass, in -^17, -dji^ -^p, -^ow, -rfow, -Sov^ c. g. 
4>t\t7iy Tt/idp, fiurd^i <pi\46vy Tifidovy fiur^6ovy etc., are found in no dialect, and 
are presented merely to explain the contraction. For even the Ionic writers 
use hero the contracted forms of verbs in -du and '6u, e. g. n/i^, fuffboTy rifu^^ 
/lUT^ody etc. ; but of verbs in -/«, as also in barytone verbs, they do not use the 
endings -p, -ovy but -ecu, -co, c. g. t^»t-c«, irvwr-to^ ^iX^-cou, i^iX4'(o, — On tho 
elision of c in the ending -^co, see above, No. 1, B (3). 

(3) Verbs in -du follow the common rules of contraction ; but in the uncon- 
tracted form, the a is changed into c, e. g. Sp^tOy hpiofitv instead of 6/k(«, xp^rrou, 
XpiovToi instead of xp^^ ^^^' Comp. ^ 201, 1. 

(4) Ao in the uncontracted forms is frequently lengthened into iu (§ 207, 3), 
c. g. xpinvTOiy iKT€€0irrOf hpiwrts^ vttpt^fupos instead of (xpdoprcu) xp^^^^ 

(5) The change of the a into c, ns in ^p^w, explains the usage among tlic Ion. 
writers of sometimes contracting ao and eiov, and also co and tov in verbs in 
-^w, into -cv (§ 205, 1), e. g. updntw instead of §\p^aovy ytXtvtra in -(tend of 
ythdoxfva^ h,yaTfvin-ts instead of hyatriovrts. So also in the Doric di:iU'rt, c. g 
7cAcum instead of ycXcCovcri. This contraction into cv instead of ou is often 
found even in verbs in -^a>, c. g. 8iirouci;0't instead of (^iKau6ov<ri) tixauovci, 
SwroucDr instead of Sikcuoui^, ^Suco/cvy, ffr€<pay(vyTtu from oTtfpaySa, 

(6) In Ionic prose, the Epic resolution is found but seldom in vtrbs in -dot, 
e. g. KoiUwriy ^op6vyTOy Ilcr. 


Digitized by 


266 DIALECTS. [i 223 

m. Doric dialect. (1) Contrary to the common nsagc of the Doric, at and 
aci nre contracted into ri and 17 (f 205, 3), c. g. ri/iifrc instead of ri/i^rc ==■ 
Ti/ioTc, <poiT^5 instead of ^irf f, 6priif instead of dpay. The Inf. is written 
without an i snbsmpt, as the uncontracted form originally ended in -air 
Comp. also II. 5, also ^ 134, S. 

(2) The Inf. of verbs in -^w has a double form, either the abridged form in 
-cV instead of -cu', e. g. iroUi^ instead of TOicTir, or according to the analogy of 
verbs in -cU, a form in -^y (from -driy), e. g. ^tXrjy instead of ^t\4tty = ^c<r, 
KOfffiyiy instead of KpfffuiVf ^poy^y instead of ^poyttv. 

(3) In the Doric and ^olic dialects, -ao^ -oov, and -am are contracted Jito a 
(§ 205, 2), e. g. reiiw/Aes instead of wfiy&fAty (ircif^^jucy), Ttiyarri instead of 
v«ir(i-ov)d-o'i, y€\ay instead of y^{Jb-cty)ciyf ^uoearrts instead of fua{drc)A-yT9S. 

Rem. 4. On the contraction into -cv instead of -ov, see ^ 205, 1. — A striking 
peculiarity of the Doric dialect, especially of the later Doric as used hj The- 
ocritus, is, that it frequently has a long a even in the inflection of verbs in •^. 
c. g. Mvcura instead of Mvnaa from ww4u, i^txaffa instead of i^lktiaa from 

♦ 223. Formation of the Tenses, 

1. Besides the verbs mentioned (§ 130), die following also in the Homeric 
dialect retain the short characteristic-vowel in forming the tenses, viz. irorew, to 
have a grudge; ytuciv^ to quarrel ; ravtm^ to stretch ; ipt»t to draw. On the con- 
trary, Jvoiy^A), to approve^ has hrjyi(ffa, 

2. In the Fut. and first Aor. Act and Mid. of pure verbs, which retain the 
short characteristic- vowel in forming the tenses, and in the same tenses of verbs 
in -C», 'tr<r<0 (-ttw), the 9 can be doubled in the ending, in Homer and other 
non- Attic poets (§ 208, 4), e. g. iydKourat^ iroTC0'<ri^yos, 6fA6<raaiy frcbruo-o'c, 
^ucdfftraif KSfjuccf. 

3. The form of the Attic Fut. (§ 117) occurs in the Homeric dialect in verbs 
in -t^w, e. g. KT^ptovo'ij i.y\aX€7ffdai, together with the common Futures bpidec^- 
/itVf Howpiffffovrts^ Koyiffffown[v). From verbs in -^oi, -<£», -^, Horl forms 
Futures which are similar to the present of these words^ viz. in verbs in -/», ho 
often uses the ending -^00 instead of -^o-w, e. g. irop/«, B. ;^, 379. KopUts, II. r, 
831. fMx^oyrai^ II. /3, 366; — in verbs in -iia», after dropping V, he places before 
the vowel formed by contraction, a corresponding short vowel, e. g. AytWtf, 
iK6vffit 9afxd^ ; — in verbs in - ^ a», ipltowi and rayCowri are found. 

4. In the Doric dialect, all verbs in - (w take { instead of a in those tenses 
whose characteristic is <r, i. 0. in the Fut. and Aor.^ e. g. Zuciiwy 8urci|w, ^S/ira^a, 
instead of 8i«e^«, HUatra, But the other tenses of verbs with the pure charac- 
teristic 8, follow the regular formation, e. g. iiucdff^yy not Hucdx^'^' '^^'^ 
peculiarity of the Doric appears even in certain verbs in -<£», which, in forming 
the tenses, retain the short a, and in this respect are analogous to those in -(••, 
which likewise have a short vowel, e. g. ytxAu, iy4\a^a instead of iyiXaoa^ yet 
not viicdU, yiica(», but yiKSurw (Att. yucfi<rw). In Doric poetry, the regular form 
01 all these wonls can be used, according to the necessities of the metre. 

i. The following verbs in -fa have, in Homer and the Ionic dialect. | instead 

Di^tized by 



of o', thrOQgh tho whole foHhation, viz. hfipordtwyio wander; AAavfi^w, to 
empty, Fat. aAaircE{a», etc. (so also Xenoph. An*. ). 1, 29) ; dvoTraKlfuj to siiake; 
9ut(w,todivideiioptaiode(Uh; iy^vaKtCv^to give; 4yapi{»,togpoiladead 
enemy; ^pv\\i{o9yto break in pieces; fi9pfiiipt(M9 to reflect; ircXc/A/C»> ^ 
ahake; iro\€fil(»9 to contend; arv^tXlfw^to tndte. 

6. Liquid verbs in. -at if u, which in the Attic dialect form the Aor. with the 
crnding -aw a instead of -i)m (§ 149, Rem. 2), hare d in the Doric, and iy in the 
£pic and Ionic The following liquid verbs, in the Epic and poetic dialect of 
all periodSfform the Fat and first Aor. with the ending -<r» and -a a, viz. 
ir/AAtf, to land (ic/A^oiy comp. k4vccu from k€vt4v, to goad) ] clX«, to crowd 
together {tXtrai) ; ic6po9, to meet, tofaU vpon; kpaplvKm (*AP-A), to fit (^pva^ $^w) ; 
6p-pvfUt to excite {fyaaa, ipira) ; tm^^ipuf to dettrog {Zmp^^pom in Homer) ; 
icc(pw, to shave (licepira in Homer, but first Aor. Mid. iKtipdfoiy) ; f^pv, to mix^ to 
knead (^^a», HfvpaOf vt^ipoofiai^ Epic and old poetic; second Aor. Pass. 
if^ptify in Lacian, who also has tbe poetic Pcrf. wi^fuu, while in prose, the 
verb ifwpduf i^ipetaoj Tt^^pofiout etc., is used). The Opt o^iWeur, Od. ^,.334. 
IL ir, 651, is formed according to the usage of tho ..Solic. 

7. To verbs which form the Fnt. without the tense-charactbristic a {^ 154, 4) 
belong the following forms of the Epic dialect : fidofuu or fitlofioi^ second Pers. 
0ip, I shaU live, perhaps from jSofvw, to go^to live, also from AAO, to know, to 
learn, and KEIfi (icctftoi, to lie down), 9^, 9^us, S^oftcy, S^erc {I shall view, find), 
and Ktt» or k4», mUiuv^ ictlwv, xiwy. 

8. To verbs which form the first Aor. without the tense-characteristic ir 
(§ 154, 7) belong the following forms of the Epic and poetic dialect: x^«» <o 
pour outjfx*^ (Homer; Att lx«a) ; o'c^, to shake, ttrceva and ivtrtvdfiiiv . 
(Homer), itk^ofuu and iiKt^fuu, to avoid, 4iX€6ctTo, etc. (§ 230) ; xaivf to bum, 
Urja, Ifircia Epic, fxea Tragic (^ 230). 

9. To verbs which have an active form for the Fut. Per/. (§ 154, 6), belongs 
also the Epic xex^V^^ (with ir«x«^^/*^)) ^s^*^ bejogfid, from x^^f^* 

10. The exchange of the endings of the second Aor. with those of the first 
Aor. (§ 154, 7) is somewhat frequent in tlie Epic dialect, e. g. fiaiim, to go, 
^ /3 ^ <r c T o, Imp. ^oto ; Zitoiuu^ to plunge, ^StSertro, Imp. Sverco, Part. 9wr6fifyos ; 
iyu, to lead, &|eT«, i^4pL€y ; hcv^o/uu, to come, T^oy; i\4yfiity, I laid myself doiL-n 
to sleep, Imp. X^|o, \^{co; ipyv/u, excito. Imp. Bpoto, Cpcev, ^^pa», to bear, 
ofv'f {otos is also Att), otversy olcfrv, oUrdyr^yy ola^fiey, oMfityat', &(/8«i, to 
sing, Imp. &c(o'co. 

11. Several second Aorists, in Homer, arc formed by a Metathesis of tnc 
consonants (§ 156), in order to make a dactyle, e. g. HBpaxoy instead of i9apKo» 
(from i4pK0fuu), hrpo^y (from jrip^te), Upalboy (from Zap^Jofv), Hffifiporov 
(instead of liftaproy from kiMprdyn). For tho same reason Homer syncopated 
the stem (§ 155), e. g. iiyp6fifyos from kytpio^aa. {iyttp^i to collect) ; typtro, 
fyp€o (Imp.), iypoiro, iyptcrdat (with the accent of the l*rcs.), iyp6fA€vos from 
iytp4<rbm {iyitpu, to wake) ; mSfitiy, ivT6faiy, mio^axy 7rr6fityos (Wrofioi, tc 
fly) ; ixiKXero, tcdnKtro, K€K\6fjLtyos (if«Xof«ai, to summon, excite) ; v^ipyoy, (•vf^yot 

12. In the first Aor. Pass. Homer inserts a y, according to the neccsbitics of 

Digitized by 


268 DIALECTS. [i22Z 

the verse, not only as oilier poets (f 149, Sem. 4f in Kpitm and Kktm (Smmcmv 
difre, irptyftc/t, ^jcXd^), bat also in t8f><W, to establiskf and irv^, to 6^ (i9ptVdi|V 
and ifyv^fi^j it^uryivdri). 

13. Homer forms a first Perf. only from pure verbs, and such impare rerbs 
as in the tense-formation assume an c (§ 166) or are subject to Metathesis 
(4 156, 2), e. g. xoip» Ktx^iM (from XAIP£-n), fid}Jiv fi4fi\iiKa (from. BAA). 
Except these, he forms only second Perfects (which belong commonly to 
intransitive verbs, or have an iatransitive signification) ; bnt even in pnie verbs 
and in the impure verbs mentioned above, he rejects the « in certain persons 
and modes, and regularly in the Part. ; in this way, these .forms become analo- 
gous to those of the second Perf. These participles either lengthen a and c into 
97, e. g. /3«/9api|^f, burdened (from B^PEfi), Kticofni^s, satisfied (from xopi-ypviu), 
KtKorn^Sf enraged (from kot^«), tctn^c&s, troubled (from TIEU), TcrAi}d(r, enduring 
(from TAAA), KtKwtni^St gasping^ breath (from KA«En), Ktiqu^Sj wearied (from 
Mdfuw), vfwrtidts (from wrfi(r<r»j to ^irink through fear), r^vriAs, KWT^6ri, icfxa- 
ori^s (from x"^) 't — o' ^^y i^tain, tboujsh more seldom, the stem-vowel without 
change, e. g. fitfi&^s (from /ScJvw, BAO), ^KyrySa/uk (from ytyvofuUi TAfi), 8c8&is 
(from SiSio'icw, AAA), irc^i^via (from ^vw), i<rr&^s (from Ximifu, 2TAA), fit/tb&^s 
(with ntftoAs and fitftaSr^s from MAA). The accented o of the oblique cases 
can, in the first instance, according to the necessities of the verse, be lengthened 
into w, hence r6dyi|<(ro» and -wrof, Tcdmj^ra and -dro, ic€«c^i|^a and -ttra] but 
when the Nom. has a short penult, w is always used (except in 4<rr&^ros), e. g. 
fiefi&jShos, The ending -c&s, formed by contraction, is resolved, by t in rnrrcMra 
(from T/irrci), r^yt&rt^ and according to the necessities of the verse, c can be 
• lengthened into ei, e. g. r^tiSerou The feminine form -a»<ra is found only in 
fiifiwroj Od. V, 14 ; in some feminine forms, the antepenult, which properly would 
be long, is shortened on account of the verse, e. g. itpS^a (Fem. of hpfii^s from 
&/Mipf<rKa>), fi9fi&Kv7a (of fUfiiiKAs^ from fiT^xdofJuu), r^^akvTa (of r«j^A^f, from 
^dWa), XcX&rvta (of XcXi/k^s, from A^icw), ir€irS^wa (from «c(^x<»)* 

Hemark 1. The form resolved by e, in the Ionic dialect, has become the 
permanent one with some participles, e. g. kvr^&s ; so r^v^^s (never r^Mts) 
and rt^vuK&s from ribmiKa^ remains even in the Attic dialect In these forms, 
the w remains through all the cases, e. g. 

loTccf;, l(rrcakra, iart^s, Gcn, Ioycwtoi, -^^s 
rcdi'cflSs, Tcdyc«M'a, rt^t^s, Gen. rc^yec^o;, -^vrii, 

B4firiKa and r^Ai^xa never have these forms. Comp. § 193, Rem. 3. . 

14. Some verbs, which in the stem of the Pros, have the diphthong «v, 
fsUoitcn it in the Epic and poetic dialect into C, in the Perf. IVIid. or Pass., and 
in the first Aor. Pass., e. g. 

trcui^ofuu, to ask, ir4rv<riiai\ o-c^, to s/ioXre, Mid. and Pass, to hasten, tcvt" 

fxaij first Aor. Pass. itrat^Tiv] Tewx« (poct.), paro, Perf. rtrvyfiai. Aor. 

ir^X^^'^'^ ^f jJtw, to^e, Perf. T^^vyii4vos, 

Rem. 2. X^« (formed from x^^*** X«^»)> '^ P^^^ <^"'» follows the analogy of 
these verbs, in the forms K4xvKa, ir/x^juoi, ix^^y \ these forms have been trans* 
ferred to the Common language also (^ 154, Rem. 1). Contrary to the analogy 

Digitized by 


i 224. CONJUGATION IN -fU. 269 

inst stated, the v is long in the Homeric form iriirwfuu from wy4m {9p4Fm), to 

Rem. 3. In Homer, Od. <r, 236, the third Fers. Opt. Flap. XeXvro instead of 
XcX^iTo is found, according to the analogy of inr/yvro, Baivvro, 

Rem. 4. The Homeric Perfects iucaxhfifyosy ikaX-fifitros, ii(»ip^fJ^os^ 4\ji?id/ii- 
yoSi &frix^^<^> i^A\'nff^Uf have the accentuation of the Fres. 

♦ 224. Conjugation in -/»*, 

1. On the lengthened form of the second Fers. rtdii<r^ 8(8010*;^ see § 220, 
2; on the Iterative forms in -o-icor, see ^ 221 ; on the Inf. forms in -/leyoi, -fc«#, 
see 4 220, 18. 

2. In the Epic, Ion., and Dor. writers, some verbs in -/tu in the second and 
third Fers. Sing. Fres. and Impf., frequently have the contracted forms of ycrhs 
in -dm and -6» (§ 172, Rem. 8), e. g. ri^tiSt ri^7^ 9i8o7f, 8i8o7, irt^ei, 49iSovs, 
/8(8ov, tci; — contracted forms of limi^ are very rare, e.g. Itt^ instead of 
toTTiffi, Her. 4, 103. In the second Aor. Opt. Mid. the Ionic writers have the. 
resolved form ^co^/Aijy, as if from eEA, e. g. wposd4otTOy Tposd4oiadt, 

3. In the Epic dialect, vcrhs in -v/u form an Opt, not only in the Mid., as 
sometimflg in Attic writcra, e. g. fioiyDro, II. », 665. (comp. XcAvro, § 223, Rem. 
3), from idyufuuf but also in the Act, e. g. Mvfity (instead of Mvltifjtty) from 
1x8^, <p^ (instead of ^Wij) from ^6»; so ^«b, <p&iTo Opt of i<p&ifiriy from 

4. The tliird Fers. Fl. Impf. and second Aor. in -^ffaa^y -ri-trayj -o^ayj -m-ffw 
'iMrMfi are abridged in the Epic and Dor. dialects into -cv, -4y, -oy, -i/i^, e. g. 
ht^ty instead of ^rfi^co'ai', lil^ci^, b4y instead of l^^ttrw ; t^rdy, <rriy instead of 
fffrriccaft ^djtv instead of H^driffoy^ ^fiw, fidy instead of Hfivia-ay] fUtSoy, Ziioy 
instead of ^8(800*01^, ^oy, 8^y instead of t^ocay ; $^vy instead of t^Ocw, 

5. The second Fers. Sing. Fres. Imp. Act has in Hom. the common form 
ton;, but B. 1, 202. nMcra ; tot£^ci in Theoc. instead of xvridts or irp6s&n 
from TieEA. — In the second Fers. Sing. Fres. and second Aor. Mid. Imp., 
Homer rejects the <r and admits the nncontracted form even when it could be 
contracted, c. g. ^aiyvoy ijuifwao^ ^«(o, (t^^^co, ty^o, — In the Ion. dialect, the first 
a of the ending -wrm^ second Fers. Mid. or Fass., is changed into c, after the 
rejection of the 0-, e. g. ^rro-rrai, 8^ycai, instead of ^((rrao-u, 8^00*01 ; hence 
the contracted forms ixicrp in the Ion. poets, and also 8^yp (§ 172, 2) in the 

6. The short stcm-vowcl is sometimes lengthened before personal-endings 
beginning with ft. and y, according to the demand of the measure, c. g. rid^fic- 
yos ; tOowm ] so also 8(8m;^i, Uri^i instead of Ik&^t, 

7. The third Fers. Sing. Subj. has often in the Epic dialect the ending -<ri 
(4 220, 4), e. g. i^ai and 8fl%<n (instead of 8^), nt^tjtiri, 

8. The contracted Subj. of verbs with the characteristic a and c, is sometimes 
resolved by c in the second Aor., Epic dialect, and regularly in the Ion. 

(a) Verbs in -a {IffTTjpu) : — 

(Itrrdr^ ItfrS Ion. Itrri-m^ lari-ps^ lffr4'»tity, '^-iirty -i-mvi 
(m(-) arS$ " <rr^-w, ifri'^fs^ vri^viuy^ etc. 

Digitized by 




[4 2'24 

Keuark 1. So also in Herod.: irpocor^c and itrrdaat^ iar^^s, instead of 
^uurif 'oAs, Gren. iartinos, Ncut. iarvisf Fern, lo-rctfo-o. So also in the At4 
rc3irci6s (with Tci^io^Kc^j), rci^f'ccMra, Tc<^c<6f, Gen. rtbywros. 

(b) Verbs in c {ri^fu) : — 

Tii^ Ion. Tt^4-»f ri^4-jfSt ri^4-«fjLty, '^ifrt, 'i-^tvt 
rAwfim ** Ti^d^fuUf rA4-pt etc. 
^ " ^d-w, dl^Sj ^4-«tu¥^ etc. 
^t»M ^ ^-^/MM, etc 

Rem. 2. Hero also the two Aorists of tho Pass, of all Tcrbs aro like tho 
verb rldriiUf e. g. 

-qs Ion. Tvir^w, -^s, -4wfjM^f -/ifrf 
§{fp€^f -p5 ** e^pc^^w, -^iff » etc 

(c) Verbs in o (8(8c»/u) ; the contracted second Aor. Subj. ij "csolved in 
ilomer by means of m, e. g. i^iwri instead of 9wrt, 

9. In the Snbj. second Aor., Homer nses the following forms, according to 
the natnre of the verse : — 


liesolved and lengthened forms, 

Sing. 1. 


tfT^«, trrtiw, fitiotuu 






ar^f it^fiiip, ^^, ^difjf 




rinr. 1. 


iTT^wjuey (dissyllable) artlofitp, Korafitiofj^p 






irT^«flri(y), Tfpurrfi»a-if II. p, 95. 

Sing. 1. 


^4u, MeOf 8a/&c(a» 



^4iist 3^pf , and ^tlps 
»^p, ^U M?7. and./i6&«fp 





Plur. 1. 


^4o»fUP, ^fiofity 



;^7aKri(y), M»<r<(v) 



Sing. 1. 






8(^(rt(y) and 8<^ 

Plur. 1. 








Rex. 3. The resolution by means of c is fonnd in verbs with tho stcm- 
vowcls a or e; the c is commonly lengthened, (a) into ci before an o sonnd j 
(b) into 17 before ri in verbs with the stem-v&wcl a; (c) sometimes into ci, some- 
times into ri before n, in verbs with the stem-vowel c. Verbs with the stem- 
vowel are resolved by «. 

10. The Impf irtdriyt or commonly iTt^ovy^ has in the Ion. the form iri^ta 
(liice irrr^^ta Ion. instead of irtr^iyf \ 220, S)^irldfts, -c<, etc. 

11. In Homer, a shortened form of the first Aor. ((rrriaay, is found, namely, 
loTcuroy, theif placed, II. /*, 56. Od. 7, 182, <r, 307 ; also corip-e (with the variation 
fimrrc), n. 8, 243, 246, instead of coYftrc (lirH^wcirc). 

Digitized by 


ft 225, 22G.J CONJUGATION IN -/U. HlfU, TO BE. — Et/it, TO GO. 271 

12. In tho third Pcrs. PI. Mid. or Pass, the y before the personal-endings -roi 
and -TO is regnlarly changed, by the Ion. writers, into a (§ 220, 13), o. g. 

Tt^daroi, 9tZ6aTtti, i9€Ucv6aro I09., instead of ri^trreuj etc. 
Bat when an a precedes the y, tho a is changed into c, and y into a, e. g. iariwnu 
Ion., instead of Irrtumi^ i<rr4aro Ion., instead of larttyro, 

13. The third Pen. Sing, in the Doric is -ri, 0. g. lijTari, rOTrrc, SISmti, Sc^k- 
rwTi, and the third Pers. PI. ends in -rr«, e. g. forib^f, Ti;^^Kn, SiS^kti, 8«iici^irn. 

14. The forms of tho first Aor. Mid. i^Kdfiiiy and iJkoKdfAlly and tho Part. 
diiKdfitpos arc found in the Ion. and Dor. writers ; on tho contrary, tho Att. 
writers use hero also, the forms of the second Aor. Mid. Tho remaining 
Modes, as also tho Part HotKdfLtws, arc not found. 

15. From 8J8c»;u, Homer has a reduplicated Put ttS^ofiw and 8i8c^cir. 

♦ 225. EifiC CES-), to be. 


ififd .Ai^l.,. instead of iir-fd 
iffffi Epic, also Eur. Hcl. 1250. 

th Ion. 
irri Dor. 

tlfi4v Epic and Ion. 
iffri regular 
lairt(i>) Epic and lon^ irri Dor. 

Inf. ffjLtroL, $ftfitvai, fficv, ffifuy Epic 
^fup or li/ust fl/iw or c7/ic; Dor. 


1. Ifw "Ep. and Ion. furtlv Ep. 

2. I|7f Ion. 

3. In, rfp<r«(»'), ?<ri(i»), cTp Epic, lij 
Ep. and Ion. 

PI. Iw/icf', Inr*, l««r« Ep. and Ion. 

S. 2. $<r<ro JExA. and Epic 
P. 3. iimvy Ion. 

4A¥^ iowroy i6y Ep. and Ion. 


S. 1. 


P. 1. 



hi (comp. iri^ta), ^a, Iok, HcKoy Epic and Ion. 
Iir0';^a Epic, fat Ion. 

Ii)r Ep. and Ion. ipiy, i(cy, f0'wt(ir), Ep., i)s Dor. 
^tmiy Epic 

^ttcy or 4fi<s, cTj^cy or ttfus Dor. 
fore Ion. 

lo'ai' (lirc^ay) Epic and Ion. ; ttiro (instead of 
. ^yro) Od. V, 106. 



loi Epic and Ion. 

«7r€ Epic 
thy Epic 

/ »/. tcofuu and tceoyMt, etc. Epic, according to tho necessities of the verse, 
2. licreoi. 3. liircTou, iffthau 

Pres. Ind. S. 2. tttrba Epic, cTi Ion. 
/n/! fjueycu, tjucv Epic 

i22G. EZ/At ("I-), to go. 

SuhJ. Sing. 2. Pcrs. fyflrdo Epic 

ib;;/: Ind. S. 1. 

ffia (and ^etv) Epic and Ion., fftoy Epic 

^cr (and f9is)y Us Epic 

ffXc (and fti) Epic and Ion., <4((y) Epic, S*{y)t U{y) Epic 

Digitized by 


272 DIALECTS. [i 227 

p. 1. po/ic*' 

3. Ijtoy Kpic, fittray and Jew Epic and Ion., tffay Epic 
D. 3. Yr-nv Epic 
Opt, 6. 3. toi Epic, i((i7 II. r, 209. {^tip and cfi} U. o, 82. «, 139. Od. {» 496 

come fram ct/J). j^ 

Fut. and .dor. J/tW. ^vofuu, cXSroro, third Pen. Dual i^urdrdvyt U* o> ^44. 

Verds in -«, wuicn in the Fres., Perf., and second Aor. Act. and 
Mid., follow tub analogy of Verbs in -/u. 

i 227. (1) Second Aor. Act. and Mid. 

In addition to the Aor. fonns mentioned (§§ 191, 192), the poetic and 
especially the Epic dialect has tho following: — 

A. The Chabaoteristio is a Vowbl. 

(a) Stem- Vowel a (^iSijK, BA-) : 

$dx\w, to throwy Epic second Aor. Act. (BAA.-, HfiXriy) ^vfAfiK^ryiy, Od. ^, 15, 
Inf. ^ufifi\ifi€ifcu (instead of -nvcu), II. ^, 578 ; Epic second Aor. Mid. {^M- 
firiy) KfiXTfTo, ^^fifiXnrro, H. |, 27, Inf. $\ii<rdatf Part. fiK^fttyos, Sabj. ^vfifiKrt 
rat, jSA^crcu (instead of ^A.^cu), Od. p, 472, Opt. /3Ac7o (from BAE-, comp. 
irlfiirKfifu)^ II. If, 288. Hence the Fut. fix^icofuu, 

yjIpdtOf or yripdffKVy to grow oldy second Aor. third Pers. Sing, fy^pa, II. p, 197, 
Karrffipa, Herod. 6, 72, Inf. (Att.) yripayatj Part. (Epic) yripds. The d in 
iyflpAt etc. is nscd instead of i; on account of the preceding p. SecMipd/rKw, 
§ 192, 1. 

KT^ivwy to killf Epic and poet, second Aor. Act. (KTA-) (icrSy retains the short 
Yowcl ; thns, (tcr&fityt iier&rt, third Pers. PI. also (kt^ instead of tierSuroMj 
Subj. icT« (fii-st Pers. PI. Kriwutv Epic), Opt. Krainv^ Inf. tcrdvu, (Epic icrdfuv, 
KTdfAeyeu)i Part, tcris ; Ei)ic second Aor. Mid. with Pass, sense, kHieTaTo, 
Kriffbcut Karaicrdfi€yos, 

ovTcCctf, to vrotindy Epic second Aor. Act odra third Pers. Sing., Inf obr^uycut 
obrdfAty (the a remains short as in IvrSy) \ Epic second Aor. Mid. ovrdfuyos, 

ir€\d(w, to ajipwach^ Epic second Aor. Mid. ^tX^/ai^k, (Att. htXdftny)^ tXtjto, 

v\i]bw (vifivK'f\iii)y to JUlf Epic second Aor. Mid. H'kKtito and «-x^, fwXriyro 
also in Aristoi)h., who uses the following forms also ; Imp. irX^<ro, Part. ^^irX^ 
fityoSf Opt. ifxirXiffAviy with the variation ifATKdfitiy, as xp^lii from xp^(^) ^nd 
/SXcfO from ifiKiifiTiy (BAA-). 

»T^<r<rw, to afirinh witli fear^ Epic second Aor. Act. (IITA-) (twrr^y) KoeToarrh-nii 
third Pers. Dual. 

^i^ctf, to come be/ore, Epic second Aor. iMid. ^^dfi^yos, 

Kemark. From llfiriy {fialyw) arc fonnd in Homer the forms fi&rriy (third 
Fers. Dual) and MpficUroM (third Pors. PI.) with the short stem* vowel. 

Digitized by 


I 227.^ . . VERBS IN -6) LIKB VERBS IN -/U. ^3 

(b) Stem-Vowel c (l«riBi|y, 5BE-): 

4AA, Epic, stem of ^lidffKot, to teachy second Aor. Act. (AAE-) Mriv, I lectnied, 
Subj. 8aw, Epic Itetelvf Inf. ZariyeUf Epic Zafifityeu. 

(c) Stem-Vowel i: 

^i-vu, to consume and to vanish^ Epic second Aor. Mid. i^ffiriv, ^lardm, ^i- 
fityoSf ^iff^Uf fpM'ja/uu, Opt. ^tV4^» ^tro. 

(d) Stem- Vowel o (Iti'**', FNO-): 

fiififxiffKa, to eat, Epic second Aor. Act. Hfipwy, See § 161, 6. 
irAfiiw (Epic and Ion. secondary form of wxda), to saU, Epic second Aor. Act. 
iirXtcy, iwKufuy, Part. irAxii, Gen. rAwyros. 

(e) Stem- Vowel v {$9vy): 

kx6u (poet.), to hear, Epic Imp. second Aor. Act. KKv^t^ icAvrc ; and KiickS^h 

ircJcAvTc (k 219, 7). 
Xiw, to hose, Epic second Aor. Mid. \uto, X^rro. 
«vcMy to breatlte. Epic second Aor. Mid. (TINT-, from nv^/w, nve^w) ^^irFtrro 

instead of kyhrvvro, to breathe again, 
fffvtoj to shake, Epic second Aor. Mid. iertrAfaiyf I strove, UtravOf vino» 
X€», to /WW o«/, Epic second Aor. Mid. (XT-, from x<^«> X*^") X^^t X^f *'^*» 

B. Thb Cuabactbkibtic is a Consonant. 

&\?iofuu, to leap, Epic and second Aor. Aiid. oAo-o, Sato, iTtdXfktyoSy iirtdX/itwoSf 

Subj. &\irrai. 
&papiffKC0 (*AP-), to^, Epic ipfupoSf Jitted. 
y^yro, to take, Epic, from FtKro, tbo Digamma being changed into y and the 

radical A before t into v (§ 203, B). 
yiyyofuu, to become, poet, fyevro, yirro, 
Z4xoyMi^ to take. Epic Utierot Inf. Ux^aiy Imp. 8/{o. The first Pers. Sing. 

iUy/iriy and the Part. Biyfupos have, like the Perf. S^dry/uat, the meaning to 

expect, await* . 

i\9?J(t0f to whirl, Epic ^A^Aarro. 

iKyioiuUy to come. Epic firro, iKfuvos and iKfuyos, favoraJble. 
AEXa, to /i€ c/oim, Epic ikiyfiriy, ^Ackto, to % onc*» sc//* cfoiCTi (same sense ai 

i\€^^jL7iy), Imp. A/(o. — A^w, to coSccf, to cAotijc, to coMnf, Od. i, 335. i\4yfiriyt 

I counted myself, Od. 8, 451. A/«to ^i^idv, he counted die number, 
uia/fw, to «wV, Epic fuAydjjy (third Pers. Dual, instead of ^fuiy-tfi&iji'). 
utayot {fityyvfu), to mix. Epic fJiero, 

6py6c9 {fyyvfu), to excite, Epic Spro, Inf. [Jp&cu, Imp. 6p<ro, tpeto. Part. Spfuyos. 
ir<£AAv, to brandish, Epic ir^ro, A« sprang. 

ir4p^, to destroy, perdo. Homer usctf Ttlp^tu instead of vip^-vdm, 
niira (irfiyyvfu), to Jix, Epic irTiicro, KorimiKTo. 

Digitized by 


274 ' DIALECTS. [♦22a 

i 228. (2) Ferf, and Flup. Act, (Comp. « 193, 194). 
(a) The Stem ends in a Vowel. 

ytyyofiau, to become; rEFAA^Stem TA: Pcrf. (Sing, yiyoyot -«i -«) Epic apt! 
Iioct Y^yfififir, -*T€, •dafft{p)t Inf. Epic ytydfitw^ Port. poet. ytyJts, yty&aUf 
yeyAsy Gen. yrywros j — Plup. Epic ittytydrgiy, 

Bedjw, to go, Perf. fi^firiKo, BEBAA: Epic aad poet. PI. $4$&fuy, -Axf, 'wri{p), and 
effidoffiiv) i third Pere. PI. Subj. ififitfiwri (PI. Phacd. 252, e), Inf. fitfiiyeu. 
Part. Epic /Bc/So^f (also Attic prose fitfi^Sj Xen. Hell. 7. 2, 3), -via (iScjSwira, 
PI. Phacd. 254, b), Gen. fiefiwros (Atk. iSciSwrof ) ; — Plnp. ^/3//3a^cv, -drc, 

tc/8«, to fear; besides the forms mentioned ($ 193), the following Epic forms 
are to be noted: 8«/8i/icv» 9§l9tTt] Inf. BuBlfuy instead of 8c8i^i^ai; Imp. 
BtiBAi, 8<(8irc; — Plap. i^iiijitv, iM^ttray, 

tpxofuuf to come^ Perf. Epic ciX^Aov^a instead of ^X^Xvdo, PL tMiXov^fuy. 

btrfiffKV, to die, Perf r^i^xa, TEBNAA : PL r4^if&fu¥, r4^yiiT€, r€^affi{y). Imp. 
ri^d^if Part rel^iccif, r^rnitvtei, r^yiiK6s or r^^^As {rt^tmrau Bcmosth. 
40, 24), Tt^fAs (Epic Tc&n}cSf,.-«TOf, -ii^os). Inf. r^Miym (Aesch. rc^yoyai 
from T€dya4vai, Epic rc^^c^ci^, -c^cveu) ; Plup. ir4bv6ccaf, Opt. rtdpatriy. 

TAAn, to encfure (second Aor. IrXi^y), Perf. r^Xijiea, TETAAA: Doal r^X&roir; 
PL TirX&ftMWf rir^JLr9f T<TXa0'i(v), Imp. r^X&^i, -Arw, etc., Subj. wanting. 
Inf. TcrAitrai (Epic rerXovieK), but Part. Bpic rerKfi^s ; Plup. Dual ^r^fXaroi', 
^TrrAinjir, PL ir^Kifuyf irirKSTt, MrMffoyf Opt tctAo/iji'. 

EIAH, to s^ive, Perf /i4/Mya] MEMAA: Epic fU/juifity, -tkroy, -arty -dariiy). Imp. 
fitfi&r». Part, /ic/i&^f, Gen. /ic^i&Arof and fAtfMAros, third Pers. PL Plup. 

Here belong the two participles of 
ti^p^Kw, to eat (second Aor. tfipooy), Perf fi4$fKtKa, poet $€fip<is. Gen. -»ros; 
ifUruy to fall, TtwrctKat Epic irrrrci&f , Att poet Torres. 

(b) The Stem ends in a Consonant. 

It is to be observed in respect to the formation, that when the- consonant of 
vlie stem comes before a personal-ending beginning with t, the r is changed 
;nto df and thus these forms assume the appearance o( a Mid. form, e. g. 
Tc£^w, to persuade, Throtda, to trust, Epic Plup. iwhri^fity. Imp. in AcschjpL 

Eum. 602, wivtur^t (instead of T^irur^i). 

Hemark. Thus the Epic form Wirmri^c, stem ITENe with the variable a 
(nONe), instead of irtitoy^aTt from Tda-x^i from Ttv6y^art by dropping tlic 
connecting vowel a, comes w^vovdrt', and hence as a Tau-muto'lK*foro another 
Tau-mutc is changed into <r (4 17, 5, comp. IJ-rc = fcrrf ), irdToy^t becomes 
iTfirtuff^t, and as y is dropped before <r, ir^iroart ; finally, this form, as has been 
Fccn, assumed the appearance of the JNIid. fonn {^t) and so became irtVocr^f. 

Per/. Ind. S. 



Kixpaya, -as. 't(y) {Kpd(ut to bawl) Plup. iKtKpiytty, -€is, -€i 
KtKp&yarw xUpax^y iKticpdyttroy Uittpax^ff 

ictKpiyaroy Kixpax^ay iKtKpteY^irriy iK^Kpdx^ff 

Digitized by 


§ 229.] . VERBS IN -0) LIKE VERDS IN -/U. 275 

F. 1. mxpiyatuy KiKpayfitp ixwicpdytififv iKiKpayfitp 

2. KtKpiyaxt K^Kpax^t 4K€Kpdytvr9 ixcKpax^t 

3. K€Kpi,yauri{v) iKiKpAyttaay, 'taay 
Imp. K4Kpax^h -^X^f -^X^f ^^^' ^^' ic^Kpoyiptu, Part. KtKpay6s. 

So the Epic Fcrf. &yteya with the sense, of the Pres. I command, Apvyas^ Aytoyt, 
Fl. Ayuyfity: Imp. jbwyc and iy^x^h ityvyirw and ity^x^^i ky^ert and 
iy^tX^^i Snbj, Am^tp; Inf. ii^wy^/icy ; Flup. V<^ca* V«^« ; Opt. iiyfiyois. 

4ytipc9, to awaken^ Fcrf. iyfrtryopa (stem 'EFEP with the variable o), / am atttiJl-€ ; 
from this. Homer has the forms: Imp. #yp^o/)3c instead of iyp7iy6p€ert. Inf. 
iyfngySpdtu (as if from iy(r^yopfuu) and ^7p}77<^p3aa't(v) instead of iyfnry6pck- 
<ri(r) third Fers. Fl. 

oTSo, I know, the regular forms otScvAe*", oXSarr, olf8ao'i(y) are found bat rarely i-i 
the Ion. and Att. writers (§ 195, 1), second Fcrs. olSas in Horn, and Ion 
(rarely Att. f 195, 1 ). The form 1S-fuv is Epic, Ion., and Doric. Inf. ISfAtycu 
and tdfiev Epic, Snbj. lUv Epic instead of tlBa (Ion. ciS^), Fort. Hvm Epic 
and cISvM. 

Plup. 1. Fers. Sing, ^ca (hence* the Att. fhi) Epic instead of yZtty 

2. *' ^* i^c/Scir and i^c/8i|r Epic instead of f^tis 

3. " ^ ^c(8ei and i^c/9i7, l^'cc(v), Epic instead of ^Sci; — ffci8e, 

3. " Fl. Xaay Epic instead of fitcav. 
Fat. ciS^d'flp Epic and also tttrofuu. 
Ifoiica, 7am ^iX-c, Epic, ttxroy (Dnal), ftierriy (Flap. Dual) ; hence in Flap. Alid. 
or Fass. (Ikto. 

^ 229. (3) Present and Imperfect, 

Finally, there are certain forms of the Fres. and Impf. mostly in the Epic 
dialect, which after the analogy of verbs in -^i, take the personal-endings with- 
out the Mode-vowel. Thus: — 

Mw, to compute, in Theocritus : Impf. ty^y^^s (instead of i\yCoiuy), hnu^o (instead 

of ^t^CTo). 

roi^, to stretcli, to span, II. p, 393. Tcd'C-rcu (instead of tcu^ctcu). 

ipiw, to dmw, fyvToUf ^pvTo, tpvro, Mpwro, ^G<r3ou (§ 230). 

Vf6io, to shake. Epic Fres. o'cSrot and (by variation) covrat^ Imp. irova-a nnd 

abridged (row, aova^t, coixr^ (to move one^s seff, to hasten). The Imj). lins 

passed into the common colloquial language. 
f8«, commonly ia^lco, to eat, Epic, Inf. IS/acvoi. 
^p», to carry ^ Epic Imp. ^/prc instead of ^ptn. 

Digitized by 


276 DIALECTS. [t230 

f 230. Alphabetical List of Verbs in the Dialects 
to be specially not-ed, 

kii» (&F(tU»), to hurt^ to deceive; Horn! i^vcu', the Att. Troj^dians UdC tli« 
has the following forms: Aor.ixura fullowiiig forms: ^frta and i^fffft^y 
and 5<ra ; Prcs. Mid. harai, Aor. iotrcC- J^a, o^cu and ^^a, 3|cu. 
fiTjy, Aor. Pass, idar^v. Verb. Adj. &t» (l^p-), to ftear, only Prcs. and Im^f 
iutrSs {i.'daros). (iXoy, Comp. ^atw. 

kyalofuuj Epic and Ion. prose (^ 1G4) iixaxiCv (Epic), to trouble, stem *AXn, 
and irydofiou (Ep.), to 6p anyry a/, and second Aor. fficaxov; Pnt. &KaxVw, 
in the Pres. Epic also to (jrudgey to first Aor. iixAxntra \ Mid. iucaxiiofuu, 
envy, Fut. itydaoficu ; Aor. iiyttffdnriy, ISlxoiuu, or &x>^Ma<t to 6c «m/, Aor. 

&7cffM>, to co2^c^f Epic second Aor. Mid. iiKax^nyiv (§219, 7) ; Pcrf. iutfix^ftcu 
iryipomo, Part. &7pi{/Acvos (§ 223, 11); (§ 219, 8, comp. iLfrfipflJUU, hp^ptfjuu) 
Plup. hryny^paTo ; Aor. iy^^Tj, and hcdxr]/juu, third Pcrs. Pi. ixrix^' 
third Pers. PI. i^cp.^ci'; Epic Pres. Sorcu (§ 220, Hem. 2) and hctix^cu, 
^pihofjm (§ 162). Part, kxrix^ti^iyos and Airax^A^'^o^) Inf. 

iuyyoitt, to be ignorant, 'R^. Aor. ^TY^oUiff^ iucdxri^J^^cu (§ 223, Kcm. 4); Plup. 
(§ 207, I), dyvtitrturKf (§ 205, 5). Epic iucaxtiaro. 

iyyvfUj to break, Aor. Epic ^|a instead iucdx/Awyos (Epic), sharpened^ pointed^ 
of ^o^o ; third Pcrs. PI. Aor. Pass. from 'AKH, acuo, instead of kKdyfityoi 
&yty Epic instead of idyijffay. (§§ 19, Rem. 1, and 208, 2). The x 

ft^M, to lead, Epic second Aor. Imp. comes from the Perf Act. 
i^ere. Inf. a^4fifvcu, i^i/^y (§ 223, iucriUw, to nefflect, Aor. &k48co'c(j'). 
10) *, first Aor. Mid. fi^tur^c, S^airro, itkdoftcu, to wander about. Ep. Pcrf. &\^- 

&c(8w (prose a5w), to sing, Epic second Atj/uoi (§ 219, 8), iAoX^/Acvos, &\^i|(r- 
Aor. Imp. kelfffo (§ 223, 10). ^ai (§ 223, Rem. 4). 

iitlpw (prose atpw), to raise, Epic first ikKlkdyta, to make increase^ Epic Aor. 
Aor. Act. &upa, Mid. iifipdfiriyj Pass. ^\8ai'c(i'). 

i.4p^y ] Epic second Aor. Mid. i^ &A6|», to ^cp/) off, Epic second Aor. 
fiiji^ from o!o«; Epic Plup. ftvpro IjKaKKoy (§ 219, 7), (from 'AAKO) - 
instead of ripro with the variable ii?ia\Keiy, iLka\Kiiy ; Fut. &AaAjc^<rM. 
vowel, and transposition of the aug- iLXdofuu and &\cvo/uu (Epic), to s/tun, 
ment; Epic Pres. -^ep^d^o/uu (§ 162). Aor. ijKfudfirjy, Subj. dX^irroi, Opt, 

*AHMI, (*AE-,) to blow; in Homer, are: Ax^arro, Imp. &A^a(r<^c, Inf. &\c(^3ai 
Part. &cf5, &4yTos', third Pers. Sing. and iL\4tur^eu (§ 223, 8). 
Impf. &ri, &«(, 8id€i ('AEH) ; in the itX^aKu, aX^lffxa (Ion. prose), to /tea/, 
other forms, the ri remains contrary Fut. iX^t^w, etc. 
to the analogy of ridvfu {\ 224, 6): itkiralyw (Epic and poet.), to sin, Fut. 
&7p-oy, &^ycu, i.4ififycu ; Mid. and Pass. ii\tT^ffw ; Aor. ^Aitoi^, oAirijfiijv, 4Ai- 
iflfjuu, to blow, ySfityos ical &^MCKOf, reVi^eu ; Pcrf. oAir^/ticyor, fii'n/i// (§ 223, 
drenched with rain and beaten with tfte Rem. 4). 
wind; Impf. Mid. Arrro. &\Xofuuy to spring, Epic second Aor. 

aiSofuu and cuBtofjuau in Homer, to 2)6 Mid. oAiro, etc. (f 227, B). 

ashamed, to respect, Epic cu^ffofJLal, kKuKriw, to be in trouble. Epic Pcrf. AAo- 
TJd4ff^ and j}8c(r4/Ai7i'. A(;jcn7/tcai (§ 219, 8). 

a2w/u (En.), to toA^e (instead of olpio/juai, dAt/orjcw (Ep.), to escape, &A.^(», ^Av^a. 
4 169, Rem. 1), only Pres. and Impf. it\<paiy<» (Ep.), tojind, Sec. Aor. iA<^€rK. 

a/p€», to toi*<>, Ion. Pcrf. iipalpriKo, 6,pal- apaprdytoj to miss, Epic Aor. Ijfifiporot 
rnifjLOi (§ 219, 8);Epic second Aor. (4§ 223, 11, and 208, 3). 
Mid. yiyro instead of cA€to (§ 227, ifivKwcltrKw (Ep. and poet.), to err, Fut 
IJ). OfiirAeuf^<rft> ; Aor. HifiirKaKoy, 

ktcffca, Epic (d, but virat^ti, II. ^, 126; ayidya (Ep., jwct., and Ion.), to pleivtCy 
r) instead of ^o-(r», to n/sA, Ep. forms: Impf. idvlayov {HqvokX.), k-tivi, and 
f^i^a, Subj. it|«, Part, ii^oy ; Aor. ^vS. (Ep.) ; Aor. caSov (llcrod.), Wo* 
Piws. ^tx-^" (*^^^" i» 1'**^)' 1"*'- ^*X- (Ep.); Inf. a^uv^ Perf. cd$a; Fut 

Digitized by 



&8^ffw.-T-Aug., 4 219, 4, 5. In The- Mid. Trans., to had, t^Ticroy ifiri&d 

ocritus IdSc *, Kp. Aor. €Val6oy (§§ 219, nrjif *, second Aor. Mid. i^iiatroy Imp 

4, and 207, 3). imfiiiareo {§ 223, 10). En. secondary 

Lrfivo^t, to spring up^ Ep.'Pcrf. with form: fiifidtrbuy, to stalky strength- 

Att. UcdnpLication and the variable cncd secondary form from fiaivta\ 

o (H 219, 8, and 140, 4), from ' also /3i3f, iSi/Swyra, 3*/dw<ra and (from 

'ANEen. . BIBHMI) fiifids] tinixlly. Imp. fidffKf, 

hndwy to meety Epic 1iyr€ov [^ 222. A and Inf. iiriPcurK^iJity, 

(2)] ; inivcanirniv (\ 222, Rem. 1 ). fidXka, to throw, Ep. second Aor. fjSAiyr, 
&i/^, to complete. Epic Impfl in Theoc. iMfiriy H 227, A (a)], Eut. fi^ao^ 

iyvfifSf iy^To (4 229). ijuu ; Ep. rerf. $tfi6\rifiai (used of the 

&u(aya (Ep. and poet. l*erf ), to command, mind) ; but $4$\7tfuu (of the body). 

ivvyfi^y, Imp. &m#x^*> etc. ($228); fiap^w (Ep.), to be lieaiy, fit$a(ni^s {^223t 

Piup. iiy^€a (^ 220, 8)". In certain 13). 

forms this Pcrf. is clianged into the fitfip^ois (Ep.), to eat, instead of fit- 

inflection of the Prcs., c. g. third fip^trKots, 

Pers. Sing. &i/c^ci, Impf. Ilycoyoy and fi^ancu and /Sc/o/aox, I will go, tciU live, 

ii^ajoy] Fut. &y(^M ; Aor. <vw{a. Ep. Put. /Sri?, fit6fi€<r^a (§ 223, 7). 

&irav^ (£pic), to take away, Impf. fiidofjuu (Ep.) instead of ^i(ofuu, to 

ian}vp<»y, -of, -a ; first Aor. Act. Part, force,, ifitlfa'ttro, 0tfilriKt. 

kvovpas ; first Aor. Mid. hniipwro, fiifip<icKu, to eat, Ep. Aor. (fipwy [§ 227, 

Part, kirovpdfjityos. A (d)] ; Perf. Part. 0€fip<is, -Shot 

iofopiaKv (Ep.), to deceive, Put. kircupfi- (§228). 

(7w, second Aor. Act. J|fira^ov, Opt. ^xAvku (Ep. and poet.), to go, instead 

Mid. iacA^iTO, of fiK^KU (§ 18, 3), Aor. ifioXoy, 

&irc(Acw (Ep.), to threaten, inrtiX-ftrriy pokiiy, fioX^y (also X. An. 7. 1, 33, 

(§ 222, Hem. 1). /u$Aw<riy) ; Pcrf. /A^j;ii3\wica( instead of 

air^«/Hre, an Ep. Aor., he hurried off^ fi*ti4x.«»Ka) ; Put. fM\ovfiat, 

Subj. iacoipcjft Opt. kiroipau^, fiodu, to cry out, Ep. Aor. tfiatra instead 

fiiTTw, to join to, Ep. Aor. Pass, idupdri, of ^3<f>;«ra (§ 205, 5). 

fell on. $ov\ofjuu, to will, Ep. fiSXrrcu, $6\€adt 

kpaolffKm (Ep.), io Jit, stem APfl, first (§ 207, 4), 'irpofi40ov\a, I prefer. 

Aor. ^p<ra, &p<rai (§ 223, 6) *, first Aor. fipvx^fuu, to roar, Ep. Pcrf. fiffipvxa. 

Pass, j^ci' instead of Hipdriaay] sec- with the sense of tlie Pres. 

ond Aor. ijpapoy (§ 219, 7 ; also In- Tafi4w, to marry, Ep. Put. yofidto ; Ep. 

tnins. to be adapted, to please), more Put. yafJi4(nreTcu, 11. i, 394, will give in 

usual than the first Aor. ; Perf. fya- marriage. 

pa (Ion. Apnpa) (§219, %), I dm fitted, ydyOfuu (Ep.), to be glad, ydyvrcu] Put. 

Intrans., Ep. iip&pvta (4 223, 13), Perf. yavvffatrai. 

Mid. or Pass, hpiip^tuu, apriptjuyos TAC, Ep. Perf., yiyofity, to have become, 

(§ 223, Eem. 4) ; Aor. &pfAtyos, adapted etc. (| 228). * 

(i 227, B). 7^«i'o Ep. and poet. Perf. with the 

'APAn, ipdofuu, to pray, Epic second sense of the Prcs. to cry out; in Horn., 

Aor. ipfifAtyau, Od. Xi 322. third Pers. Sing. y4yayt (also witli 

tipyviim, to gain (§ 188, 1 ). the sense of the Aor.), Part, y^oty^s, 

'Aa, Ep., (a), to yo{&, see &i}fuj (b) to lTLi.y*;V\np.iyty^y€i. From 

sleep, Aor. Aeaa, tfo-oficy; (c) to sofw- the Pcrf a Prcs. has been formed of 

fy (also Intrans. to be satisked), Inf. which there are in Ilom. : Inf. 7C7a>- 

^ofitycu instead of &cVcvou; Put. ficwj yciv, Impf. iyeytltytvy. 

Aor. &«ra, &<raa3ai. Verb. Adj. tUros, ytiyofuu (Ep.), to 6c 6orn, fo 6c pvduccd, 

OToj. Aor. Mid. to beget, to bear, Subj. ye/* 

Baiyia,. to walk, to go, Ep. forms : Perf. ytai instead of ydrnm. 

^^fy, etc. (§ 228); second Aor. y^yro, to seize (§ 227, B). 

Dual ^rny, third Pers. PI. vrtpfia- yrjpdu, to grow old, second Aor. iyfipOi 

cay (4 227, Rem.), third Pers. PI. etc. [§ 227, A (a)]. 

tfiav, jSof (4 224, 4), Inf. ^fitvai, 7o<{« (poet.), to hw7, Ep. third Pers. PI 

Suhj. besides fiw, etc. : i8e*«, /S^jy, ^f (- Aor. y6ov. 

op.ty {^ 2V4, 9); first Aor. Act. and Aaiyvfit (Ep.), to entertain, to feed (in 


Digitized by 


278 DIALECTS. [{ 230. 

stead of do^T-yvfu, 4 169, Rem. 1), ere, to aicait (c. p;. an attack, a wild 
Fut. Zolvm ; Mid. 8aiKv/tai, to feast, to beast), in the following forms : S^x** 
ooTMume, second Pen. Sing. Impf Ind. rai instead of Sexorrcu {S 220, 13), 
8a/yv' (8a/wo instead of iZaUnwo, II. ft, 147, Perf. S^dcy/uu with the 
4 224, 5), third Pers. Sing. Opt. Zai- sense of the Prcs., Fnt. dcS^^ofuu, 
vvro instead of -^cro, third I'crs. PL excipiam, second Aor. Mid. fBcrro, 
ituyUro ; Aor. iZaiffiiiriv, etc. (§ 227, B) ; Perf Mid. ZtZoKmii- 

Sa/w, Kp., (a) to divide (S 164), Fnt. vost awaiting, lurking, II. o, 730. 
^daofAai^ Aor. (also prose) ^Scur^fiiiy; 8e^ (instead of S^F«), Ep. instead of 
VcY{.VaLS§.B49ao'fiBU,amdivided,brt^ixn, 8^«, to toant, from which come ^8c^- 
ScSo/aroi ; (b) to 6i(m, to inflame, Perf. <re, A« wanted, Sl}0-€y, A« tnu tn want 
8^c, Ae 6tirnf ; Mid. to 6um, UtLse, o/*; Mid. Scdo/xai, to 6e wanting, Fut. 
Intrans., second Aor. Subj. 8^t}Tcu. Sev^o'o/xoi. 

8a^c0 and Mfiyq/u, £p. secondary AIAHMI (AE-), Ep. and older lonio- 
form of Sc^i^, to subdue, from Att. (Xen.), secondary form of d^«, 
which como third Pers. Sing. Pres. to 6tW, diS^eurc (Xen. An. 5. 8, S4) ; 
ia/Ayf; third Pers. Sing. Impf. iSdfung Impf. 8/Si| instead of iitBri, H. X, 105. 
and idfurof S^t^nurKc; second Pers. ^l(fifuu (Ep. and Ion.), to 5«X-; it rc- 
Sing. Prcs. Mid. Sc^u^; — S4f^<''^ ^^^ t^® ^ (contrary to S 170, 1, 
SdC/urofuu, etc. comp.'AHMl): iZlfirro, itXuvro, 8(- 

8a^^«, to sleep. Epic Aor. * IfSpo^y Cv^^cu, ii(fifi€ros (in Henxi.) ; dffi|ai 
( § 223, 11). ( Horn.), 9i(tai (Theoc) ; Fut dt^i^o- 

dceriofuut Ep. secondary form, used in fuu] Aor. hi(ficdfjni'^' 

the Prcs. and Impf., 'from Zaioiuuy to AIHMI (AIE-),of the Act only Mfcvor 
•divide,. (third Pers. PL Impf), IL cr, 584, the^ 

AAA (Ep. and poet), (a) to foicA (= drove away; Mid., to moilre one run, to 
8(8<(<riir«), (b) to /earn (= SiS^jco/toi) ; make free, oftener to scsare, to chase 
to (a) belong tlic Ep. second Aor. (specially with the Inf.), Utrrax, II. 
8^8ac (Hom.), Oat (Thcoc. and. ijfr, 475, ZUtr^cu, II, m* 304, Subj. 
ApolL); to (b) 8f8cu$f (Horn.), ZM- Ziitrai, tiwrrai. Opt. Ztovr^ (comp. 
offi (in other authors); Ep. second rfi^oiro). ^ 

Aor. Act. Mftv, I learned [S 227, A 8f« (Ep.), to flee, 9U, ««<B«e, ffoy, //7«f. 
(b)], from which Ep. Bafyrofuu, ZtMi- Zotnrim (Ep.), to sound, Perf. ZtZovwsros \ 
Ka, 9tZtain4Kos. From the Perf -a Aor. iZovrri<ra and iyZa^nia'a (from 
new Ep. Prcs. has been formed, ZM- TAOTn-, comp. r^rrcv and icrvir^«). 
tur^ai, Inf Here belongs also the Ziya/uUf to be able, second Pers. Ion. 
Ep. Fut 8^« {IshaUflnd, meet with), Zweau ; Aor. Ep. iZwiffbnv and Iffivn}- 
Ziw, Ziiofuy, Ziiert U 223, 7). ' • ffdfirii^ {{ 179, 2). 

Zdaro (Ep.), it seemed, Aor. Zodtrtraro, Z6c9, to go in, to wrap up, Ep. 9^/iCMu in- 
third Pers. Sing. Subj. ZoJurctTcu stead of SSrax from fZvw ] Ep. second 
(instead of -17x01)7 Aor. Mid. Zvctroy Zicto, Zvc6fjifros 

ZtlZv, to fear, the Prcs. occurs only in (§ 223, 10). 

the first Pers., Fut. Ztia-ofuu ] Aor. *Ey€ifM, to awake, Ep. Aor. ^yprrof he 
IScio-o, Ep. fZZtura (as is probable awoke, etc. (§ 223, 11)'; Ep. forms of 
originally fZFtura), Perf Ep. ZtlZoiKa Perf iyp4fyopa are iypiryoo^e, etc^ 
instead of ScSoiira, and ZtiZia Ep. (^ 228). From the Perf. lias been 
instead of Z4Zia (§ 228). formed the Prcs. 4yprryop6t»y, watch- 

ZtUyvfAi, to show, Ion. (AEK) Z4^t0, ISc^o, ing, Od. v, 6, as if from iypfirfopiu. 
etc.; Mid. Sc/jcia/fuu in the Ep. dialect tZto and tff^w (Ep.), to err/ (= ^(r3/c»), 
has also the sense, to greet, to welcome, Inf iZfuyai {\ 229) ; Impf. (Zov and 
to drink to: so also in the Perf Ztl- (Zta-Koy; Perf iZriZt&s; Perf. Mid. or 
Ztyfuu with the sense of the Pres., Pass dZriZorai, 

Z€iZ4xarai third Pers. PL ; Piup. Ztt- *ESC1, from which come the Ep. I^y, 
ZtKTo, to trelcome, ZtiZtx^'^o. iront, accttstofUfd, and the Pen. c{«#da 

ZfyKOfuu, to see, Ep^ second Aur. tZpSxov [S 140, Rem. 3). 

{S 223, 1 1 ). 'EI AH, *IAn, Aor. tTZov, J saw, Ep. XBm^, 

Wyo/uu, to rctr/tY, Ion. Scicojuoi; inllom. Inf tZUiy, Snhj. n»;u; Ep. Pros, 
this Tcrb signifies also, to take, excij*- Mid. ctScrcu, t( scorns, ctS^/icnrt, op 

Digitized by 


« 230.] 



pearingy making like; Fut. ttffofjuu'y 
first Aor. thdfiTiy and tuadfoiif, tUrd' 
fuvos and i€urdfifvos (4 219, 4) ; sec- 
ond Aor. ti^firiVf I saw. 

EIKn, thinl Pers. Sing. Impf. €Lf€, it 
appeared^ H. cr, 520 ; Pcrf. f ouco, / am 
/lite, Ep. third Pers. Dual tiicrov and 
Plap. ibcrnv (§ 228), Part, ^ot^oisand 
II. ^, 254. ciic<£r, cJicvia and U. o-, 418. 
ciourvicu; £p. PIup. Mid. fftrro and 
tiicTOy it vxLS like, 

%l\{m (Ep.), to caver, envelop, ttkbirw, 
ciXOiim, third Pers. PI. tlKilaerai ; from 
i\{M» comes Aor. Pass. i\iadriv. 

dXw, to /)reM, to drive, from which in 
Horn, only ttxSfityos] in the same 
author, tl\4«, ittKtovi the rest are 
from 'EA, e. f^. iXeray, Inf. i\aai and 
iiKirai, Part, rxaa; (4 223, 6) ; UXfJuu, 
it\li4vos] second Aor. Pass, idxriv 
(from rAA«), third Pers. PI. ^«^, 
dA^Kcu and ix^fityai, itXtts, 

fifil, to be, § 225. 

tl/u, to go, ^ 226, 

tipyot, to shut out, Ep. Impf. ipr^ov 
(§162). Comp. ifryw, 

fXpo/uu (Ep. nna Ion.), to ask, Impf 
t\p6fA.riv \ Fat. •Ifrfitrofuu ; second Aor. 
iipSfi-nv, Subj. ipt&fit^Oy Opt. tpotro, 
Inf fpfff^eu in Hom. with the accent 
of the Pres. ; — Ep. secondary forms 
of the Pres. (a) ipdo/xcu, io4t<r^w, 
Impf ipiovTo ; (b) ip4u, Sanj. ^pcc^ 
/icy, Opt. 4piotiiw, Part. ^p^»y. 

*£1PTMI, see ^pv«. 

clfMtf, Ep. and Ion., sero, to arrange in a 
row, to string, first Aor. i^tlpas, exse- 
rens, Herod. 3, 87 ; Ep. Pcrf. Mid. or 
Pass, ^tpfuu, t€pfi4yos (in Herod, ip- 
fi4vof), Plup. Ktpro, 

clpfltf, to say, Pres. only Ep., Fnt. ip&, 
Ep. 4p4w. 

ttffa, Ep. Aor., I placed, from the stem 
'EA- (comp. sed-co), Opt. 4u^4c-mfuy 
Imp. clo-oy, Part. c<raf (&y«raja-cr; 
drcrcror, Her. 3, 126. 6, 103), Inf 4tl>4<r- 
am ; Aor. Mid. itrdfuiv and 44<rcaTOy 
Part, i^tirodfitvos {B.QT. 1, 66. ciV^e- 
vol). Imp. f^ctrtrat ; Fut. i<p4aa'fa^ai, 

i\a6y», to drive, Pres. ^AcU, Ep. ^X((« ; 
Impf Ep. lA«tfv', Fut. Ep. ^A<Wi 
instead of i\&<rt; Ep. Pcrf iKnXd- 
/jitvos (§ 223, Rem. 4), third Pers. 
Sing. Plup. ^AijAiSoTo (§ 220, Rem. 
2) ; Ion. Pcrf iKiiXaaiuu. and Aor. 
Pass. iiKia-^v, 

i\tK((w, to whirl, Ep. second Aor. Mid. 
iX4AiKro (4 227, B). 

^Wirw or iry4'irw (Ep.), to &iy, to teU, 
Impf. with the sense of the Aor. 
fyewov, fpvrroVf Aor. tvi<nroy (comp. 
4w6fi.Tiy from ciro/uu), Imp. fvunrcy, 
Subj. iyltnrtt, Opt. iy'urrotfit, Inf fyw- 
irccy, Fut. ^W\|^m and iyurirtiiru, 

iyfiyo^oj Ep. Perf. from 'ENea or *EN- 
E0a with the sense of the Pres. and 
Impf, iT€yfiyo^€, to sit on, H. jS, 219. 
to /t6 on, H. Cer. 280. Comp. iarfiyo- 
^t above. 

iyim-at (Ep.), to chieU, second Aor. iy- 
4yiroy, liyiircarty (§ 219, 7). 

tyyvfju, to clothe, Ep. and Ion. ttyvfu', 
Ep. Fut. §<nr»] Aor. ctf-o-a and Itro, 
iaffdfiiiy, k4(nroro, tceur^at; Perf. 
cljtuu, clirou (and ?<ro-cu), cTrai, etc., 
fifi4yos: second Pers. Plup. te<roj 
third Pens ?«rTo and ccoro, third Pers. 
Dual tff^f, third Pers. PI. dSaroj— 
on i4<nraro, ccoro, comp. § 219, 4. 

fouro, /tzm ///(rt^ § 228. Comp. 'EIKXI. 

iwdta, to understand, Aor. ^ir^i<ra (i), 
tierod. and ApoUon. (§ 130, Rem. 1 ) ; 

. the poet, iiw is found only in Pres. 
and Impf. 

iToxfoio'KOfjuu (Ep. and poet.), to receive 
advantage or injury from a thing, Aor. 
iinjup6fiiiy, 4'wavp4ir^ai (first Aor. ^irqv 
pdfiriy in Aescnyl. and in the later 
writers); Fut. ivavpiiaofuu. Of the 
Act. in the sense to touch, to injure. 
Homer uses, second Aor. Subj. /ira^ 
frp, Inf. irtatptiy, 4iravp4fity, 

MorcntM, to know, second Pers. ^lorp, 
Ion. poet. 

cir», as a simple, in Act. only Ep. in 
the sense trado aliguid, to take care of 
(II.' f, 321) J generally used as e 
compound, e. g. irtpttwu, Si«ir«, etc., 
second Aor. Act. ftrroy instead of 
tff-rrov, in Homer 4ir4<rroy, tiritnruy, 
ittivTc^y ; Fut. ci|^», Ep. 4^4^us \ Mid. 
also as a simple, generally signifying 
to follow; Impf. Ep. myiJiy instead 
of ^Mfiiiy \ Fut. ct^oftof ; second Aor. 
Mid. iinrSfiiiy, <nr/o3cu, <nrow (^irio"- 
irov); Ep. forms: otcTo, i<nr4<r^w, 
Subj. t<nrwfuu, Opt. iffvolfiriy. Inf. 
4ax4ff^M and inr4o^cu, Part. 4<nr6n€- 
yos. Herodot. has from irtpi4iro» also 
ircpic^d^voi and Tr€pt4^ftrdai instead 
of Trtpittp^ffta^au. 

tpyv, commonly Upyte, Ep., instead of 
cfpTw, to shut in and sAuC ou/, with the 
secondary forms 44pyyvfu, ioydlbm, 
4tpyd^t Aor. Kp^a; Pcrf Mid. or 
Pass. Uprffiaxy third Pers. PI. ^px>'''<^ 

Digitized by 


280 DIALECTS. ' [♦ 23^- 

third Tci-s. PI. PIup. Upx^ro and Attic Rcdup.) ; Ep. Plup. iv^x*^^ 
tpxvTQ ; Aor. Pass, ipx^fis. they were closed^ II. ju, 340. 

Updw and ^i(» {^ph '^ ^^'i ^^ f^^^y '^H/uu, to sit, ^orai, «faro (Ion.), and cTa- 
Aor. ff^t^a and fpc^o, or Ip^w, tp^a ; reu, eZoro £p., instead of ^vrou, {vro. 
Perf. topytt, Plup. i6pyfty {\ 140, ^y/A^o» (Ep.)i <o «n^, Perf. i>ir€fitrfifivK€j to 
Kcm. 3), Perf. Mid. or Pass, itpynt- let the head sink, II. x, 491. The 
vos, Aor. Pass, ^tx^^^h hx^^^' above form has the Att. reduplication 

ipflita, to prop, Ep. Perf. itnip^^SiTeu in-^nvK€ (^ 219, 8), and is strength- 
en 21 9, 8). encd bv y (§ 208, 5). 

ipfiirw (poet, and prose), to throw down, Bdpofjua (Ep.), to warm one^s self, Put. 
Ep, Plup. ipipacro (4 219, 8). »4p<rofuu (§ 223, 6); Aor. ^i^eprjv, 

■ ipiialvio (Ep.), tojitjht, Aor. Mid. ipi^ Subj. ^tpita. 

iraadcu, dri\4u (Ep. and poet.), to sprout. Put 

iplC<»i to fight, Ep. ipl(ofJLatt Perf. Mid. driKfifftt, etc. ; Perf. r4^\a {Tt^SXu7a 
ip^pifffjuu (§ 219, 8). Ep. § 223, 13) ; second Aor. l^a^j)if, 

fppa, to wander about, Ep. Aor. I/mtcu, to eHIin (Ep.), to stun, Perf. r^^rpra ; 
/twrry aiaiy (4 223, 6 J. Plup. ire^ivta] second Aor. (from 

ipv^alvv (poet ), to redden, Put. ipvd4iffv, TA*Ci) trS^v, 

4pvKw, to keep ojffl Ep. second Aor. Act. MiaKa, to die, Perf. rd^yfixa, PI. rcdra- 
i)p{fKaKoy, iovKcueiiiy (§ 219, 7). ficv, etc. (§ 228). 

/pvtf and clpoiw (Ion. and Ep.), to draw, ^pt&(rK» (Ep., Ion., and poet.), to spring, 
Fut iptffv (Vtr) and Ep. 'ip^vai ; Aor. f^opoy ; Fat ^povfuu, Ep. ;^op4l- 
Aor. fpOira (cro') and cYpCtra; Fut o/iot ; Perf. W^opa. See f 161, 14. 
Mid. ^pi^o-oftof and Ep. ip^ta-^cw, Aor. 'I8p<$w (Ion.), to sweat, IZp&ei, llp&yr^s, 
ipvffdfiriv {<r<r) and tipvadfiriy -, Perf. iZpwffOy lZo4r\v(\ 137, Item. 1). 
Pass, third Pcrs. PI. tipvarai, II. |, Tty/u, to send (Ep. and Ion.), Aor. cijKa; 
75, and Plup. clpvyro, II. <r, 69. e/p^ Fut ^(rw, but Od. <r, 265, ivcVci ; Iti 
aro, II. 0, 654 (of ships drawn to the Ep. and Ion. dialects, there are 
land, long in the Arsis); Plup. several forms from the theme 'IXl, 
Mid. tXpvro (tpdayayoy, had drawn the e. g. hyUi instead of iufiriirt Ilcr., 
sicord, V long in the ArsisJ, Od. x» ^^yiov instead of |vv/«<rav Hom., ^^e- 
90. — Secondly, the Mid. m Hom. r/rro and /te/Aerijtttvos Herod., instead 
and poet, takes the sense to save, to of lAt^Uro, fitdftfi4yos. 
shelter (from danger) ; in this sense iKy4ofjiai, to cojka, Ep. Pres. Xk<o and 
there are the following forms : tpOffo, Impf. 1kov\ Ep. Aor. X^oy (§ 223, 10) 
tXpxrro and tpvro, which arc to be and Xkto, etc. (§ 227, B). 
regarded as syncopated forms of the *l/VHMl (instead of 'lAA). to he merciftd 
Impf — The two following Mid. Of the Act. only the Ep. Imp. tKri^t, 
secondary forms have also the sense be merciful (in addresses to the gods) 
of to guard: (a) Ep. 'EC^MI, Inf. instead of TAo^x (§ 224, 6), as in 
ftp6ix€yai, Hes. 0pp. 81 6j Mid. to Thcoc. 15, 143, Subj. Ep. lA^«7(ri; 

fuard, tipuarcu instead of ttpvyrat, Plup. Opt Ep. Ia^koi; Mid. poet, 
nf. fyvcr^cu, ^ovc^ai', — (b) Ep., JlXafAox, to appease. 

poet, and, thougli very rare, Attic iaonu {Dor.), to know,tffJis,Xaari,X<ra^ty, 

prose piioyLcu, Inf. bv<r^<u instead of Part, txras. 

plta^ai; Impf. third Pcra. Sing. Kaiyvpufu (Ep.) instead of Kcd^yvfjuu 

fyijro, was watched, Hesiod. Th. 304, (§ 169, llem. 1) from the stem KAA, 

third Pcrs. PI. ^var instead of 4p{foy- to excel, Perf. K4KcurfAeu ; Plup. ^kc- 

ro (they protected) \ Aor. 4fpif<rdfJtriy Kdfffiriy. 

and Ep. pvadfiijy (but II. o, 29. ^Otri- Kcdw, to bum, Ep. Aor. ftoya (Trag. 

fiTjy), fK€a), Subj. it^o/ticf^' instead of -w^uy, 

fpXOficu, to go, Ep. Perf. ciA^Aovi^a, first Opt. third Pcrs. Sing, k^ox, third 

Pcrs. PI. tlKiiKov^fKy; Epic Aor. Pcrs. PI. K-fiauty, Inf. irqeu (in the 

fjKv^oy. Odyss. also kuou, Keiofity, Ketavrts) : 

tx»y to have, Ep. Aor. ttrx^^oy, <rx4^oy Aor. Mid. 4tnj<ifjLriy, Krjdfxfyos (in the 

and i<rxoy (i 162); Ep. Perf. 5x«fa Odyss. xetdifAfyos, Ketayro) -, second 

(for tKvx^t '^ ^"^^ X being trans- Aor. Act ixdTjy (7 6ania/, Intrans.). 

posed, and the word having the luf. Ka^nityai, 

Digitized by 



tifipw, to weary one's self, Ep. K€Kta\6i^ KXdCa, to sound, Ep. Pcrf. with the sens* 
-«Toj, -6x0% (S 223, 13), Ep. second of the Pres. WicATrya, iccKAirye^s, PI. 
Aor. Subj. K€KdfjM (§ 219, 7). kwA^ktcs (as il' from kc#cX^7«) ; 

Ktifuu, to lie, in Horn. Kiotrrai^ as if from Aor. iK\&yov. 

Ktofuu] Kp. and Ion. k^ctou, K^ttr^cu] icXc(a0, to shut, Ep. and Ion., wAiytw, Aor. 
second Pcrs. Sin^. kcmtcu and kuou, ixK'fiura (t), K\iil<rat] Pcrf. Mid. or 
third Pcrs. PL irc7vTcu and Ep. Ktia- Pass. xcicA^i/uu (third Pcrs. PL irticX^- 
rat and (Ion.) ic^crrcu, Subj. ic^wftai, oroiinstcadoficcicX^oTax); Aor. Pass, 
third Pers. Sing, jn/roi ; Impf. ir/oro iicXritadriif ; from the Ion. KKyftM come 
and iccfaro Ep. instead of licctrro; the forms often found in the AtL 
K^trxtTo J Ep. Fut. K€lu, K^w, Kfiwy, . writers, viz. K\ifu, fKKpaa, K^KXrifuu, 
k4wv, Kti^fity, k\4u (Ep.), to celebrate, of which onlj 

Kc/pw, to shear off , cut off , Ep. ir/po'w, KK^ofAcuy Impf. iK\4o instead of 4K\4fo 
tKtpaa (4 223, 6), but iKeipdnrtv. (^ 220, 10). 

k4\Xm, to drive, Ep. ^ictAcra (^ 223, 6). kXCu (Ep.), to ^«2r. Imp. icX^e, icA^rrc *, 

KfKofjLou (Ep. and poet), to tin/^, Put second Aor. Imp. icAudi, icXDrc; and 
Kfkiitrofuu, first Aor. ^ircAi7<r4/ii}v j #c/KAi*^», ic^KAvrc [4 227, A (e)] ; the 
second Aor. iKtK\6fxii», etc. (§ 223, Impf. ^icAvov is used instead of tho 
11). Ind.Pres. 

K9pT4ta (Ep.), to />r/c^, stimuloj Aor. ir($irT», to «/nX-«, second Perf. K4itorwa in 
ttcWai (^ 223, 6). ' Horn., instead of k4ko^ 

Kfpdyyv/u, to mix, Ep. ntpdxa {Ktp&irras} Kop4yvvfu, to satisfy, Ep. Put. Kop4w and 
and K€palu (Imp. «c//kuc), Kipyiu {xtp- Kop4c'0f, Pcrf. KtxSfnifjuu, to which tho 
yff, Impf. fKipya) and Klpvtiiii (Impf. Part. KtKopri^s (§ 223, 13) in respect 
^KJ^n?, Ktpvds) ; Ep. Mid. K4p0pTai (as to its meaning belongs, 
iflrom ic^/MEftoi); Impf. iccfHfwin'o Ep. kot^oi and Kor4ofuu (Ep.), to 6<; angry, 
instead of iKtpwvro from Ktpi», first Aor. Part. Kor4(ras ; Perf. Part. 

KcpSo/i'w, to gain, in Ion. and later wri- kkkotii^s (S 223, 13) ; Mid. Put. kot^- 
tcrs: ^K/p8i7<ra', frcpS^orctrl^ou and «//>• o'o/iax {(r(r)\ Aor. ^Kortadfiriv {(re). 
9€ty4ofi(y in Herod. icpd{u, to bawl, cry out, poet. Pcrf. KtKpd- 

Kt^u (Ep.), to conrea/, Fut. «c^w, Aor. yet, K4Kparfii€y, etc. (§ 228) ; Fut. kc- 
fKfwra ] Perf. irc/ccu^ *, second Aor. Kpd^ofjuau, Aristoph. 
lf<cf'doi', itiA^oi', Subj. KtKv^v (§ 219, irpofyw (Ep. and poet.), to complete, ac- 
7); Mid. only Pres. and Impf. complish. Ion. commonly Kpaxaly^, 

h ilSta, to make anxious, in tlie Act. only Impf. iKptdcuvoy ; Ep. lut. Kpay^o»; 
Ep. Fut. mjS^trw ; Pcrf. k^kt^So, / owi Aor. txp^va and Ep. iKpirnya, Imp. 
anxious ; Ep. Fut. Pcrf. icciraS^irojuaf, Kp^yoy (^nd Ep. irp^voi'. Inf. irf>^i'ai 
11. ;^, 353. and Ep. K^yax ; Ep. Terf. Pass. 

Rilva^uu, Ep. secondary form of ffKiZdah- KfKpdearrcu (Eur. K4Kpatnat) \ Ep. Fut. 
w^wM, to «tt«CT*, only Pres. and Impf. Mid. Kpay4oum, 

tdyvfuu(Ep.) mste&d'of Kiy4ofjuu, to stir icrdyu, to kill, Ep. Fut. kt«W» (Ep. 
owe'* self, to be moved, Pass. Kiy6fMfyos. Part. Kray4oyra, KaraKray4ovffi{y) and 

ffip)^^ and Kiprnut, Ep. secondary form irareurrai^^co'^ with the variable a j 
of KcprfwO/u, to mix, from which comes Aor. Ep. and poet. (KT&yoy', Ep." 
the Part xipyds, Impf. ixlpya and second Aor. Act. fierSaf, etc. [§ 227, 
Kipyri, A (a)]; first Aor. Pass, third Pcrs. 

Ktxivof and Kixdyofuu JEp. and poet.), PL fieradty Ep., instead of tKrd^- 
to reach, meet with, Aor. tKix^v, Fut. ccw. 

icrxficofuu, other forms not found in irvp^w, rarely Kdpw (ftp. and poet.), to 
the Att. poets ; but Ep. Impf. intxa- find, to reacfi, Aor. (Kvp<ra (§ 223, 6), 
yov, second Pcrs. iiclx^is (from and more seldom Mpnaa, Fut. K6pttm 
KIXE-) ; second Aor. Subj. irix& and and more seldom Kvp^<r»] Perf. k€k6^ 
Kix^lu, Opt. Ktxtlwi Inf- fOT*^*! priKcu 

Vart. Kix^h and Mid. Kixfifxeyos j Aor. Aoyx*^*' '^ partake. Ion. Fut. A^o/uai ; 
Mid. iKixf]<raro, Ep. Aor. Subj. AeAd^xw (§ 219, 7), 

rf« (Ep), to r/o, only Pres. and Impf. Trans, to make jiartaker in the phraso 
Tlie Part. Kiiiy is accented like Wi> ; dw6yra irvp6s^ to give the dead tht 
Aor. fifTfKta^ov (§162). honor of fire, i. e. make him partaker 


Digitized by 


282 DIALECTS. [i 030 

of; PcH Kfhoyxa Ep , instead of MAXl (Ep.), to strive for ^ Peif. with the 

fflXijxa [Oil. A, .'304. Ki\6yx'^'\' sense of the Prea, in Sing, fiifwym 

/VAZTMAI (= \d(ofuUy to take)^ Epic (comp. 7^70^1 with rErAA),/A^^Toy, 

f\dCvTO. fidfutfuvt etc (4 228). 

hofifidyttj to receive. Ion. Kdfi^ofuuj Xtki- fuipofuu (poet.), to obtain, £p. fnfiopt 
firiKo^ \4?JifLfjuu, \€Kdfiip^at, ^Ai/i^;^y, third Pers. Sing. Perf. (and U. a, 
Xofiirrtos] also Dor. A.cA!ie(/3i7/ica, bat 278), third Pers. Sing, second Aor. 
XtKafifuu, XtXaip^ai; in Dramatists Act. (Anient, 4 219, 6); Perf. Pass. 
\4x.ri/ifuUi Ep.Aor.X€Aa3^(rdai(4 219, ^tftapraL, tt is determined (4 123, 4). 
7). /Uam, commonly Impers. fi^Aci, it con- 

Kay^dyw, Ep. oftener X^v, to be hidden^ cems, Ilajf itto heart, Ep. Peif. ^^/l)^ 
conceded; Ep. second Aor. Act. X«, Part /itc;Ai|Xi6s ; Ep. Perf. Mid. /A^/t- 
Subj. XeAidw and Mid. A.cXa;^((/Aiyy fiKsrai and Plap. iiiy^fiKero instead of 
(4 219, 7); Pcrf. Mid. A^Xd^/uu; in mcm^Aittcu, ^ftc/x^Airro, comp. /3A<i<r- 
Theoc. Xoo-i^/itcy (= \n<rhrivau) in- ic«; yet these forms were more 
stead of }<a^i<r^nt\ iirOj^ and properly considered as a Pres. and 
iiOJil^v, to cause to forget, Ep. Aor. Impf. 
M\ijffa ] iK\4\&^y. /uyoiydw, /iwvoiywy, 4 222, I, A (2). 

KdiTKot (Ep. and poet.), Aor. fK8ucow\ fMiKdofuu^ to bleat, 'Ep.Vcrf. fUfjoiKayrith 
Ep. Perf, K4\riKa (poet. \4\dKa and the sense of the Pres., utijAtcvut 
iK\4KBuca even in Demos.) with the (4 223, IS); Aor. pJiKi^ir; ifom th« 
sense of the Pres. ; Ep. Part. XcAif- Perf. the Impf. ifUimKov is formed. 
K^Sf AcA&Jcvia (4 223, 13) ; Put. Aaic^ /ualycffto stain, Ep. second Aor. /uay 
cofuu; first Aor. poet, ixdicno'd^ Ep. 3i}y (4 227, B). 
Aor. Mid. AcAiLcovto (4 219, 7). f^vyfu, to mix, Ep. Aor. idicro (4 227, 

AEXn (Ep.), to. cause to lie down, IXcfo, B). 
iKt^dtAriy,IlMdmy8dfdoum,Ilau,IfiVKdofuuy to roar, Ep. ^4fjMKa, Aor. 
rcsterf, Ep. Aor. iK^fxvv, etc. ( 4 227, B). ifi6Koy, 

Aov», to irasA, Ep. \o4»f \ov4», Impfl Na/w, Ep. and poet., to <ftt«//, first Aor. 
iKovtov, iK6to»\ Aor. Inf. aWo'O'oi, ■ fycura-a, I caused to dwell; Mid. with 
Part. \o4<rffeLs; second Aor. Act Pass. Aor., to settle down: vdurffofuuj 
thooVf third Pers. Sing. A^c Od. m h,ie€vtur<rdiaiv^ ivdff^v. 
361, k^oy; Mid. Pres. Inf Ao^c^^oi Fcucev (Ep., poet, and Ion.), to qtiarrei, 
and Aoucr.^: Fut Mid. Ko4ff<rofiBu; Put vcucMrM, Aor. 4y§Utaa (4 223, 
Aor. Mid. Inf . ?io4a(rcur^ai \ Part. 1 ). 

Ao€<r<r<^cyof ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. WCa>, to ico^A, Pres. and Impf.; the other 
\4\ovfiat. tenses arc formed from yiirrwy which 

Av», to hose, Ep. second Aor. Mid. among the later writers came to bo 
\^To,\^yro [4 227, A (e)] ; Ep. Plnp. nsed m the Pres. and Impf. also; 
Opt AcADto (4 224, 3). thus, Fat. Wi^«, Perf Mid. or Pass. 

Ma/yo/uu, to rave {iK/Judym, to make ytytfifjuu, poet; Aor. Pass, ivl^^iiy^ 
ravim, also Aor. tfitiya, Arist. ; doubt- Hippocr. 

ful :3L H. 3.4, 8) ; second Pcrf ^e/xn- yiffffofuu (Ep.), to f^i?, Fut yhoftai (the 
ya (Soph.), / am ravntg (Thcoc. 10, form vtitrffofuu is rejected). 
31, fufUyrifAoi) ; the Fut. is fAoyovfieu 'OAT220MAI (Ep.), Aor. wBwrdfuiy, to 
in Herod, [fiayfyrofiou in the later be angry, iiwrdfieyos ; Pcrf 6Z<&ZiMrfuu 
writers). ♦ with the sense of the Pres. (4 219, 8). 

liatofjuu (Ep.), to seek, Fut fidtro/uu otia, to know, ^ 22S. 

(4irif»dtrff€rai) ] 1^.0T, ifuur^iiy. ofofuu, to tfiitlk; Ep. otet, itw, 6ioi»ai, 

fLoy^dyw, to learn, Fut in Tticoc. /ui3cD- wUfiify, oXotro \ Aor. Mid. hladiJiiiy \ 
fuu (like futxovfuu). Aor. Pass, wta^y, ciffbtls, 

tUpvofuu (Ep.), to fight, only Pres. and 6yofuu (Ep. and Ion.), to Idame, lyocaiy 
Impf., like S^vofuu, but Opt ftapyol' third Pers. PL tyoyrcu^ Imp. 6yo<ro ; 
/Ai}y, Od. A, 513. Impf &y6fi7iy, Opt. hyoltufiy, 6yoiro\ 

udxofAoi, to contend, Epic fiax4oyTmj Fut 6y6<rofiiu', Aor. wyotrifiriy and 
/iaxc<i'a«» fiax4otTO, fMx4oiyTOy Part. wy6<r^y ; Ep. ofSytff^t (comp. owArf^- 
ttax^i6ii€yos and fiaxtoA/Atyos \ Ep. cyos), II. w, 241, instead of By^ir^n 
^at. liaxh^oyuai and fAax4<rofiat', Aor. and this instead of 6yoa^ from *ON- 
4tuixt(rafiriy, Ep. Aor. Mid. 4»mro. 

Digitized by 



dpoMf to see, Ion. ip^«, Epic 6p6(0, Impf. first Aor. IWepco (4 223, 6) ; second 

fipcoy ; Ep. second Pci-s. Sing. Pros. Aor. HirpS^oy ( § 223, 11); Ep. second 

Mid. SpriM, thinl Pel's. Sing. Impf. Aor. Mid. Inf. ir4p^cu (§ 227, B). 

ipriro ; Ion. Perf. Srronra, ir4rofjuu, to fly ^ second Aor. iirr6ftyiy^ etc. 

•OPEFNTMI, from which Ep. iptyyis, U 223, 11). 

stretching out ; 6p4y», to stretch; Mid. in^ofuu (poet, instead of vw^difoftai), 

to stretch one's seljfl to reach afler, Ep. Ep. second Aor. Mid. Opt. ireihA^oi- 

Pcrf. Mid. 6p<&prYfuu, third Fctb. PL to; Perf. rirvafuu {\ 223, 14). 

6Mtp4xarai (§ 219, 8), PIup. third x^^wy, fwt^ifotf, Ep. second Aor. Act. 

Pers. PI. hfM»p4x»ro, , of ♦ENn, to kill ( 4 21 9, 7 ), Part, -ni^ 

Cpvvfu (poet.), to excite^ Fat. Soc^, Aor. yvr with irregular accentuation ; .Ep. 

i^paa (§ 233, 6); Ep. Pert. Intrans. Perf. Pass. W^rcu, rttpdff^cu] Fut. 

Upwpa (4 219, 8), Snbj. 6o^, Plup. Perf. irtffiaofiat (comp. 9€^<rofuu 

6ptop€t and wp^pti ; Ep. Aor. &yopty ; from Mtfuu). 

Mid. ipv^}uUf to rouse one^a sdf^ to stir, rffywiuu^ to fix^ Ep. Aor. ir^irro, icorc- 

Ep. Fut. hpfthat, Aor. wpdfii}^ ; Ep. inywro (4 227, B). 

Aor. Mid. &pro^ etc. U 227, £) ; Ep. T£Xya/uu, Eq. secondary form of ircAi^», 

Perf. op^ptreuj Subj. hp^prtrrax (/; 219, to draw near, only Pres. and Impf. 

8). xlfivXrifu, to flfl^ Ep. Aor. Mid. tA^to, 

htr^palvofuu, to smell. Ion. Aq). Mid. etc. [f 227, A (a)]. 

wr^pajrro, itiima, to fall, Ep. ircirrci^s (f 228). 

ovrd(w, to wound, Ep. Aor. «?//«/> etc. irvrvim and leirynfii, Ep. secondary form 

[4 227, A (a)l. of vrrdyyvfu, to spread out, from 

itp^lXw, to owe, he under dUigaUcr., ought, which como Impf. virva instead of 

must, Ion., poet, (except ir. tho dra- Mrya, and Part, irnyds. 

matic dialogues of Att. waiters), and wkiitra^, to strike, Ep. second Aor. Act 

in late prose 6tp€\oy, -«, -c, Ep. iv4Tr\jfyov,'r4ir\fiyoyfin(lLw€w\riy6firiy 

&<f>€Woy, 6^€?<Xoy, in io/7/i3 which (4 219, 7). 

express a -tr««A. irkdct (Ion.), to «w7, Ep. second Aor. 

6<t>4x\w (Ep.), to increasg, only Pres., Act. lhr\wy, etc. U 227, A (d)]. 

Impf., and Opt. Aor. 6yp/AXvtty, Od. wy4M, to breatlie, in llom. Perf. HiryOfxcu 

fi, 334. (4 223, Bem. 2), to be animated, intd- 

XiJjOm, to shake, Ep. second Aor. Act. ligent; second Aor. Act. Imp. i^iw- 

iifitrrra^y (44 207, 7, and 219, 7)and yvt, second Aor. Mid. ifjuryvro [4 227, 

second Aor. Mid. ireUro (4 227, B). A (e)] ; Aor. Pass. i.niryvy^ instead 
xdcrx^f '0 »M#«'i 52P- I'crf. Part. »ciro- of iLniryt^ (4 223, 12). 

3w/i7, as ii' from ir^ob^; Ep. Perf. wt^o-cw, to crouch^ shrink from fear, Aor. 

Wvo^i^c (4 228, Bem.). fjmy|a; second Aor. KarawrdK^, 

irvr4oiML (Ion.), to toste, to cat, Aor. Aeschyl- Enm. 247; Perf. ts-rnx^y 

hrOffipaiy ', Perf. ir/ircur/ioi. Part. Ep. Teirrtjd&s, crrof (4 223, 13); 

v«ti^«, to persuade, second Aor. Act. Ep. second Aor. Karairrirrfty [4 227, 

tirilboy, Aor. Mid. hrt^6niiy, only poet. A (a)]. 

in the Att. writers {widov is a false Valyu, to sprinkle, regular Aor. Ij^^ova ; 

reading in Plat Phacd. p. 117, a); Perf. Mid. or Pass, ffpatrfioi. In 

Ep. second Aor. Act. ir4iei^oy^ Subj. Horn. ififdHarcu (4 220, Hem. 2). 

irtwi^a, Opt. xeiti^oifu, Inf. ir«iri;^c?i', ^c^w, see fpd». 

Part. xfirideJi', Imp. Wirii^* (4 219, 7); pty4c» (Ep. and poet.), to shudder, Fut 

second Aor. Mitil iiri^ifiriy, to trust, ptyfitrco', Aor. i^pilyri<ra ; Perf. Ep. 

Opt. TcxC^iTo ; from the second Aor. tiplyoi, 

coma ir t^ffjf, to be ol)&iient,Trnri^<rw, JUJw, fftlaw and erj« ^^CJ^)' ^^ *"*''* 

<9 &B convinced, vi^ffos, obedient; on (= o-e^^M); from <ro<J« Fut o-acSirw, 

iTtirt^fity and H-rturHi (sec 4 228). Imp. Pres. Act. <rc(« [4 222, I, A 

*-A(if«, to rfmio near (Tnig. ircAdL^w, (4)] ; third Pers. Sing. Impf. Act 

irAci^w), Fut. ireXciao*, poet, sometimes iriov and «r<i« instead of ^<rcto€ ; Aor. 

»6X6; Ep. Aor. Pass. iwt?Jiff^y, 4<rdwra', Fut Mid. acu&aofuu, Aor. 

poet i\U. <V\A^r, Mid. Ep. ^irX^/tti?r, Pass, ^(ro«6;&7?y; from (r<6» Part. ircS- 

ctc^ Att •JtrXd/iii>' [4 227, A (a)] ; oyrts and Impf. <r«€<ncoi' ; from a6ti 

Ed. Pzif. ir«irAiiMfVoj, Att. ir^irXd)uax. Subj. Pres. ciJp, orrfpy, o-rfow*. 
c^(*8r*« (poo:.), «'> destioif, Fut irepcw; o'cvcv (poet.), to ;)«« in no/cHf Mi«//on. 

Digitized by 


284 DIALECTS. [♦ 23(^ 

Mid. to haste^ Ep. Aor. t<r<rtva and ^tlZofjMi^ to spare^ Ep. second Aor. MiA 

<rcva, ifffffvdfiriy and aevd/xTty (§ 223, ir€4>iSof/A)7v, V€(pti4(r^(u {S 219, 7) , 

8); Pcrf. icffvfjLtu (§223, 14); Flup,. fvom ^fllio/im cornea v€<ptHaofuu, 

iffff^firiy ; second Aor. Mid. iacvfiiiy, <p^po»j to carry ^ (f>4pr€ Ep. instead of 

etc. H 227, A (e)]; Aor. Pass, ifftri- ipeptrt (§ 229) ; Ion. nnd Ep. forms 

^v boph., i^tff&tv Horn. — On tlie are : Aor. ffvciira, 4y€iKat, etc^ ^vciiri- 

• Ep. (TeDreu, aovraif etc., see f 229. fw^i' ; Perf. iviiytiyfjuu ; Aor. Pass. 

iricISya/icu, to sco^^^r, Ep. secondary form V<'X'^»7»'} — Ep. second Aor. Imp. 

of <r/ice8<ii'ia;/ieu, only Pres. and Impf. o7<rc, Inf. oler4fitv {\ 223, 10); first 

<rTfp4wf to rob^ first Aor. Inf. <n€pi<rai Aor. &y^<r(u, Herod. 1, 157 (comp. 

EJ). instead of (mprjffai, 6, 66. ^yc^urros instead of aySloTos). 

OTvyitOf tofear^ to hate, Ep. second Aor. ^e^w, to ^c^, Ep. irt^vyiiivos^ escapea 

ftrrvyov; first Aor. ^<rrw|a, Trans., to U 223, 14). 

make fcarfud. ^dyu, to cwne 6r/orc, anttdpate, Epic 

TAFA, Epic second Aor. rtTay<&y, ^cC/ici^as [§ 227, A (a)]. 

seizing. ^tlfw, to destroy, Ion. Fat. Sia^op/o/ucu 

TAAAA, to endure, Ep. Aor. ^rcUoo-a, instead of ^ap^o-ofcat ; Aor. Sto^^p- 

Subj. Ta\(i<r<r»; second Aor. ^xAtjy cai (§ 223, 6). 

{\ 19t, 4); Pcrf. rtrX-nKo, rerXofjify ipd^iyw, to vanish, and Ep. ^fw, to co«- 

(§ 228), Fut. rK-fitroiMu. sume, and sometimes to tsiniah, perish 

rayiw (poet.), to stretch, Ep. t(£i/Stcu (Ep. first Pers. long), Fnt. ^ta-»: 

(§229). Aor. ^^r<ra; Mid. to perish, Fnt' 

rapdff<rw, to disturb, Ep. second Perf. <p^tao/juu ; Perf. ftp^Xfuu ; Plnp. ^^f 

TtrpTixa^ I am disturbed. fiijv; Ep. Aor. i<p^ifiriy, etc. [§227, 

TEMn, to reacA, overtake, Ep. Aor. ^rrr- A (c)] ; Ep. Aor. Pass, third Pers. PI. 

fwy{^ 219,7). ixitf^i^fy. 

r4pirco, to deligid, Ep. irdptp^riy^ irdfymiy, ^(A^fi», to /ove, Ep. Aor. iifttjidfiriy (^i 

^T/xCin^i', Subj. firet Pers. PI. rpceirflo- Xuvraiy ^<Xax). 

fLiy\ second Aor. Mid. ^Tpair^/Ai}v and ^pdCv, tc speak, Ep. Aor. ir4^paBoy 

TtrapirSfiriy (§ 219, 7). (§ 219, 7). 

T(ix» (poet.), to jnake ready, to obtain, <pipw, to knead, in prose, forms its tcnseH 

Fat. TctJ^w ; Aor. Ircu^o, Perf. Ep. from ^piiu, e. g. ^vpdirv, etc., Aor 

T€T€wx<6y, having obtained; Fut. Mid. Pass, i^vpd^y, Plat. Theaot. 147, c. 

rt{t^ofieu ; Aor. IHid. rev^our^cui Perf. (bat i^{tp^y, Acsch. Ag. 714) ; yet 

rtrvyfuu (§ 223, 14), third Pers. PI. Perf. W^vp/xoi, and in Aristoph. »e- 

Ep. rcTflx"'-'^^^ ^^f- Tcrux^ox ; Plop. ^vpofuu ; Fut. Perf. irc^^p<rco-3ai 

ireTtvyfiriy, third Pers.. PI. Ep. ^tctc^ Pind., Epic and poet. ^6p<rw, etc 

XOTo ; Aor. Pass, frvx-^i' J Fut. Perf. (§ 223, 6). 

T€Te^{o/i8u; — Ep. second Aor. rerv ^<5», to produce, Perf. W^Cira, Ep. third 

Kf«y, T€T^/co»H-o, TeTWKcV^^oi (§ 219, 7). Pers. PI. ir€^^d<rt. Part. ire^vSraf, 

TIEn, Ep. Perf. Act. TexM/e^y, -^toj, xc^wIo (§ 223, 13); Irapf. Ep. 4ir4- 

anxious, and Perf. Mid. Zam anxious, ^vkov, 

second Pers. Dual r€ri-i\a^v, Part. Xrffo^ot (Ep. J, to rcfreaf, y«eW, Aor. Mid. 

rmrifi4yos. MKdZovro (§ 219, 7); Aor. Act KiKo- 

Tlypvfuu, Ep. secondary form of rlyofuu, 8ok and Fut. #c€ica8i<r», Trans., to rf<?- 

to punish; in Att. poetry with one prive of, rob. 

y, rfyufuu (§ 185). X^P^> '® rejoice, Ep. Fut. KwxfhffW', 

TfiTiyfa, Ep. secondary form of r4fiyw, K€xap^*fofMu ; first Aor. Mid. x^paro ; 

to cut, first Aor. rfiff^as ; Aor. Pass. second Aor. k^x^^^* ifexofXMOTo 

third Pers. Pi. TA«£7«v. (§ 219, 7); ictx^' (§ 223, 13)- 

Tpfipa, to nourish, Ep. second Aor. Perf. Kex^Vf^^yos, Eur.; Verb. Adj 

(rpeupoy, I noui'ishca, Perf. rirpwpa, x^P^^^' 

Intrans. ; Aor. Pass, irpdtfnjy, third xai''<^o' (Ep.)i to hold, to contain, Aor 

Pers. PI rpJupfy. (x<^^^ > l**^^- ''*'*'^ *^® sense of the 

^aiyco, to shoiv, Ep. ^aelytDy, enUghtening ; Pres. k4x^^ j Eat. x' ^<''<'M^ (comp 

Ep. Aor. Pass. i<l>ady^y', Perf. Alid. Ihrct^y, irfiffofxcu). 

or Pass. v4<paa-fuu, third Pers. Sing, x^** ^ po^f out, Ep., Fat. x«^ i -^^^^ 

W^>fiu^flu ; Fut. v€<p^(roiJuu; second ^x^va; second Aor. Mid. x^ro, x^ 

Aor. 4>dy€<rKty, II. X, 64. yos [§ 227, A (e)]. 

Digitized by 


4?<31.] FORMATION OF WORDS. 28d 



{231. Primitive words: — Stems. — Derivatives. 

1. Words arc formed, (a) by deriyatioD, and (b) by composition, in accord- 
ance with certain laws. 

2. Those words, from which other words are derved, but which are them- 
selves imdcrived, are called primitives (vocabula pnmitiva). Primitive words 
arc either verbs (which constitute the greater part), substantives, adjectives, or 
pronouns. A primitive has two parts, the root and the inflection-ending, e. g. 
Tp4^o»t ypd<^, ^^p-^t ^^y-^t Xi^'os ; «caX-^s ; ifi-4. 

3. The roots, i. e. the forms which remain, after the rejection of the inflection- 
endings, are all monosyllabic. Still, the roots do not always appear pure in 
the primitives, but often with a strengthened form, e.g. 9dK y-u, lK-y4-ofuu, 
ait^'dv-w, rvly)x-^»t a\-i<rK-ofuu, tri-wpd-CKa. Comp. §§ 139, and 157, 1 
Tet these strengthened forms extend only to the Fres. and Impf. 

4. Words which are derived (yocabnla deritxita) from primitive words, are : — 

(a) Either Stems, i. e. such words as are formed from primitives by merely 
assuming another inflection-ending, which is without any special signification. 
To these indefinite endings belong several of the third Dec, e. g. the gender- 
sign 5 {6 7^, ii &\^y ri /3^(, ^ «Tv{, ^ yw-s, 6 ^ fiov-s, b tj weu-s, instead of iroTS-y, 
in many words the s is omitted, see § 52, 1) ; the endings -xy (^ airdy-is, tr«n/, 
fl i\ir'ls)i and 'vs {6'<rrdx-vs, -h lo-X'^s) ; also the endings of the first and sec- 
ond declensions, o. g. -17, -o, -os, -oy {yiK-ri, K^-^y PK'^ irAoOr-or, y^ir-or, f>6Z-ov) ; 
finally, several adjective-endings, e. g. -os, -1}, -ov (<piK-os, -17, -oi'), -Ist -cla, -i 
(y\vH-ls<, -eia, -^), etc. ; 

(b) or Derivatives, i. e. such 'words as are formed either from primitives, 
or from stems, by assuming a special derivation-syllable with a special ' sig- 
nification, e. g. xpvtr'O-tf^ to make golden, to gild; ^-rwp, orator; ypcbp-iKSs, shiUeOL 
'n painting. 

5. The root is ogen lengthened in deri>%tion (§16, 3), e. g. X^l^-ij (nrom 
\S^uy)y Xhv (from xa»'-«2»') j or it takes the variable vowel (§ 16, 6), e.g. rpttp- 
», Tpoifh^i, rpo^'6st Tp6(p-ifios, Tpa<fh^p6s. A strengthening consonant (§§ 139, 
1, and 157, scq.) may also be added ; or the final consonant \ be doubled, e. g. 
icdwos from Ka\6s ; some stems also take a reduplication, e. g. iv-wv-^j, ^8-0)5^, 
irytey-^Sf :H'<rv<p-os (from SE^-A, comp. «ro^-4s). Other changes also may ]ye 
made in tlie root, as has been shown in § 16. 

6. The change of c into o (seldom into a) and of « into ot (§ 16, 6) requires 

* By comparing the examples under (a) and (b), it will be seen that thf 
terminations of the former arc not sigmjicant^ while those of the latter are. 

Digitized by 



special attention. It occurs, (a) in Oxytoncs of the first Dec. in ^ and d of 
more than one syllabic, e. g. rpo^, nouridunent (from rpi^na) ; yLoy-t\^ a remait> 
ing (from fiiv-w) \ <l>op-dy a carrying (from ^/p-c») j aA.ot^, solve (from iiKtl^ ' 
J,) J — (b) in dissyllabic Barytones of the second Dec, which denote what it 
done, or the result of an action, e. g. \6yos, xcord (from Kiy-w) ; ^y-os, murder 
(from ♦EN-n, comp. ftrc^wy); y6fioSy a law (from Wfi-«); — (c) in dissyllabic 
Oxytones of the second Dec. in -fiSsf and in dissyllabic oxytonc adjectives of the 
second Dec. in -^r, which, for the most part, denote an active object and often have 
a substantive meaning, c. g. itKox'/jms, plait of hair (from wkdK-v) ; ffroK-fiSs, 
garment (from or^XX-w); irofar-6s, attendant (from tr^fat-w)', vo^s, wise (from 
2E^-a, sapio)] Tpo^6s, nourishing, nourisher (from rp^^); — (d) in monosyl- 
labic substantives of the third Dec, c. g. ^X^, flame (from ^Xrya) \ Z6p^y 
antdope {from UpK'Ofua) 'j — (e) in oxyto?e substantives in -e^s and adjectives 
in -ds, which, however, have sometimes a substantive sense, c. g. rpo^c^r, nowr- 
isher (from rpdp-»)] avop^Sf scattered (from <nrtp-(7y)-, \oy-ds, chosen (from 
X^») ; Zpofji'ds, running (from APEM-A, comp. 9pafi'€7y)\ — (f ) in all derivatives 
of the forms mentioned, c. g. in substantives in -o/xos, adjectives in -i/ioj, verbs 
in 'dwf -4ot, -6tf, -ei5«, -(fw, e. g. TXSK-ofLOSf rp6^ifiosj ^ov-iu (from ^<$y-os), 
Zwfi-dM (from 96fi'05, and this from B4/i-w)y etc. 

Kemabk. The change of c into a (comp. § 16, 6) is found only in a few old 
poetic derivatives, e. g. rpcop^p6s. 

Rem. 2. Words derived from verbs aro called verbals; those derived from 
Bubstantives or adjectives, denominatives, • 

A. Dbbitation. 

♦ 232. L Verbs. 

I. All derivative verbs end in -«(«, -^«, -lu, -J«, -vot, -€^», -iC», 'i{»9 
'6(t», -^Ca] -alyw, -vyw, -alpof, 'fipw. All 'these verbs must be considered 
as denominatives ; for though the stem-substantive for several verbs of this 
kind is not in use. yet the analogy of the other verbs requires that a substan 
tive should be assumed as the stem of these als6. Many of these derivative 
verbs, especially many in '4» and -dwf supply the place of obsolete primitives, 
e. g. ^i\4», rtfidw, — On the formation and signification of derivative verbs tlio 
following points arc to be noted : — 

(a) Verbs in-dw and -dC^fy which are mostly derived from substantives of 
the first Dec, and those in -(^C0 which are derived from substantives and 
adjectives of all declensions, are partly transitive, partly intransitive, since 
they denote either a condition or the exercise of agency or activity, e. g. roXfuiM^ 
to he bold, from r6\fia, boldness; xohdm^ to be angry, from x<^^^» 9^* yodiUy to 
iveep, from y6os; BiKd{wy to judge, from ZIkti; iKiri{», to hope, from ikvis] 6pi(0», 
(0 limit, from Bpos', €uriC», to beg, from e^TrjSf beggar; sometimes those in -dm 
denote fulness, abundance, e. g. xo^^> to ^ /"^ 9f ^'''e> *<'»'« »n«cA W/c. — Verba 
iii'dia and -/f« formed from proper names, express the effort to resemble 
single individuals or whole nations, in custom, nature, language, sentimeni 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Such verbs are called Imitative verbs, e. g. ZnpidCw^ to be a Dorian^ i. e. to speak 
or Uiink as a Dorian, /Capitis \ cAAijyf^w, to p&sonate the custom or kmguage of a 
Greeks to be a Greek in custom^ etc. ; m^^C^i to be a Mede in sentiment. 

Remark 1. Verbs in -i(» often signify to make something into that which 
the root denotes. See (c). 

Rem. 2. Verbs in -6(w and -^f» are very rare, e. g. apii6(fa; to Jit ; ifnr6C»^ to 
creep. — By the ending -d(s9 also, verbs are formed, which denote the repetition 
or strengthening of the idea expressed by the simple verb ; these are called 
Frequentative and Intensive verbs, e. g.biirTdC(o^ to throw to and fro, jacto^ from 
piirrcojacip ; ^Tcyi^ar, to sigh much and deeply, from irrivw^ to sigh ; tUdCv. properly, 
to liken again and again^ to compare on all sides ; hence to injer^ conjecture, 

(b) Verbs in -^« and -c^w are derived from substantives and adjectives of 
all declensions, and commonly express the intransitive idea of the primitive^ for 
the most part, the being in a condition^ or the exercise of agenctfj the practising of 
that which is signified by the primitive ; but they are sometimes transitive also. 
When the stem ends in -cr, wliich is the case, e. g. in adjectives in -risj -cs, the 
<s is omitted, and when it ends in -cv, the cv is omitted before the ending -c^w, 
c. g. ^iA^«, to be a friend^ to love^ from ^(Aos, &tvx^<«i to be unfortunate^ from 
&Tvx^f (stem &rvxcs), tiZaifioy^Vf to be prosperouSy from tv9ciSfu»y (stem €v8cu/uoi^), 
i,yopti»j to speak in public^ from iyopd, market^ koc/a^u, to adontj from K6fffioSf 
fiairiXt^, to be a king^ from fiaxri\(6s. 

(c) Verbs in -^», wliich are mostly derived from substantives and adjectives 
of the second Dec, those in -aff^v, which are commonly derived from adjec- 
tives, more rarely from substantives, and those in -^v«, from adjectives only, 
generally denote the making or transforming sometJiing into that which the primitive 
word signifies; in like manner several in -(^w, see Rem. 1, e. g. xp^*^^i ^^ 
make golden, to gild, from xp^^^h ^><^t to make evident, from hiiXos, ayyl(u, to 
make pure, from kyv6s, iF\ovrl{w, to make rich, to enrich, from itKovtos, KotXaltmy 
to make hollow, from icoiXos, XevKoivoff to make white, from Acvic^s, fiop^ywf to 
burden, from fiap6s. 

Rem. 3. From the Fut. of several verbs, are formed verbs in -(rc^w, which 
denote a desire for that which the primitive word signifies ; these are called 
Desiderative verbs, e. g. ytKafftlu, to desire to laugh, from ytXJuu, to laugh, voAc- 
t0l<r«iw, to desire to engage in war, from iroAc/u(Cw, irapaJitoirflu, to be inclined to sur- 
render. There arc also other Desiderativcs in -iu and -/om, e. g. daimrdM, to 
wish to die, fux^nridu, to wish to beconlk a disciple. 

Rem. 4. Some verbs in -<riro0 have an inceptive sense {beginning to be), and are 
called Inceptive or Inchoative verbs, e. g. yjipda-xtt, to begin to be old, to grow old; 
y^ytniffKu^ to begin to have a beard; ^jBdUricM, pubesoo. 

i 233. 11. Substantives. 

Substantives are derived: — 
1 From verbs and substantives, and express — 
a. A concrete idea, i. e. the idea of an active person (concrete nouns) : 
(a) With the endings -e^r (Gen. -^«j) for the Masc, -€io or -«<r<ro for tho 
Fern.; -tij» Httij, -rfrtji, -ttriSf -<^njj] (Gen. -ov) (mostly Paroxytones), -r^p 
and -T«p (Paroxytones) for the Masc, -rpia (Proparoxy tones), -rpts^-ris, 

Digitized by 


288 FOEMATION OF WORDS. [{ 233. 

and -if (Gen. -iBos), -rtipd (Proparoxytouc) for the Fcm. ; -»y for ilic Masc, 
•'ait^d for tho Fcm.; -us for tlio Masc, -tfis and -wtvij fur ilic Fcui., c. g. 
Up€vs, priest^ Fcm. iVpcio, from Up6s] avktirfis and -^ip, flute-player^ Fcm. avKif 
rpia, auKrjTpisf from a{t\4u] cmrfip, deliverer^ ffArtipOf from (Tc^^m; iroXfrTjy, 
citizen, 1ro^7ri5, from r^Ats ; ^rttp, oratory from 'PE-fi ; ^fpdirupf sermnty ^epd- 
waufOf from ^4pw^ ; olK4rns, a ^ave, from o7«of ; Sij/a^s , one of the people, from 
817/urs ; ivXlrris, a hojUite, from SrAoy ; trrpari^hyis, a soldier^ from ffrpvrii, 

(i3) With tho ending -<Jj (Gen. -oO), seldom, and only from verbs with the 
variable vowel [4 231, 6 (c)], e. g. toixw6s9 attendant, from »^/Air« j ^ ^ rpo<p6s^ 
nouriaJier, nurse, from Tp/<^ ; iipwySs, an ally, from dip^. 

b. They express the abstract idea of action, i. e. action or onei^ apart from 
the person who manifests it These are abstract nonns : — 

(a) From verbs : 

(a) with tho endings -cts (Gen. -o'cwr) and (more seldom) -cla, substantives 
which denote the transitive or active idea of the verb, c. g. trpa^is, actio, an acting 
from irpdrru ; voiriiris, a making, from toi«» ; ZoKifxeurta, a proving, from ZoKipdCw ; 

(jS) with the ending -fiis (Gen. -ov), snch as denote the intransitive idea of 
the verb, c. g. ilZvppu&Sy weeping, from Mpopjon ; 

(7) with tho ending -fio, such as denote tho effect or result of the transitive 
action of the verb, e. g. irpayfia, something done, /lyrifia, monumetUum, Tofij/ua,' the 
thing made or done; 

(8) with the endings -/ci}, "n, -a (all for the most part Oxytoncs), and (from 
verbs in -e^), -tla, such as denote sometimes a transitive relation, and some 
times the effect of that relation, c. g. rofiii, a cutting, fromWjuviv; &of8^, song, 
fromief^w, 4)^opdt destruction; TaiSeio, education; 

(e) with the endings -oj (Gen. -ov), -ros (Gen. -row) and -or (Gen. -out) 
such as denote, generally, an intransitive relation, also a transitive, and partly 
the effect of the action of the verb, c. g. X^r, word, from \4yt» ; kukvt6s^ 
lamentation ; rh KrjZos, care. 

(b) From adjectives (and substantives, which are sometimes used in an 
attributive sensej : — 

(a) with the endings -id, from adjectives in -osy and some in the third Dec^ 
c. g. ao^ia, wisdom (from <r9^6s)] tlZaipuofia^ happiness (from cv8a//i»y, Gen. 
-cvos) ; * 

(3) •!& (Froparoxytones) from adjectives in -^s and -our, whose stem ends in 
c and 0, with which the 1 of tho ending coalesces and forms ec and 01 (thus -c(&, 
-Old), e. g. &\^cca, truth (from &Ai}d^s, Gen. -4-os), tHyoiay benevolence (from 
tCpo-oSf fHyovs) ; 

(7) 'ff6vri mostly from adjectives in -«v (Gen. -ovos) and -oj, c. g. <r«f|^po- 
e^tnj, modesty (from ffdippay. Gen. -ov-os) j HiKouO'tr^rn, justice (from Stxcuos) ; 

(8) -TijT, Gen. -nrroj (commonly Paroxytoncs) from adjectives in -oj and 

* Nouns derived from tlie first Pers. Peif. Pass, denote tho result of the action 
©f the verl), e. g. (fJ^ptjiuu), ttiprifM, tfte Oiing found, the discovery ; those from tho 
second Pcrs., the abstract act, e. g. (fwpijo-a*), cupcoris, the act offluding; thoso 
from the third Pcrs.. tlic agent or doer, e. g. (rSpip-eu), t^ptr-fis, the discoverer. 

Digitized by 



-wj, c. g. IcSrris, Gen. -^ifrof, equality (from tffos) j Taxvrrjs, thickness (from 

(c) -Of, Gen. -cof = -ovs, from adjectives in -vs and -i}5, and such as have 
the forms of comparison in -tuv and -loror, e. g. rdxos, r6, Gen. rdxovst swiji- 
ness (from rax^f)) i^cvdoy, r^, Gen. -ovs, falsehood (from ^cv8^s), dloxost rS^ 
boMeness (from alffxp^Si ouVxW) ; 

(O-c(f)-c('os (only in abstract numeral substantives] e. g. ^ fioyds, unity; 
Ztfdsi duality ; rptJa,, a triad. 

Remabk 1. In abstracts in Ma^ which express both a transitive and intran- 
sitive relation, from compounds in -ros and -nir (Gen. -ov), the r is commonly 
changed inta o*, e. g. iA\<ArTia and -o-k (id^\o^^f ), hl^aawrla (&3^aroy), &ka- 
dopo-ta, ^v/^a, etc. So also with adjectives in -laf, e. g. MiX^crios (MiAiyrof ), 
iyiadffios {ivusuris). Comp. H 17, 6, and 234, Bern. 2. 

Rem. 2. The older Attic poetiy sometimes makes the a long in the endings 
'€t& and -Old, e. g. &yat8c(d, irpoyoid. 

2. From substantives alone, the foUowin* -"lasses detioting the names of 
persons and things, are derived : — 

(a) Gentile nouns, i. c. the names of persons derived from their country, in 
-e^5 (Fem. -ly, -iBos)^ -fnjs (Fem. -irts), -drijs (Fern. -oTii), '^tj?*, iirnjs, e. g. 
Awpif^s (a Dorian, one from Doris), Avpis, ^vfiaplrriSj .-iTts, Sn-apridn;!, *Aiyty^ 
Tij», 'Hirtip^s. Comp. ) 234, 3 (g), etc. 

(b) Patronymics, i e. the names of persons derived from their ancestors, with 
the endings -l^ris (Fem. -Is, Gen. 4Bos) ; also -ii.9rjs^\ but substantives of the 
first Dec. in -ris and -of, and many of the second and third Dec. whose stem 
ends in i, and some others, have -dZris (Fem. -ds, Gen. -dios) ; these endings are 
appended to the stem, and where the stem ends in c, this e and i of the ending 
'tSiis combine and form a diphthong, as in IlTjKflhiSi e. g. nptofi-l^ris, Fem. Tlptofi-ls 
from Uplofi'os, llriKtlhis from IIifAc^s, Gen. IIijA^cos, K€Kp<nrl9fis from K/irpo^, 
Gen. -oir-os, Ilay^lBris from Tldi^^oos, -ous ) TcAo/MM^idt^s from TcAo^j^, AlytA' 
tris from AlWos, 6c0Tut9i7T, Fem. 8c<rrt-^5 from Bi&rtas. 

(c) Diminutives (frequently with the accompanying idea of contempt) with 
the endings -iok which is the most usual, -tip to v [4ffiov\ (seldom) and some 
few with the endings -^AXcok, -vAAIs, -itZpiovy -v^toy (-duptotf) (which 
belong mostly to the language of the common people and to comedy) ; — • (f 

(Gen. 'tbos and -*5oj), -iZiow (formed from -Is)) i<rKos, -(o-kij (-(^/cior, 

tynii -ix""*^) i 1 8 c ^f (but only of the young of animals), e. g. fAtipdKtoy, youthy 

from tuTpa^i "Ojc-os, raiZ-ioy, a Utile child, from iroir, roiS-^f ; — ircuSHtpiov ; -dcriov 
Uistead of -dpiov only in Kopdfftoy (from icdpo, young woman) on account of the 
oreoeding p\ fuipoK'itXXtov, iucay^uXXis from fixw^ thorn, ntc-v^ptov, islet; 
i»t^oy, Utile animal; xpvcr-cC^ioy from xp^tr^j — xtyoK-ts, little taiM, from 
T/ya{', a^a(/f, //</& uxigon; tntia-tJiioy, islet, from i^<ros; Kpf&btoy (instead of 
'4^ioy) from icp^of, oU^ioy (instead of oUi't^ioy) from oheia', — y^ayi-irKos, ytoA" 
ffKTi from ytaiflas', -Iff k toy seldom, e. g. Rorvhlffxioy from Kor</Ai;; -'x''*}> 

' This form is used, when the syllable preceding the Patronymic ending is 
long, otherwise the word would not be adapted to hexameter verse, since one 
f hort syllable would stand between two long syllables ; thus, TUiKfStBfis. 


Digitized by 



•ixviou only in voTdxyHt iroKixi^ioy from iriXis^ KvXlxyfl, Kif\(x^iop from «cv\i(; 
— Xa-y-iSeiJy, i/ounfj hare, from ?iaryws ; ofT-i8€wr, young ca'jle^ from deroj. 

(cl) Dcsij^uiitious of place, with the endings -iov (in comiectiou with Iho 
preceding vowels •cuoi', -ctoy, -^ov) and -€f oi', which dcnoto the abode of tho 
person designated by the primitive word, or a place consecrated to a divinity 
or hero; -6v (Gen. -Savos)^ seldom -cciiy, and -wi^ici, which denote the residence 
of persons or a placo filled with plants, c. g. ipyaarifp-ioyy tvorksftop^ from ^^700- 
riipf and so others in -r-iipiov from -ri^p or -riyy; sometimes ah»o this ending is 
used with reference to vessels, e. g. Troriipiov, drinking vessel; KovpeToy, barber^s 
sliop, from Kovp€us, -i-tos (several in -u>y [-cMiy] have another signification, e. g* 
rpo^ioy, wages of a nurse, from rpo^eis) ; Btfattby from Bnaeisf -^-mt, 'A^rpmbyf 
Mowrtlowy — ky^pAy and yvrofiri^v, apartments for men and women; Imr^y, stable 
for horses ; foddy and ^oSuyid, bed of roses ; ictpurrtpwv and vcpurrcpdy, dove' 

(e) Substantives which denote an instrument or a means of accomplishing 
some object, with the endin^^s -rpoy and -rpa, e. g. ^iJirrpo, cnrry-comh ; Z.Hauf 
rpoy, tuition-money; Xovrpoy, uriter for washing; \ovTp0Vf hath; also to designate 
place, e. g. hpx^<Trpai dancing-room, instead of the ending -r'fipioy. 

$ 234. III. Adjectives.' 

1. From verbs are derived adjectives with the following endings: — 

(a) With the ending -oy, which is annexed to tho stem of the verb. These 
adjectives express the transitive, intransitive, or passive idea of tlic verb from 
which tlioy are derived, e. g. ^>ay6s, brilliant, from ^yto ; Xotv6s, the remainder; 
the verb-stem of many is not in use, c. g. k9k6s, 

(b) With the endings -ik^j, -^j -6y^ and -t/io», -oy, -tfios, -tj, -oy of 
•fftfiQSf 'oy, which denote ability, fitness, aptness. Of these, those in 'tK6s have 
a transitive signification, those in -ijuof both a transitive and passive, c. g. 
ypwp'iK6s^ fit or able to paint; rp64>-ifios, nutritive; Id'O'tfios, curaUe. 

(c) A few with the ending 'y6sj -'fij -Sy with an intransitive or passive 
signification, c. g. Bfi'y65, frightful (AElfl), trtpL-ySs, honored, fionoraUe (o-ciSofiax), 
ffrvy-ySst hated, hatefid (3TTrn), irol^tiy6s (iro^ew), desired. 

(d) A few with the ending -A^s with a transitive signification, -wxSiy '^, 
'6y and (from verbs ra-dce) -tiKSst '"hy'^f^ with a transitive and intransitive 
signification, e. g. Sci-X^s, timid; ^leway-Xos (instead of iK7r\<xy\6s from ^jotX^o-. 
<r»)^ frightful; ^d^u\6sf sparing; trtyriKSs, silent; ixcprri\6sj deceitful, 

(e) With the ending -&p6s, -d, -Sy (from verbs in -da and -a(yw) with an 
Intransitive signification, e. g. x^^^y slack; fu&p6sj stained; also in tpi^oytpdf, 
envious; ywrrip6s, diseased ; olxrpSsj pitiable. ^ 

(f) With the ending -^wv, -fioy (Grcn. -oyos) with an intransitive signiffca-* 
tion, c. g. pof^-fiMVy mindful, mcmor (MNAH), yvfifjLwyj intelligent (yo4u). 

(g) With the ending -»?*,-€» (Gen. -tos), e. g. vxiiprjs, plenus. 

(h) With the ending -ds (Gen. -dSos) with a ti-ansitive, intransitive, or pas- 
sive signification, c. g. (pop-ds, bearing (tp^pw) ; BpofUsf running (APEMXl) j \ayds9 
chosen [Ktyts). 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

f 23i.] DBRIVATroi? OF ADJBOTIVES. 1^91 

(i) With the endings *r6f, 'rif^ •r6>f, and '^4os, -f^o, -T^oF(veAal 
adjectives).; those in -rrf* denote cither a completed action like the Perf. Pa«s. 
Fort, e. g. \€K'^6s {from A^yttr), dictm; or the idea of poseibilit^ » English 
termination -tie^ which is their usual signification, c. g. 6pa-T6s, capabie of beinf 
ieen, visible. In their formation, most of these follow cither an existing or an 
assumed Peif. Pass^ e. g. 



iSowXew-rrfr, t/oi 















T\(K-rSs, -rios 







Tfiu-w (TA-n) 



«/-8»-A" (AO-n) 


Zo-r6s, -^4os. 

Remark 1. Very many verbal adjectives, however, follow the analogrv of 
other forms of the verb, not according to anv definite rule, but take precisely 
sach a form as suited the ear of the Greeks, 'ihns, for example, a considemble 
number followed the form of tlie first Aor. Pass., e. g. cupc^w, pp^-^y, aip^'r6i ; 
waC-Vf i-^av-V'^Vi irai/-<r-T<Jy, -t^oj: xp^'^i"'^^ i'XP^'^-^*'* Xfi^'<^''^^^> -rdos] 
arpi^-Wy i-<Trp4<^by\Vy arpftr-Tds ] rptrr-Wf i-^pi^^v^ rpvK-rtos ; Tp€^-«, i-^p4<p- 
^ijy, dptrr-T€OS] 1-<mi-fu, i<rrA-Si'nif, {rra-rSSf t4os'j hraxvi-Wy iirpy4'^Vy iiraiyt- 
r6s] — some the form of the second Aor. Act, e. g. K^a, t-cx^-rov, ffx*'f6s\ 
alp4<», €iXc-Toy, iXc-riJ* ; tnfu, e-roy (commonly cFrov), &4>-c-t^os, iy-t^Ss] rXdij- 
fu, 1-^6-Toy, dt-r6sf -tcos; — some the form of the Pres. Act., e. g. fieVw, fx4y 
tToy^ fifve-rSsf -t4os', «7;4<, f-Toy, l-r4os] so iir-etJxe-roj from *ETXE-TON {tvxo 
/tai)] Bvya^6s (Si^a^uu); ^fti, ^ta-r&y, <f>a-r6s» 

2. Adjectives are formed from substantives and adjectives : — 

By the ending -«o$ (in connection with the preceding vowel of the stem 
-oioj, -€<oy, -oios, -yos, -vtos) and -ik6s (which, when v precedes, becomes •k6s 
and when i, often -0x65). These adjectives have a very great variety of mean 
ings. They frequently indicate the mode or manner of the adjective i<U'a, 
often also in a very general manner, that which proceeds from an object and is 
connected with it or related to it, e. g. ^vpdy-iost heauenli/^ pertaining to heaven ; 
Ko^dp'toSi cleanly (but Ka^ap6st cleain) \ i\€vd4pu)s, frank^ liberal^ Uberalis (but 
4\t^fpost liber) ; iiyopcuos, belonging to the market-place {Siyopd) ; ^4p€ios, sumtmr- 
like {^4pos, -c-os)* ai^ios (aiiiis, -^-os), ^p^os and iipwos *, rpivfixvtos ; SovKuc6s ; 
b7i\vic6s, fM(yuuc6s. 

Kbm. 2. In some words the ending -cuos also -uuos occurs, e. g. xfp<'^oh 
WKvroMS and ffK<nid2os, In several words the ending -aios (^ 17, 6) is Uiicd iu< 
stead of -r-tos, c. g. ^tXoT^<r<os (^iXtJrijy, -?rro£), tKoitrios {tK^y, -Syros). 

3. Adjectives arc formed from subFtnntivcs alone : — 

(a) With the ending -€ to j (mostly Paroxytoncs), which arc formed from 
words denoting persons, especially from proper name* ; but in respect to then 
signification they are like adjectives in -ucSs, e. g. Aydpubs, belonging to a tnan, 
manljf, yvytuK€ios, iuf^p^twsy 'Ofi^cio^. 

Digitized by 



(b) With the endings -cof » -ovs and -XwoSf which denote the materia] 
of which anything is mode, like tho English ending -en, e. g. xfi^r*os = XP^ 
ffoos, golden; x<^^' ~ x^'^^^^t bnuen; {^X-iy»f, tcooden; ffK6Tunn, made of 
leather, leathern. 

(c) With tho ending 'iw6s (seldom -Wf ), derived from substantives. These 
express certain relations of time j sometimes, also, an abundance or fulness, 
e. g. hrr^p-a^Sf vespertinut; x^^'O^h hesUmus; 6p€ty6st mountainoua {Spos, Gen. 

(d) With the endings -t if, Gen. -trros (alwajs preceded by a vowel, % 
when the substantive from which the Ady. is formed, is of the first Dec^ and o, 
when it is the first or second); -p^s, -c^^s, •iip6s, -a\/os, which denote 
fulness or abundance, e. g. dx^tt, tpoody; irvp^tt, fiery; aUrx-p^ff ^fose; ros- 
€p6s, and roff-^s, unhealthy ; ^fi-aXios, strong. Exceptions to those in -cu , - 
are Uwipi^u from Zivipow^ X'H*^^ ^^^^^ X^*'*' 

(e) With the ending -^pios, which have the transitive sense of verbal sub- 
stantives in -IIP and fit, e. g. awr^pios, preserving^ that preserves, 

(f) With the ending -1691} f, Neut. -v^ts (formed from -o-ciS^s from c28or, 
form, quality). These adjectives denote a quality or resemblance, but often 
also a fulness or abundance, e. g. ^T^aydt^s, resembling flame, Jiery ; irouiSvs, 
abounding in grass, grassy. 

(g) With the endings -los (Fcm. -la), -icSs, 'Ik6s (Fem. -icfi, -uc^), -lyyJs 
(Fem. -1}!^), and when i or p precedes, -ay^f (Fem. -dy^), -tifos (Fem. -iimi) ; 
these are Gentile adjectives, which are also frequently used as substantives, 
particularly those in -lyi^s, St^s, -ivos, which are formed only from names 
of cities and countries out of Greece, e. g. Kopttf^iot, -tei, 'A^tmos, -aia, Xios 
(instead of -tios from Xios), 'Apyuos (from "Ap-TOf, -c-os) ; AaK^mfu>¥'Uc6s ; Kv(uc 
iir6s, -miyfi {Ki{ucos), Xap9i-ay6f, -ay^ {^Upitu, Ion. Gen. -£-cpy), *Ayicvp€a4s 
{'AyKvpa), Tapoarr-ufos, -(nj (Tipas, -orr-os). 

4 235. IV. Adverbs. 

1. Adverbs are formed from verbs : — 

With the endings -Zriw or, when the primitive has the varialie o,'d9fiw, 
which denote mode or manner, e. g? Kp6fi9fip, secretly (jcp^rrw) ; ypi^^, by 
writing, scribendo (ypd^) ; vrop-dbriv, saOteredly, sparsim. 

2. From verbs and substantives : — 

With the ending 'i6»0T 'a96y,'iiiB6v (mostly from substantives). These 
also denote manner, or, when derived from substantives, the external firm, e. g. 
iufOf^oMv, openly, aperte; Ztaxpi^w, distinctly; fivrpMv, grapeMke, in clusters 
{fiSrpus), IxMp, in troops, cateruatim; iy9\rfi6if, in herds, gregatim; «rvinfd^r, 
tike a dog. 

3. From substantives, pronouns, and adverbs, adverbs are formed to denote the 
three relations of place, viz., whence, whither, and where, by the endings -^ey, -9« 
{-ct), and -d^i, e. g. olpm6^€y,from heaven ; olpo^iv^t, into or to heaven, ohpwi' 
di, in heaven ; &Wo-^tp,from another place, aliunde, ^AXo-o-c, to another place, alio, 
ix/uy^u at anoUier place, alibi. — Rules in respect to the accent of those in 3ff» 

Digitized by 



and -di: (a) Dissyllables are either Faroxytoncs or Propoilspomcna, c. g. 
wp6ir^p, yrid9Wf oS&c; (b) poljsyllables are FaroxTtones, when the penult is 
short by nature, e. g. AttrpS^ev from Aicfios, Kvrp6^w from K&wpos, obpw6^y, 
odpay^ from odpoi^f; exceptions: cKko^w, tfUo^i^ ^y8o3ry, fySdi^i, Wrroi^cy, 
iXXodWf iicdtrro^y, and some poetic word»; (c) polysyllables whose penult if 
long by position, are without exception Proparoxytones, e. g. tfrroa^w, foirdcr ; 
(d) polysyllables whose penult is long by nature, are Proparoxytones, when the 
primitive was a Barytone, e. g, f^w^w (f{«), Mpw^w (frc/wf), 'AjM^nfdvv 
('Adijim)] but Properispomena, when the primitive was an Oxytone, e. g. 
Tlv^Odtp (Ilu^), Bpni^p {^My On the accent of those in -de (-<r«), see § 34, 
Rem. 8. 

Remark 1. Words of the first Dec. retain their a or ly before -^w; those 
of the second, their o ; and those of the third, the o of the Gen. ending, e. g. 
*0\vfxwi6^tp, SmtprvH^cir, obcon^cv, (iWo^tvj but the vowels a, i|, and o are 
often exchanged with each other, e. g. ^i(6-^p from pt(a] M9yap6^y from ' 
MiyapOf rd. 

Rem. 2. Adverbs in -«, and also others, append the endings to the un- 
changed vowels, e. g. Ay^^v, icdrw^^Wf ^s^cy, iK€i'^Wf ^rx^t, IIp9o-^w^ 
dtfio-^u Some forms of the comparative in -rtpot lengthen o into «, e. g. 
iklJupvr4po9-hw, In some of the above fonns, w can be shortened into o in poetry, 
and then rejected entirely, e. g. ^th^w^ irp6<r-^v (instead of ^(«d«y, irp^M^y), 
and in imitation of Done usage, a is often omitted before 3, e. g. lii-i^r, Iict«- 
^w (instead of ifwiff^p^ Kkto^^w). 

Rem. 3. The ending -3c is commonly appended to substantives only, and to 
the unchanged form of the Ace, e. g. &Aa3c, to or into the tea (^), Ilvdwdc (from 
nvM)i oIkM^ only Epic, elsewhere dtKoUt (from the stem 'OIB), as ^^7a3« (from 
♦YB) instead 6f ^iry^ySc which is not in use, *E\tv&iMt), In pronouns and 
adverbs, -o-c is appended instead of -3c, e. g. ^itci-o-c, tAAoo'c, Mpcnr^, oMc^t^c, 
T^A^c ; more seldom in substantives, e. g. dlKoct. — In plural substantives in 
•lu, 73c becomes C«> o- g- ^A^waft^ ^$a(€ ; but some surotantives in the singu- 
lar, also, follow this analogy, e. g. 'OAvfcirfaC< i so the poetic adverbs, ^paC^, 
to the door, fonts, lpa(c, xcM<^C«f ^ the ground^ humum (from the obsolete sub- 
stantives, Ifw, X'f^ earth). 

Rem. 4. Instead of -3c or -cc, the Epic dialect has -3 cf also, e. g. x>v<^<^ 
instead of x^C^j JUAvScs instead of tAAoo'c, and oXica3is, domum. 

Rem. 5. Several pronominal forms with the usual suffix, have, between the 
stem and the sujQIx, the syllable ax> which is to be accounted for by the ending 
-uKis coming before the aspirated relative, e. g. voAA-ax-^y (from iroAAiUis 
and Sdcir), Torr-ax-^c ; this occurs also in most pronominal adverbs of place 
in -If, -ov, -01, e. g. &AA-aX'Ov, alibi^ «-oA\-ax-ov, murr'ax-Vi voAA-ax-^i wayT'ax-ou 

\ 236. B. COMPOUNDB. 

1. Every compound consists of two words, one of which explains the other 
more definitely. The explanatory word usually stands first, e. g. pavfmxia, 
ta-figkty as is usual in English in composite words. The word which is explained 
by the other, shows to what class of words the compound belongs, i. e. whether 
it is a substantive or verb, etc. ; thus, e. g. vovfutxia is a substantive, pou-fiaxiip 
a verb, yau-fUxos an adjective. 

B£MAHK 1. The explanatorjT word takes the second place in the compound 
but seldom, and mostly in poetic words, o. g. 3cf«'i3af/«wr, L e. 3c(0'at ro»j 3«^ 


Digitized by 



2. Both words stand cither ia an ftitnUutive rclbtion to cacli other ( £s n substaa 
Civc qaftli(icd bj an adjective or by another substantive in the (jl^n.), o. g. nax- 
9&a{^= ireud) e{«t, had condition) \ CKtarypoupla (— o'lciof ypab^),j)(iiutin(/ in lujht attd 
thade; itrw-ovpif (=» fr^au ovpa)^ horse-taUtil ; or in an objtctive rcUitiou {=: a 
vorbf adjective, or substantive witli the Case of a substantive in the relation of 
an object, or with an adverb in the some relation), o. g. Iwwarp^^tHi^ (= hneovs 
Tp4^af)i hmTp6^f] vavfUKX^ur (L c. yaual fidx^r^h ytatfidxoh vauftaxiai 
^invx^i ^^vxh'i ityicrdtfOL, hfdcrrwroSf hvArtaffis, 

3. The verb con bo compounded with prepositiont only, e. g. &t9-, U-^ carn-^ 
wpo-j ifi'i 8ia-, Kora-f Tapor, nrpotHktiww^ \ comp. \ 237, 5 \ the substantive and 
adjective, cither with substantives and adjectives, or with prepositions, or with 
separable and inseparable adverbs and prefixes, e. g. o-w/ioro-^^Aa^, TfivXiyos ; 
v«^/-4rrfiurif, W-A.cvKOf ; ei-rvxij*, iv-o/Tioi; tlic adverb, with prepositions only, 
e. g. irtpt-vrMv, 

Kem. 2. All other compounds are formed by derivation from words pro- 
yiovisly compounded, e. g. ew-Twx<*»' and «u-twx«$ from cv-rux^s. 

Beie. S. ^a) Scpiuuble adverbs are such as ore used alone^ as well as in 
composition, c. g. c2, weU; irAi^y, except; HfM, at tlic wine titm; Hyx^ near; Apri^ 
naw^ recently ; iyw (aya-), very; vaKWi again; ird\eu,long since; 8tf from 8vo, 
6£9, or tlie same as 9ix<^ dis, separately ; vaifyWfioUy ; cirrvxcu', cwrvx^f, prosperous ; 
irAij^cA^f {vKiiy, n4?uos)t violating luirtmny ; irAij/ifif Aciy, jrAc/ifuAiKr^ ; aparpo- 
Xd»f to run together^ apjorpoxia ; ayxifiartiy, to go near to ; iiyx^i^^aa^fos^ mari 
propinquus; itfrribdK^s^ now blooming; Ayo^dcy^f, kydp^os, ayJann^s^ very snowy; 
noKlufiMurroSi dial buds again ; iraAa/^tn-05, jtUuUed long sittce ; ^isxlMoit two tJiour. 
tana; Bt^i^oyyoSj having a douUe sound; iri/ao^Sy all-wise. 

(b) Inseparable adverbs are such as are used only in composition. They are 
as follows : — ' ^ 

(a) vpi-i '*^i/> *^"^'*> ®- fT- Vf^{<t>^fKros^ hnJf-inrrncd, srmittstus. 

(/3) 5 u J - expresses difficulty, adversity-, or aversion, and is often the antith- 
esis of eo. c. g. 8u*Tux€Ty and ciri/xe?!', SvsScuporioy misfortune ; 

(7) a Privative (usually i/-. before a vowel) has the force of the Latin tn, and 
expresses the negation of the idea contained in the simple word, c. g. 
icro4>oSt unwise; irijufa, dishonor; Aircus, childless ; &va/rior, innocera. 

(Z) a Collective and Intensive, like the Latin con in composition, expresses com^ 
munityy equality^ or a collective idea, and hence also intensity, e. g. (commu- 
nity, especially in the names of kindred and companions) &8cX^({f, brother^ 
from ieX^is^ icomh; (equality) hrAxwros, of the same weight ; &irc9ot, even ; 
(in a collective sense) hdpSoSy collected {hpita^ ^p4opat^ to av ahud), &oXA^r, 
collected (from a\^$ or ix^j), Aycfpo), A-v^Xtj ; (int-ensity) drti^y, t«ft?ii£, tn- 
tentus ; tuTKioSf very shady ; dfipopos, making a loud noise. 

Rem. 4. The Euplionic a (4 16, 10) miwt be distinguished from the CoUcc- 
dve a, c. g. ordx»s and irraxvsi «» car 0/ grain ; <rrtp<nH\ and iurrtpoHi^ lightning. 

f 237. Formation of Compo7i7i€ls. 

1. When the first part of the compound is a verb {\ 236, Rem, 1), the pure 
(sometimes also the strengthened) stem of the verb remains unchanged, if tho 
following wonl begins with a vowel, e. g. ^e/^-airy/jr, Trtt^-apxuy ; or the final 
vowels €, o, », also tho sylUiblos <rz, cc, «rt, aoy arc annexed to the stem of th^ 
verb, if the following word begins with a consonant ; tr also is annexed wUoft 

Digitized by 



th9 foUowiiig word begins with a towcI, e. g. ZaK'^-^vfiot, Xtv-o^dicnis and Aem 
(hTiimif, Tepir-i-ff^powyor, iytp-trl-y^o^s^ ^tp-i<T-^un^ rafitffl'XP^^i cAiC-*tr/-ire7rAoj, 
fu^ofidpfiapos (= fuy-a-o-fi,)y pi\\fainris (= ^/ir-<r-ooTr<s), wX^^imroj (— Tr\y;7-<r- 

2. When the first part of tho compoiAd is a substantive or adjective, the 
dcclen8ion-8/»m of the substantive general! v remainR unchanged, e. g. (first 
Dec.) puai^pWy Ayopa-fif/io j ; (second Dec.) koythypdipoSi ttr'^fitpos (by Elision), 
KOKoS/pyos (by Crasis), X«7««/8^Ao* {kay^s)] (third •Dec.) ioTi«»4/«of, f«w\<^yoy, 
fi<nf^opfi6s, ifathfULxia] irvp-^ifot^ ftcAoy^X^'^'') ^'^'''^h^P" i ^ some, the union- 
vowel o is annexed to the stem, e. g. o'«/iar-o-^^Aa{, ^vtri-o-X^y, Zt^Hawxps (by 
CrasLs, instead of 8f8-f^cx^') i '^^ neuters in -os, Gen. •^e-ov, tho c is elided before 
0, o. g. {f^-o-^por, or the declension-stem in -cs [§ 61, (b)] is retained, e. g. 
rcA«f-^pof ; so also in other neuters, e. g. Htpas-fiSKos, ^s^Spos, 

Remark 1. In the first Dec, however, tho union-vowel o is often found 
instead of the dec1en.«ion-6tem, e. g. 8uc-o«yp^r (8JKn)i Xotx'^'M'^'t ^ ^^^^ 
the ending ii or *a is annexed even to words of iho second and third Dec, c. g. 
bayarn-ip^s, iurTri6ij-<t>6pos \ neuters in -os (Gen, -cos, PI. -tj) frequently vary 
between the o and 17, c. g. ^i(l>o<p6pos and ^i<pri<f>6pos, a-KtwcpSpos and (rKetrn<P^po5, 

Rem. 2. In soifao words of the third Dec, more seldom of the first and 
second, 1 is annexed to the pure stem, as a union-vowel, e. g. wvphtvovs, alyi- 
fi6ni5 \ i»xiarnr6Kos (/umtt^s), fu/plrvovs. In several woixls a euphonic v (trt) is 
inserted, e. g. fi.oyo-o'-T6K05, ^fo-ff-tx^P^^i together with the regulax ^cocx'^p^a, 

3. When the first part of tho compound is an adverb, only those changes 
take place, which arise from the gcaeral rules respecting the change of 

4. Respecting the second part of the compound, it is to be noted, that the 
words beginning with a, «, 0, in composition regularly lengthen these vowels 
(if the last part of the compound is a simple) into ij and w, c. g. (a) (trfjyffios 
from &ytfios, (rrparriy6s from Syw, ^irfivvp from hf^p'y (c) tius^iperfios from ^^ct- 
fx6s, ^vs^Karos from iXavyto j (0) itywpfXfis from o^cAos, vavtii\€^pos from iWvfMt, 
ijf^yvfxos from 6uofia. 

5. In relation to the end of the word, the following points should be noted : — 

A. In the Greek language, as has been seen (§ 23&, 3), a verb can be com- 
pounded only with prepositions ; but if it is necessary to compound a verb with 
another part of speech, this is never done immediately, but by mean.? of a 
derivation from a compound word cither actually existing or assumed. Then 
the derivative-ending, commonly -4», is regularly appended to this comj^omul 
word : e. g. from Tinrouy rpi<puv^ to keep horses^ the derivative is not irrvorpi(piiv, 
but by means of the compound substantive linrorp6<l>os, it is l'mroTpo<pioi ; ^o 
^(offffi^u from ^(octfiiis, vavfjuxx^'iy from yavfuixos, cvrvxctv from turux'fif* 

B. The compound is an adjective or noun : — . 

a. Tlie second part is derived from a verb, and has the followinjij endings : 
(a) Most frequently -oy, -o»', c. g. ^poTp6^os, nourishing wild btasfs, ^pSrpo- 

^s, nourished by wild beasts. See ^ 75, Rem. 4. 
{/3) -ijJ (-T?j$) or -OS (Gen. -ow), -rip {-rrip)^ -rap, commonly used as 

substantives witli a transitive signification, e. g. ftKpyirrjSf bcncfactir ; 

yo/jLod4rris, lajislalor; fivpoTrdKris, opyi^o^ipas, icaiZoKlrmp \ 

Digitized by 



(7) -lis, -cs, commonly with a passive or intransitivo sigmftcation, o. g 
^to<^i\ils, Uloved of God; tbfutdrfiSf quick to learn, docilis; cvrpciri^s, 

(8) -I (-1), e. g. yp€vli6fia{nvs from MAPTTfl, yo/u)^</Aa{. 

b. Or the second part is a substantive : — 

(a) An aitribuiioe relation exists between the two parts of the compound, th« 
first containing a more definite explanation of the last The substantive 
remains unchanged. The fint part is an adverb or preposition, sometimes also 
a substantive or adjective, e. g. 6ijMovXos^ afdlow-dave ; jSo^Ai/tof , excessive hun- 
ger, bulimy ; iuep6iro\is, citadd. 

(b) An objective relation exists between the two parts of the compound, tho 
last denoting the object of the first This division includes a large number of 
adjectives, the first part of which consists either of a verb, or, though mora 
seldom, of an adjective, of a separable or inseparable adverb, or of a preposi- 
tion used as an adverb, e. g. 9€taiiai/4mif » 6 rohs iuLoims Scio-os, i%ixcup4Kwco% 
as 6 rots Ktutois lirtxeufmVf KcucadtdftMP ss ^ jrcur^ Ihi/JMva fx'^y 9vs4pots, one who 
has an unhappy love, liif^eos = 6 rhif d-c^y iv imrr^ ^X^^^ (eKoucos =■ 6 iifrh rod 
offcov AVf iwcus = 6 vtuSas ovk fx^''* ^ '^ these examples the form of the sub- 
stantive remains unchanged,^ where the substantive has a form which is appro - 
priate for the Masc. or Fem. of the adjective, but where this is not the case, the 
substantive assumes a corresponding adjective-ending, viz. -os (Gen. -ov), -us 
(Gen. -«p),->?s (Gen. -owj), -»f (Gen. -i8or), -tnf and (when it ends in -w) -y, c. g 
0^y8ciirirof (8ciiryoy), a J^low^guest, w^Hucos (8/in}), irifws (ri/iii), Sex^Mcpos 
{ilfi4pa), ^tXoxp^futros {xp^f'h TCP^f""^^)* (Surrofios (or^fta), tCytcos {yv)i having a 
fertile soil; kuw6y€»s (yaOf ), one who deserts the ship ; iufca^\fis {rh ^cAos), &yaK- 
Kts (&Xjc^), hxp^fjunf, iXoKfrnSf Gren. -vos {rh BdKpv), 

c Or the second part is an adjective : — 

The adjective retains its form, except that those in -vs commonly take the 
ending -nis] the first part consists either of a substantive or tn adverb, e. g. 
iurrvywiruv, near the city, urbi vicinus; 7rdytro<pos or Tdunro<pos, -ov, very wise; dty6- 
fjuuos, -w, unlike ; irp^Kos, -ov, hri^^s from ^Sus, ToScSmyr from ^«rvr. 

' For -example, BturiSatfimw is an adjective of two endings, the ending -mw 
being both Masc. and Fem., therefore the substantive Ikdfjunf is not changed in 
composition ; but avvUtwvos takes a regular adjective termination, as the sab- 
stantive ZfTryw has neither a Masc. nor Fem. endinir. 

Digitized by 




Parts of a Simple SentencCc 

1238. Nature of a Sentence. — Subject. — Predicate. 

1. Syntax treats of sentences. A sentence is the ex- 
pression of a thought in words, e. g. Th poSov ^dXKei] 6 
av^panro^ ^vrp-i^ iarip. The conceptions of the mind are 
related both to each other and to the speaker. The con« 
oeptions or ideas themselves are expressed by Essential 
words (^ 38, 4) ; their relations to each other, partly by 
inflection and partly by Formal words. 

Thus, e. g. in the sentence T^ KoXhp ^SBw ^dxxti iv rf rw Tarp^s ic^W'^f 
there are five essential words : Ka\6s, ^69oy, ^dx^tiy, meHip, intwos \ their rela- 
tions to each other are expressed partly by their inflection and partly by the 
Formal words t^, ^r, ry, rov, 

2. Every sentence mxist necessarily have two parts, a sub- 
ject and a predicate. The subject is that, of which some- 
thing is affirmed ; the predicate that, which is affirmed of the 
subject, e. g. in the sentences, to pil^v ^aXXct — o Sv^panrt^ 
Svifro9 ioTip, TO poBop and 6 av^poiyrro<: are the subjects, d-aX- 
Xet and ^vrfTo^ ioTiv, the predicates. 

3. The predicate properly contains the substance of the 
sentence; the subject is subordinate to it and can be 

Digitized by 


298 SYNTAX. [i 235 

expressed by a mere inflection-ending of the verb, e. g. 
SlScO'fic, (/) give. 

4. The . subject is a substantive or a word used as a 
substantive, viz. a substantive pronoun or numeral; an 
adjective or participle used as a. substantive ; an adverb 
which becomes a substantive by prefixing the article ; a 
preposition with its Case ; an infinitive ; fiinally, every word, 
letter, syllable, and every combination of words can be con- 
sidered as a substantive, and with the neuter article com- 
monly agreeing with it, can be used as a subject. The 
subject is in the Nom. 

Th p6^ov ^AxXtu — *'Eyi»ypi^f ahyp6/^is, — Tpt7s i^AJ^y. — 'O ao^hs cw- 
9alfiu¥ iirri. — Ot <ff^ovovvrts /JUffovirrtu, — O i Tcdkat iufiptiM ^ffca^.^Ol irtpl 
MiKTidBriif Ka\&s iiAax^^oj^o, — X. Cy. 8. 3, 42. Ofhoi offrwr ^8ii iari rh 
Ixo' TCpil*'^'''^ ^5 iviaphy rh i.vofid\\€iif, — T^ SiSio-KCiy koKSv i^riy. 
— X. R. L. 9, 2. (ircTflu Tp ipcTp <r<&(€<r^at us rhp irA.c/w xP^yoif /laWoVj j^ 
Tp Kcuclf. — T^ ci ir{iy^t(rfUs iarty, — T^ ijra fuucp6p i<my, — Th yycv^i o-cav- 
rhy Ka\6v ioriv, 

Kemabk 1. In the construction of the Accusative with the Infinitive, tho 
Rtilycct is in the Ace, as will bo seen ^ 307, 3. In iudt'finite and difttribntivo 
designations of number, the subject is expressed by a preposition ( Wr, ircp(, xard) 
with its Case, e.^.Zls rirrapas ^X^oy, a« many as four came (with round nam- • 
tiers us also signifies about^ at most). X Cy. 8. 3, 9. corocray irparw itukv rw 
Zopv^6po»v tis rerpaKisx^^^ovs (<diout four thousand stood)^ tynrpoff^v Z\ t&p 
vv\i$y «ir rifftrapas, 8isx^«>( ^ ^Karym^w r&y rvk&y. X. H. 6. 5, 10. 
f^vyov €15 AoKfUaifJioya r&y ircpl 2r<£(rfinroy TeytarSiv irtpX iKraKoalovs, 
So Ko^' iKdfftovs, each one singly ^ one by one, singuli; Karh, li^inj, singtdae gentcs. 

5, In the following cases the subject is not expressed by 
any special word : — 

(a) When the subject is a personal pronoun and is not particularly emphatic, 
C. g. Tpd^, 7P<^««f 7P<^<^" j 

(b) WTien the idea contained in the predicate is such, that it cannot appro- 
priately belong to every subject, but only to a particular on,e, tho subject 
being, as it were, implied in the predicate. Thus, o<yoxo«</6t in Horn. 
mf. o jrox^^i the cap^arer pours out the wine ; ^iti in Her. sc. 6 ^vriip, 
X. An. 3. 4, 36. iirti iyiyywcKOV avrovs oJ^EAAi^ycf fiou\ofi4yovs inrUyou koJ 
9<a77cAXo|i^yot;f, ^K^p v|c (sc, 6 ir^ov|) roTs^EWr^iriirapafrKtvdiratT^ca, S» 
a-riftaiyfi rp ffd\iriyytf iadXwty^ty, sc. 6 (roXiriicr^/y (the signal is 
[ioas] given by /Ac trumpet). So we must explain words wJiicIi denote tho 
state of tho weatlier or the phenomena of nature ; as Set, it rains ; yi^ei^ 
it snoias, fipoyr^^ kcrrpdirrti, f^c. & Z€t5s. Th, 4, 52. ftreia-f, thtrc icas 
an eartfiquaJ:e. X. Cy. 4. 5, 5. aua-Kord^d, it is dark; 

(c) Tho subject is easily supplied from the context; thus, in designations of 
time, e. g. ^y iyyvs '^\lov ^vapwy (sc. ^ vy^ipa), ''Hy iujupX ii.yoph' vKi^owraM 
and the like ; iraptx^i poi, sc. KoipJs, it is time^ it is aUouxd, one can = licci^ 

Digitized by 


i fsg&i ) SUBJECT. — rllEDICATE. COPULA 299 

Ci X .fer. 3, 73. ^fuif irap4^^i hmff^craffbtu r^v ^X^y* In this way thG 
wii^ J ^€6s is very freqaently omitted in certain phmsof', e. g. rpotrti" 
fiaif* tj 8c. 6 ^6s] -n-pox^p^^ A*®« (sc.tA vpAyiJLara)^ things prosper to mG, 
Ituceeedj comp. Th. 1 , 1 09. In such expressions aa <t>a<rly Kiyovctf etc^ 
the suljcct &y^p0irot is regularly omitted, as it is readily apparent *, 

(d) Sometimes the subject is supplied from some word of the sentence. Ilcr. 
9, 8. rhy ^Itr^fthy irtlxfoy koI <r^ ^y trpbs t€Ac», sc. t^ tcTxoj, they 
waUed the Isthmus^ ana the [uxiU] was^ etc. X. Cy. 2. 4, 24. jrop^vcotuu 
€h^hs irobs T A fia<rt\9ta, Kol fjv fikv iLvyi<mjTcu, sc. 6 pturiXtCs, So also 
other Cases as well as the Nom. are thus snpplied, e. g. PI. L. 804, d. 
iraiSia xT'^/mkos, oii94y ir« rQy roioiriuv (sc. 7ftdb«»y) dicup^pcoy] 

■(e) With the third Pers. Sing, of the verb, in a subordinate clause containing 
A general idea, and in definitions, the indefinite pronoun t 1 1 is sometimes 
omitted. PL CriCop. 49, c. o^e iLyraSut€7y ScT, o^c kokHs irottty ovbiva 
ky^pA-Kuy, ovS* &y briow wdaxV ^* avrayj not even if anv one shoiUd 
staffer Jrom them; so often wth'the Inf.; but if a participle stands in 
connection with the Inf., e. g. Eur. M. 1018. Kov<p<as <p4p€iy xp^ ^yjirhy 
iyra <rvfuf>opisy the participle must be considered as the subject. 

Kem. 2. Such expressions as Sc?, XP^* ^oKtly Ttpi-xu, ilt<m(v)^ iy^^xtreu (it is 
possible)^ ffaX£s, cS ^x^i, fx^' XAyw {consentaneum est)^ Xiyerai [it is said), etc., 
the Gieek language always considers as personal, the following Inf or substan- 
tive sentence being regarded as the subject of these verbs. 

6. The predicate is a verb, an adjective, participle, ad- 
jective pronoun or numeral, or a substantive with the 
Formal word ehai ; elvai, in this relation, is usually called 
the copula^ since it connects the adjective, substantive, etc. 
with the subject, and forms one thought, e. g. 

Tb p6Zov d^iAXci. — *0 hfbpwn^s ^yrjr6s iffriy. — *A^dyaTot claty ol 
S^foL — *H iptrii Ka\'fi i<niy, — ^Kya^^ vapodfpaats i&riy haiDov. — Kvpos 
^y fiafr^XM^s^^^TovTo TO irpayfid iari T<J8e. — 2i» .^<r^a wiivruy trpSfTos, 
-^Ol&ytpes ^aay rptls, ^ 

Rem a. The finite verb denotes both the thing alKrmed (id quod praedicatttr) 
and the relation of the affirmation to the subject and speaker ; the relation to 
the subject, is denoted by the personal-endings of the verb ; the relation to the 
speaker, bv its Modes and Tenses ; c. g. the ending of the verb \4yte pIiows 
that its subject is in the first person, ana its being in the Ind. mode l*ivs. tense, 
indicates that the speaker asserts something directly, at the present time. Jiiit 
if the pre<licate is expressed by an adjective or substantive with tlyai, tlie 
formation is denoted by the a(fjcrtive or substantive, and its rolntion to the 
six?akpr by cTt^ai, e. g. tvSaifioov ufxl = eu8oi;iOve-«, fvSaifiwv «! = evSaz/ttoKc-eiv, 
tii^aifioyes taotnou = (vBaufxovij-ffovtriyf thoiijrli tlicrc is a dilfercncc botwtcn tlie 
two modes of expression. 

Rem. 4. It is neerssarv' to distinguisli botwcrn t!ie use of ehciy as a Formal 
and as an Essential word ; in the fornier rclatirni, it is raei-cly a coimla, Ciin- 
necting the subject with the substantive or adjective, etc. (§ 2.38, 6); in th^ 
latter, it has tlie idea of Ixiiifj or f.x{stcnrf\ Ixhuj in a certain coudilinu. etc.. e. g. 
tort dfSs — ^s6s iffTiv &y (time is a God, God c.rists)^ as in Her. ,1, 108. tov 
^wlov rj vpoyoifj iarl iou<ra ao<(>r]. 

Digitized by 


300 SYNTAX.- [♦ 239 

Bem. 5. In order to giye greater emphasis to the predicate, the simple idea 
expressed by the verb, is resolved into the participle and copala ttmu This 
mode of expression, however, is more usual in poetrj, thongn it is found also 
in prose, paiticularlj in Herodotus, comp. Bcm. 3. Eur. C. 381. ir»s £ raXai" 
in»p\ ^Te irdffxoyrfs riJe; Id. H. 117. tJv o-tcvSmk. Iler. 3, 99. ktrap- 
yi6u*p6s iffri. Id. 9, 51. ^ ini<r6s ia-rt ivh rod *A<rwrov 8^«a aroBlovs 
itvixovacu PL L. 860, e. el rcana o^ws tx^^'*'^ 4criv, Dcm. Ol. 3. 
(v. 1.) 11, 7. TttDr* hf 4yv<oK6rei ^ffav, Hiey would have been convinced of them 

Rev. 6. The copula c7vai is sometimes omitted, though commonly only in 
the Ind. Fres. ; elytu is sometimes omitted, even when it is not a copula,*but 
properly a verb. Tliis ellipsis is most frequent in the following cases : — 

(a) In general propositions, observations, and proverbs. Eur. 0. 330. 6 fifyaa 
6\^s ou fi6yifios iy fiporois* X. Cy. 2. 4, 27. <rrpvn^ ykp j} ^^<mn (Ms) 
raxlffTfi ; 

(b) Very often with verbal adjectives in -r^of, as also with other expres- 
sions denoting necessity and duty^ e. g.itydyKriy xp^^^t ^4 /its, ci ir^r, 
also with Kcupos, &pa and the like. Dem. Ph. 3, 129, 70. ^/uy 7* vr2p t^j 
4k€v&tp(as hyoavivriov. Id. Cor. 296, 205. arifiiaa — iy ZovK^vewy t$ 
w6\€i fp4ptiv iiydyKri] 

\c) Often with certain adjectives, e. g. ^roifios, rrp6^vfios, oT6sr9, ivwa- 
r6sf P4^ioy, x^^^''^^^ ZriXoy, tiiioy, etc. PI. Phaedr. 252, a. (^ 
^xi) ^ovXfitar iroifiri. Dem. Ph. 1. 48, 29. ^d» Tdax^"^ Ariouy Itoi- 
fios, X. C. 1, 1, 5. ^TJKoy oZy, 8t( obK &v {XotKpdTJii) irpo4\ty€y, cl fiii 
hriarwtv kKti^eiffttv, Comp. ib. 2, 34. Here belong also the expressions 
dav/Murrby taov^ it is very ivonderfid (= mirum quantum)^ hfvfixayov Scoy, it 
is quite imjwssiblej inconceivable (= immane quantum) ^ see § 332, Rem. 10. 
On ovSch BsTis ov (= nemo non), see 4 332, Rem. 12. 

Rem. 7. The Ind. Impf. is but seldom omitted, e. g. Aeschin. Ctes. $ 71, 1^ 
4y ii4ffip (sc. ^v) Kcii. Trapfiixev rf 6(rrcpaiqi fls rijy iKK\ri^tuf\ the Ind. Pres. also is 
not very often omitted after conjunctions, e. g. ^(fre, iirel (comp. X C. 1, 46) ; 
on the contrary, very frequently after iri and &s {that)^ e. g. X. C. 1. 2, 52. 
\4yvyf &s ouBhy ifp€\os. The subjunctive is but seldom omitted after the rela- 
tive ts &y, and especialljr after conjunctions, e. g. PL Rp. 370, e. &y hy edtroTs 
Xpcfo (sc. ^). The ellipsis of the Opt. when &y belongs to it is more frequent, 
e. g. X. Cy. 1. 4, 12. ris yhp iy, ((pcuray, <rov yt UaM^epos irti&eu (sc. cfi}) ; Ib. 2. 
3, 2. ^v fjL^v rififis yiKWfity, BrjKoyfiri 0% r€ iroX^/uot &v ^fi4rfpoi (sc. cfiyo'ai'). The 
ellipsis of the Imp. is very rare, e. g. S. O. C. 1480. IXaos, 2 Zcdfiuy, X. An. 3. 
3, 14. ro7s ody ^tois x<^*^ {^^- 4<rT»), 5t( ov <rby iroAA^ ^d^MV* ^^^ ^^ hxlyois 
I^X^oy. The participle is very often omitted, especially after verba intdUgendi 
and declaranaif e. g. X S. 3, 7. S^X^y 7c, Srt tpavKos (sc. &y) ^ovov/uu, but else- 
where also, e. g. X. C. 2. 3, 15. &Towa \4yfts koI obBofi&s irphs aov (sc. 6yra)y el 
nulh modo tibi eonvenientia ; even in such cases as Th. 4, 135. x^^f^^yos rcXcvrdr- 
ros Ktd wahs Hap Ijhi (sc. Byros). The Inf. is often omitted after bweiy, ^ci<r- 
^oi, yofitCcty and tlie like, e. g. Th. 7, 60. fiov\€VT4a 4B6k€i, X. Cy. 1. 6, 14. 
iiin6yrafi€ 4K4\€iHras ro7s arparriyucoTs (sc. thai) yofu(ofi4yots hydpd(nJiia\4yt<r' 

} 239. Comparison, — Attribute and Object, 

1. "Wlien the predicate belonj^s to the subject in a higher oi 
A)wer degree than to another object, this relation is denoted by 
fhe Comparative, e. 'g. *0 irarTjp fici^tiiv icrrlv, y 6 vlos.— 'O 

Digitized by 



(To^os fLaXXov x^^P^^ '^ ^^p^» V "f^^^ xPVf^'"^^* -^^^ when Ike 
predicate belongs to the subject in the highest or lowest 
degree, as respects all other objects compared, the Superlative 
is used, and commonly takes with it a partitive Genitive, e. g. 
%i>Kpdrq^ iraynov 'EAX^ww o-o^tdraros yv, — *0 (roffnoi irdvnov 
fjidXia-Ta iTriSvfAti rrjs ipenj^. 

Bemask 1. The Comparative is strengthened or more definitcljr stated in 
.the following ways : (a) dj $rt, stiil, even^ etiam, e. g. fist(u¥ 4rt, still greater; 
{h) by fiaKpff 6\(yiff iroAX^, Urt iroAX^, Saif, rovoinp; /x^yo, 
d\iyoWf iroXi, Utroy^ r o 0*0 vro, which show how mucA more or less of the 
quality expressed by the adjective is intended, e. g. iroAA^ fui(wVf multo major, 
far greater, voW^ ?ti /icxfovcs, mttlto majores etiam; (c) sometimes by /ioA- 
Xoy. Her. 1,32. fiaKkoy 6?ifiUir€p6s 4<m (far). 

Rem. 2. The Superlative is strengthened or more definitely stated in the 
following ways : (a) by ica(, vd, even, e.g.Kal ijuixiara^ vd rnaxime, very greatly 
indeed; (b) by words denoting measure or the degree of difference, viz. iroKKS, 
uaKp^, iroX^, irapii ttoX^, 2(ry, roaoir^, e. g, iroXA^ ipurrotf mtilto 
praegtantissimtts, the best hyfar; fiaxp^ iptrros, longe praestantissimus ; (c) even 
by the Superlative: fidKiara (irXcctf'roy and fiayiirrow p»et.), e. g. S. 
O. C. 743. irX < I o-roy iw^p^wy icdKioros, Th. 7, 42, /id \ to" "a 9tty6reeros\ 
(d) by the relative: &s^ {ivws), Sri and f, oTos U 343, Rem. 2), e.g.&s 
rdxtOTOf quam cderrime, irt fUbuoro, f Apirroyf e. g. JPI. Apol. 23, a. iroXXal 
fi4y iir4x^fud /uoc yty6yurt ici^ oTai xa^<*'^«''<u ml fiapOreerai. X. An. 4. 8, 
2. x^'o' ff^oy xoAcir^aroK; (e) by eft, unus, e. g. Her. 6, 127. ^X^e X/uy 
Zvpihis ^vfiapl-njs, ts iirl vKficroy 8^ x^^V* cf' itvijp Mxfro, X. An. 1. 
9, 22. ZApa irXcic ra cfs 7c kyiip &y ixd^ifiayt, he received the most gifts, at least 
considering the fact that he was hut a single individual (C. Tnsc. 2. 26, 64. amplitu- 
dinem animi unam esse omnium rem pnlcherrimam) ; (f ) a peculiar mode of 

137. rodr6 fioi iy roiO'i ^ttSraroy ^aiyereu yty4obcu, Fl. Symp. 173, b. 
XvKpdrovs ipturriis t^y iy roif fiiiXi era r&y rire. The construction with the 
Fem. is found only in Thuc, e. g. 3, 81. (ardiris) iy rois vpefiri} iyiyrro, lb. 
17. iy rols irKeXarai writs. In such instances, ro7s must be considered 
fus Ncut. In like manner, the expression Zuoia (ifuHalon.) ro7s was used 
with the Superlative. Her. 3, 8. trifioyrat di *Apdfiioi triaris iiy^pdhrwy 6fio7a 
T r<r I ^ ({ X 1 0- r a (sc. atfiofiiyots), like those who respect very much, ut qui rnaxime, 
Th. 1, 25. xpv/tdrwy Hifydfiu iyrts K«i^ ixtiyoy rhv XP^yoy Sfioia toTj 'EXX^kwv 
vKovffiMrdrois. The Superlative is also intensified by joining a positive 
with it, e. g. *Aya^y iTviuy KpdriaroSf the best among the good horsemen = the 

Rem. 3. The Superlative relation is often expressed more emphatically by 
negative adjectives or adverbs in the Superlative, preceded by 06 ILitikes), 
instead of positive adjectives or adverbs in the Superlative, e.g.obx VKiara, 
not the leak, especially, oh KdHiaroSt ohic iXdx^aros, stronger ^han fid* 
Xurra, ^Kriarost fi4ytaros. Sometimes, also, it is expressed antithetically, c. g 
obx l}ir((rra, dXX& fidkiara. 

' 'flj, 5ti are not in themselves intensive particles, but merclv connect some 
part of b^yofjuu understood, and in that way may be said to give intensity to 
the Superlative. Sometimes 96yafjuu is expressed, e. g. Eeyo^y ifftfrorai 


Digitized by 


302 SYNTAX. 'f 240 

2. A sentence consisting of a subject and pieaicaie may b* 
extended by defining the subject and predicate more exactly, 
llie word or words wliich define the subject more fully, is 
called an aUribute, or attributive. The subject is more exactly 
described, therefore, (a) by the addition of an adjective (attrib- 
utive* adjective), e. g. to koXov po^w\ (b) by the Gen. of a 
substantive (attributive Gen.), c. g. 6 rov ^acrikiioi laJTro^, 
regis hortus (=regius hortus) ; (c) by a substantive in the sanio 
Case as the word wliich is more definitely described, e. g, 
Kv/)05, 6 Paa-ikm, The explanatory word is here said to bo in 
apposition with the word explained, and may be called an 
appositive of that word. The predicate (which is termed the 
object), is more exactly described, (a) by a Case of a substan- 
tive ; (b) by a preposition witli a substantive ; (c) py the Inf., 
(d) by an adverb, e. g. *0 <rwfM% ttjv Ap€rrfv do-icci. Ilept t^« 
irar/>iSo9 /xa;(o/Ac^a. 'ATrtcvat crt3v/LiuJ. KaXois ypo^cts. 

} 210. Agreement. 

1. Tlic finite verb agrees with the subject in Person and 
Number; the adjective, participle, pronoun, and numeral, in 
Gender, Number, and Case. The substantive, as a predicate, 
agrees with the subject only in Case ; in Gender, Number, and 
Case, only when it denotes a person, and hence either has a 
particular form for the Masc. and Fem., or is of common gender. 
The same principle appHes to substantives in apposition ($ 266, 
1). But when the substantive denotes a tJdngy it agrees with 
the subject only in Case, e. g. 

"Eyw ypdipo), av ypdtpus, oZtos ypd^ti, — 'O AySfpogrKos drrjrSs ftrrtr. — *H &/>cW/ 
vaX^ i(my. — T^ vpayfM al<T^6v 4<my. — 0< "EXXijycy iro\€fUK(&TaToi ^ffay,-' 
'O Ka\hs ircus, t} <ro^9> yvtrfif rh fwcphy t^kvov. — *Ey*y4<r^y r<j» fii'Spc rovrta 
{KptrlttS icoi *A\Kifiidhis) ^vcti ^iXoTifundru irdvroiy'A^yalvy, X. C. 1. 2, 14. 
— Kvpos Jiy fioffiKfvs, — T6fivpis ^v fiwlKtia. — Kvpos, 6 ficuriKevs, TSfivpiSf rj fiaal 
Aeio. On the contrary, r^y ^vyar4pa^ heiv6v ri icdWos koX ixiy^ 
bo St ild-yviy Si^4 eTirey {his daughter a wonder in betiitty and size), X. Cy. 5. 2, 7. 

* When the adjertive merely aserilies some qnality to the Rubstantivc with 
which it ujrrecs, it is C4illed an atirihuUDp. adjective, but when it belongs to tho 
predicate and is used in describinj^ what is said of the subject, it is called a 
prcditxUive adjective, c. g. in the expression S iya^hs curfip (the good man), kya* 
his is attributive, but in 6 hviip itrrk aycf^6s {the man is <jood)^ it is predicative. 

Digitized by 


i 240.] AOREEMENT. 303 

2. The predicative adjective or substantive agrees with the 
subject as above stated, when the following and other similar 
verbs, which do not of themselves express a complete predicate 
sense, have cliielly the force of the copula : — 

(a) The verb hrdpfx^iv, to be the cause of, to be, to exist ; 

(b) Verbs signifying to become, to increase, to grow, e. g. ytyvo- 
fiai, c<^w, avCdvofjLOi ; 

(c) Tlie verbs ficF<i>, to remain, and Karlcmp^, to he establisJied, 
appointed, to stand; 

(d) Verbs signifying to seem, appca^ show one's self, e. g. 
coiKo, (fMLVofwi, 8i;Xov/Aac; 

(e) Verbs signifying to be named, e. g. koXov/uii, ovo/ao^o/juzc, 
Xeyo/xoi, oKovu), to be called (like audire) ; 

(f) Verbs signifying to be appointed to sometJiing, to be c/ioscn, 
to be 7iamed, e. g. alpov^iai, awo^LKyvfuu ; 

(g) Verbs signifying to be regarded as something, to be rccog* 
nized as something, to be supposed, e. g. vo/w'fofiai, icpiVo* 
/xat, vTToXafipdvofiai ; 

(h) Verbs signifying to be given as something] to be received as 
STmctJdng, to be abandoned, cast off, and the like, e. g. 

Rvpor iy4pfro $curi\fhs rS»v Tltp<rQy» — To&rois 6 ♦fXiinros fityas rj v^'fi^ri 
(Dem.).— *AXKi3<^f 4p4^7i ^<rrpaTJiy6s. — 'Arrl ^IAmv ical ^4intp yOv K6\aK€s 
Kmi ^MQis ix^P*"^ ii.Ko{tovcr%v (audiunt), they hear themselves called Jlalterers, etc., 
Dcm. Cor. 241. 

Kemark 1. TVlion the Tcrl)9 mentioned nndcr (e), (f ), (g), (h), Imre the 
active form, thej take two accusatives (§ 280, 4). 

Rem. 2. Several of the verbs above named, arc also joined with adverbs, 
bnt they then express a complete predicate sense ; c. g. ^vKpdrris ^v [lived) &«i 
o-ifK TtHs ifdots. KaA»f, irajcevr icnw {it is well, etc.). Acikms Hirav 4w 
<ffv\auc^fft oi BafivX4>vwi [diligenter versabantur in custodia), Her. 3, 152. 
Mdrrjy fli/ou, to be in vain. Elf^ai, as well as the verbs ylyyta^at and tc^v- 
ic/yat, is very often connected with adverbs of place and degree, of which 
the corresponding adjective-forms are not in use, as^lxa, x^P^^^ ^'^^ft f^^'^- 
ody, 7r6^P», iyy^s., irAqff^ov, 6^ov, SlKis, fiaWov, tid\ia'Ta, c g. 
Toiffi'Adrjyaiuy arparirYOiffi iylyoyro 8ix« aiyP&fuu (scntcntiae in c/itYrsMS 
■jKirtcs disccdebaiU), Her. 6, 109. 

3. When a Demonstrative, Relative, or Interrogative pmnoun, 
either as a subject or predicate, is connected wnth a substantive 
by the copula cTvat, or one of the verbs inciitioncd in No. 2, 
the Greek commonly, as the Latin regularly, put the pronoun 
by means of attraction, in the same gender and number with 

Digitized by 


304 SYNTAX. [♦ 241 

the substantive to wliich it belongs. So too, when the pronoun 
is in the Ace. and depends on a verb of naming, e. g. 

Ofiroi til ^Adiiiwot 7t 8(ici}y aifriiw koXovcu/, &XA& ypa^^iy, PL Entyphr. 
princ. — UofA rw irpayry9yrifi4ifww uatfddifrrt' aBrri yitp iiplirriq SiSao-Jca- 
\fa, X. Cy. 8. 7, 24. — T Is iffri icfjy ii liis ipwr^s'^ — nidrrcs oZroi p6/AOi 
tltriy, ots rh »A^^s avytKdhp ica2 toKifuiirav fypea^t, X. C 1. 2, 42. — *Zdi^ ris 
^iKos fioi ytv6iAM¥os eS iroiciy ^^Xp, olr6s ftot filos itrrl (thi» if my meant of 
lifsy hie mihi est victuB) 3. 11, 4. 

Rem. 3. Yet tho Greeks not unfreqaentlv pat ;he pronoun in the Nent 
Sing., e. g.'E^t 8^ roSro rvpayy^f, PL Kp. 344, a, where in Lat. it would 
be, Est aatcm Aa«c fyranfiM. Tovr6 iaruffi 9iKaioo'6wri,ih.432,h, Tovro 
vfiyil Koi itpx^ Kirfio'9»St Pbaedr. 245, c. The Neat. PI. is sometimes osed 
instead of the Neat. Sing. "Eyttyt ^/U raura fAw ^\vaplas cTnu, X. An. 
1 . 3, 1 8. See $ 24 1 , Bem. 3. The neuter pronoan denotes the nature of an object ; 
on the contrary, the pronoan that agrees with a noan, denotes the quaJUty of tho 
object. Hence there are cases where the two forms of expression cannot be 
interchanged, e. g. T( ^<rri ^biwos s guid est invidiaf {what it Us naturtf) 
and rls i<m ^^6ifos; quae est invidia f {what ia envy t) The neater demon- 
strative is also always ascd, when it is more fally explained by a word in appo- 
sition, e.g. OvTovT ^v tifiaifioyla^ &s fouce, kokov ivaXXa^^ PI. Gorg.478, c 

{241. Exceptions to the general rules oj Agreement. 

1. The fonn of the predicate in many cases docs not agree 
with the subject grammatically, hut in sense only (Constractio 
KOTtt o-uvccriv). Hence, after a collective noun in the Singular, 
when it is used of persons, as well as after the names of cities 
and countries, used for the inhabitants, and also with abstracts 
which stand for concretes, the Plural is used, and such a gender 
as belongs to the persons denoted by these words. 

Her. 9, 23. rh vXri^os iir€fio^^iii<ra¥, Th. 4, 32. 6 &XXof arparha 
iirtfiaiifoy. 5, 60. rh ffrpar6jrtZop dv«X(6povr< 2, 21. -mnl rpSw^ 
iannpl^urro ^ v6\is koI rhv UtputXia. iw hpyf c^xoi^* With attribntiye adjec- 
tives, this construction is rare and only poetic, c. g. H. x» 84. ^^Xc riicyw (Hec- 
tor) ; bat it is very common in prose with a Part whish stands in a remoter 
nttribative rehition, e. g. Th. 8, 1^, M r^v ir6kt9 iw4w\w¥ iv iroXX^ rapajcf 
irol ^fitp tvras. X. Cy. 7. 3, 8. 2 hytx^ icol irurr^ ^v\4i, otxv ^ 4»oAi- 
wi)y ri/JMS, X. H. 1. 4, 13. 6 ix rov turrtos 6x^os Ifirpoiadri irp6s riu raCj, 
^avfid{opTes ical Hw fiov\6fitwot rhy 'AXic(/3u(8ify. It is very frequent 
with the pronouns, Th. 1, 136. ^cvy« is K4picvpay &s alr&y (sc. Ktpicvpal 
wy) fiKpyinis, 4, 15. is r^y :Sirdprny &s ityy^^^ ^i ytyeyrjfi^ya ircpl IIuX^v, 
Vio^ty avr o7 s {sc. rots ^TrapTtdreus) . X. Cy. 3. 3,14. avyKoXiaas vay rhtrrp^* 
TtwrtKhy IXf{« wpkj air oh s rotdSc. Also with tlie relative pronoan ,• sc« oo 
•<yc<^ttvc-scntcnccs, § 332, 5. 

Digitized by 



Rbmask 1. When the subject is expressed bj the Neut. article r6 or 7 i in 
connection with a substAntivo in the Gen. PL, the predicate is commonly in the 
PI., being conformed to the attribntive genitive ; the predicative adjective or par- 
ticiple takes the gender of the attribntive genitive. S. Ph. 497. rit r&v BiaK6' 
ywp rhy oXxaSf ffvciyoy 9r6Xop (^ec7«w which has the Neat. PI. ri for its 
subject would regularly have been in the Sing, according to No. 4, bnt is con- 
fonncd to the ploralitj in ^taK6intv), PI. Rp. 8. 563, c. r^ r&y ^rjptvw 
i\€v^9p^T9pd iffTiy (the Sing, icriy is used on account of the Neut. PI. 
i\9v&€pil»rfpa^ according to No. 4, while iKivd€p^€pa is conformed to the idea 
of ^pia contained in ^ptwv), 

Kem. 2. Closely related to the construction just stated, is the following. 
When a substantive subject with an attributive substantive in the Gen. 1^1. 
expresses periphrastically a substantive idea, as ^x^ Tfiofalao, the Participle 
which stapds m a remoter attributive relation to the subject, agrees in Case 
with the subject, but in Gender and Number with the substantive in the Gen., 
which expresses the principal idea of the periphrasis. Od. A, 90. j|a3c 8* M 
r^vx}l Brifialov T^iptaiao XP^^^^ (Tir^irrpoy lx^^> ^ shade of the Theban 
Teiresias came, having a golden sceptre (here tx^^^S^^^ ^^ number with ^vxhi 
but in genderwith T€tp€<rleu>). U. fi, 459, hpvlbvy v^rt^vSty t^vta voxxi, 
tybCi K€^ tySta vor&yrtu iLyaW6/i§yai irr€piy^<r<rur, 

2. When the subject is expressed, not as a special and defi- 
nite object, but as a general idea, the predicative adjective is 
put in the Neut. Sing, without reference to the gender and 
number of the subject. 

(The English sometimes uses the words ihing, or someUung. Sometimes the 
pronoun t2, or the substantives xp^M^ "^p^yf^^ on connected with the 
adjective. When the adjective is in the Superlative, the English uses the 
article the), 

1\. fit 204. obic &ya^hy voKvKoipaytri (• multiplicity of rulers is nolagooa 
tiling): cff Kotpayot fffrw. Eur. 0.760. itiyhy ol voXXo/, KcucoCpyovs tray 
fx*^^ ^poffrdras* Id. M. 329. ir\^y yhp riicyny Kiiotyt ^IXraroy ir6kis. Id. H. 
YA295.ttl fi€rafio\al KvirripSy. Her. 3,62. 11 fiovyapx^V tcpdnaroy (a 
monarchy is the best thing, or most desirable). PI. Rp. 2. 364, a. Ka\hy uky ri 
vm^poviym re koH ZiKaiotriyrit x^^*''^^ fidyroi koI iwivoyoy. Also 
in abbreviated adjective sentences, e. g. Her. 3, 108. 1^ \4aiya, ihy lax^^^ 
raroy Kol dpaff^raroy, 4ira^ iy r^ fii^ rttcrtt ty, PI. Rp. 4, 420, c. 01 
i^daKfiotf KdWtffToy 6y, obic harpti^ iyaXtiKififidyoi ^Uriy, Her. 3, 53. 
rvpayyU XP^M> a'^aK€p6y, PI. Th. 122, b. evfifiovk^ ttp^y xP^'aa. Dem. 
01. 1. 21, 12. &tna pAy xSyos, tty &«f r& irpdyfunOf fidratdy ri ^yrreu ica2 

3. When the subject is an Inf. or an entire sentence, tne 
Greeks usually put the predicative adjective in the Neut. PL' 
instead of the Sing., where the EngUsh uses the pronoun % 
e. g. it is pleasant to see tlie sun. This occurs most frequently 
with verbal adjectives in -w and -rco? ; with those in tcos 
and many in -tos, the Inf. is implied in the word itself, c- g. 


Digitized by 


306 SYNTAX. [$ 241 

ofiwTea iarl rtw, some mie is to be helped; inard cWi rois <f>i\oi^ 
fi'icnds are to he trusted. 

Her. 1, 91. rV xwrp^fuyttif fioipatf iiivyard itrrt (it is impossible) iaeo^uyUw 
Ktd <&6^. 3, 83. S^Xa, Sri 8e? %va yi riva rifiitav fiaaiKia ycviffbau Th. 1, 86. 
oti oh rupaHoria rots *A^ycdois i<rr[yf ovi^ tctd \6yois Siaxpirda, ^Vdt 
Tiuvpuria iy tdx^ ^t ^- i^^rara ^v iv r^ irap6yTi r<iin Aotcpoifs iifW' 

Bex. 3. In lOte manner, the Greek ycry often uses the PL raDra, r£S9 
(sotnctimes also ^iceTra), to express an idea in its whole extent or in the most 
general manner, the plural bringing before the mind all the particulars involved 
in the idea, Th. 6, 77. ouic "^Imves rddt wrly^ ovS* 'EAXjjnrJyriof, oAA^ AoM^t^s, 
it [this) is not lonians^ etc. Aeschin. Ctes. p. 55. ovk tori ravra iipx^ (Jus is 
not an office). Id. Leg. p. 50. tout* t<my 6 vpo^^s, this is the traitor. V\, 
Fhacdou. 62, d. 6 iiy6iiTOs Ay^ponros rdx* tw olrj^tiri ravra, ^^uKrioy ttvai kxh 
rov ieavSrou. In the English these plurals are generally translated by the 
singular, as thisj that. 

4, The subject in the Neut PL is connected with a verb in 
the Sing., inasmuch as a plurality of objects in the neuter, was 
regarded by the Greeks as one connected witolc, the individual- 
ity being lost sight of. 

Tk (&a rpix^i* — TA wpdyfiard ierri leakd. X. Ven. 12, 11 tr^ rp 
wA\uir^(€rai Hol iivd\Xvrai rit. oiK€iet ixdifrov. 'EuT.yLSlS.KaKovyitp 
ijf9fAs 9&P* 6tniio-Uf oifK ^x<'« 

Rem. 4. Also in adverbial participial phrases, a neuter plural is joined with 
a participle in the singular, e. g. S<f ^ay ravra, quum haec visa, decreta essent. 
Xr An. 4. 1, 13. B6^ay l^ ravra, ixiipv^ay olSrw voittw, tchen these things had 
been agreed upon, orders tcere given, etc. Xet, X. H. 3. 2, 19. So^arra <^ raw- 
r a KoX Tctpavb^yra^rh pkv orpartvpara av^A^ci^. 

Hbm. 5. There are some exceptions, however, to the role just stated ; most 
of them may be referred to the following cases: — 

(a) When the subject in the Neut PL denotes persons or living creatures, 
the verb is very often put in the PI. in accordance with the Constructio 
Karik ffvv^ffty, Th. 4, 88. to t e A. ij (the magistrates) ray haxftiiioyivy 
6p6erayra BpeuriHaw 4^4x€p^ay. 7, 57. rbo-^9c prrh 'A^yo/wy 
M^yti ierrpdr€uoy. Vi.ljach, ISO, Q.rk petpditta iiaXtydpewt' 
iiripipviiyrai iMKpdrous Ksd trtp^Spa ixaiyoOiny, 

(b) Wlien the objects contained in the plural arc to be icpresented t/i(/«W(/» 
alltf rather tban collectively, or when the idea of plurality composed of 
several parts (which may also have relation to ditrcrent times ana placets) 
is to be made prominent,' e. g. X. An. I. 7, 17. ravry ry iuitp^ ovk iftax*- 
traro ficurtXtvs, oAA* vvox^powray <f>ay(pk ^cay iral Tttwv km iiybpdnraey 
Xx^'t iroAAdl (many tracks here and there). Oy. 6.1, 14. rk pox^'npk 
ay^ptina vatrwy, olpai, rwy ivtdvpxw cuKpor^ i(m, K&ir4tra tpotra ain- 

' It will often, therefore, depend upon the view in the speakcr^s mind, whcthef 
iM Sing, or PL is to be used. 

Digitized by 



»yt at, the sinrjxiar 4<rrl is used here becatise mankind is referred ta as a 
dasSf but the plural cuTi&vrai^ to denote that each individual blames love, the 
charge being made too,, in a different fnanner and at different times. Th. 5, 
2G. i^cff (jyraeter) roinuv irphs rhu Meurriyuchr Koi *Evihavpioy 'ti6htfu» Koi 4s 
&A\a i^juiparipQis a it. a primal a iy4yoyroy mistakes ofeacli of the two^ at 
various pointy and times. X. An. 1. 4, 4. ^(Tup 5i roBra Bvo -fflxf' 

'c) The non- Attic poets from Homer down, very often use the PI. simply on 
account of the metre. 

Hsu. 6. The plural sub^t, masculine or feminine, is connected in the. poets, 
thoogh rarely, with a verb m the Sing. Pind. 01. 11 . ( 10.) princ. fitKi^dpvts 
0/i y o • doTcp«»y ipx^ A^ow r ^ A X c r a i. This confltmction is very limited in 
prose- writers ; it occurs with ^(rn and liv, but only at the beginning of a sen- 
tence (comp. il est cent usages) , which then assume the character of impersonal 
expressions. Her. 1, 26. Im koL /irrafjb t^s rt troKau^s iriMos Kot rov miod im-di 
TTfiSiot. PI. Kp. 5, 462, e. Il<m koI 4y reus fiAAois ir6Kta'iy &pxoyr4s re koI i^futs. 
In like manner (jie Greeks regularly say (<rriy, olf sunt, qui. See ( 331, Bcm. 
4. The construction mentioned ^ 242, uem. 2, is very different from this. 

5. A subject in the Dual, as well us two subjects in the Sin- 
gular, very often have a predicate in the PI., e. g. Avw a r parti 
dve^oipyjcrav. Twv avraiv Siovrai Koi fj yvvrj koI b dvi^p. The 
rule seems to be, that when the affirmation is made of each of 
the two separately, the Dual is used, .but when of both together, 
the Plural, e. g. Mtvuis Kbl AvKovpyo^ v6p.ovs c^cri/v (each 
gave laws)] ^Soviy <roc Kai \virrj ivT^7r6\€L paa-iXtvcrtrov. 

Rem. 7. The Dual is not used in all cases where two objects are spoken of, 
but only where two similar objects are mentioned, cither naturally connected, 
e. g. ir«J8€, x**iP<> ^*» o^ ^^^^^ *^ w® conceive to stand in a close and reciprocal 
' relation, e. g. two combatants, two friends, etc. 

11e3i. 8. The Dual veiy often interchanges with the PI., especially in par- 
ticiples, e.g. XI. X, 621. rol H^ lSp& iiv€^6x^*''*'^ X^'"'^^^*' <rrdyr€ irorliryotiiy, 
Pl.£uthyd.273,d. ^7f£T9}y &p^w fiKi^^ayrts eU &AX^A«. 

Hem. 9. A subject in the Pk sometimes has a verb in the Dual, when two 
objects mutually connected, or two pairs, are spoken of, e. g. II. 8, 452, sqq. &s 

\Mroy 6fiptfAoy Sdmp, . . As r&jr putyofUiwy y4yrro iaxh tc ^0os rw (two streams 
running on opposite sfdes are compared with two hostile parties). II. d, 185, 
sqq. Hav(^e re koI <rv uSSapyc, iced A^»y Adpire re STc, yvy poi r4\y Kopi^^y & ir o - 
riytroy, — 191. Aax* 4^0fiapr f7roy ical irir t^Ztr ay {tux> pairs). 

Bem. 10. The following points also are to be noted in respect to the 
Dnal: — 

(a) A substantive in the PI. is very often connected with the Duals 8^m, 
8^0, but seldom with Svoiy. II. c, 10. Ha vl4€s, II. t, 4. &y€fiot 
Ho, Aesdi. Ag. 1395. Hvoiy otfi^yfiaarLy, PL Soph. 244, b. vpos- 
^fjxafi^yoi Suoiy 6y6fJLa(riy, PI. Rep. 614, c. 8i5o x^^^^'M^'ra 4xof^^' 
vw dXX^Xoty^ 

(b) The Duals Td&, roly^ re^«, to7i/8<, rtnrro»^ ro^oty, ofrrei, avrtffy, &, oTy, in 
prose are used both ae masculine and feminine (i. e. they arc of common 
gender), e. g. Afiifxp ri> iroXfc -— rS ywuiKv — tifupta ra&reo rdt ^ii4oa — Toi> 
jfy9v4^ty — r9&r» ri> r4xva — To^tf i*' rda^ Ktyri^e&iy^' ruf ^dt&. The Fern, 

Digitized by 


!I08 SYNTAX. [<241 

form of tho article ri, is extKmely rare, e. g; r& 8^ oSy leipOf 8. Ant. 
769 ; oft«ner the form rat i^, X. H. 6, 4. 17. PI. Tim. 79, d; so iicratrdm 
y oUtrair irap^dyoiy, S. O. C. 445. Taira occurs Av. Pac. 847, but 
rairaty is more frequent, e. g. ra^raiy fiSpaty, S.O. C.859;^jc rav- 
raiy, 1149; ra^raiy 84 ra7v Hid^Ktuy, Isae. 5, 15. A0ra, S. Ant. 
570. Besides the pronouns mentioned, sometimes other attributives also 
in the Dual are used as of common gender: the participle but seldonu 
PI. Fhaedr. 237, d. iifA&y iy Udar^ 9io rivi iirroy 19 4 a ipxoyTM icai 
&yoyr9f oty Mfu^ — • to^tv 94 it, r. X. 

6. When the predicate is a substantive connected to the 
subject by cTwu or any other verb having the character of a 
copula (i 240, 2), the verb often agrees by means of attraction, 
as commonly in Latin, with the nearest predicative substantive. 

Her. 3, 60. rb firJKos rov hp^yiueros hrrik arddioi 9lirt. *2, 15. at B^/3ai 
KtyvwTos 4Ka\4fro. Th. 3, 112. iarhy 96w k6^«» ii*l9ofi4yii ^\«6. 

4, 102. rh x^P^^^ TovTo, Sircp wp6Tfpoy *Zyy4a 69ol ikaXovyro, Isocr. 
Pancg. 51, b. Ifo-Ti iLpx^tc^rara r&y 4dv&y ical fuyiaras SuMurrctas txnrra 
^K'&^ai Kol ep^cs irol n4paai. So also in the participial construction, e. g. Th. 

5, 4. Kara?Mfifidyova't K<d fipuctyyiaSy %y tpviia 4y r^ Atoyriyjf, PL L. 735, c 
Tohs fi4yicrra 4^fifuipryiK4ras, iivtdrovs 9^ Syras, fieyiffTijy 8^ odiray fikdfiiiy 
ir6\€wst AvaAAcCrrciy efiv^cy (instead of 6yTas). So also Her. 3, 108. 4i \4mya, 
4hy lffxvp6TtLToy koL ^pacitTttroy^ SmJ^ 4y ry filtp rticrtt tv, instead of 
4wva. Comp. No. 2. A similar attraction occurs sometimes in sentences 
denoting comparison, e. g. r&v Koiv&y n JSipa 9ityoo6faiyf Sy oM^y <rb p&Kkoy^ % 
Tit $\Kos tx^h PI- Theaet. 209. a. (tx^i here agreeing with ns instead of 0^). 
In Latin this is much more frequent. 

7. A superlative connected with a partitive Gen. commonly 
takes the gender of the subject, more rarely that of the partitive 

H. ^, 253. (alcroO) ZsSf ifta KdpritrrSs re jcol &Kiffros wereny&y, x> 
139. xipKoSy 4\a^p6raros vereiiy&y. Her. 4, 85. 6 Tl6yros V€Xay4my 
hirdinwy •k4^vk9 ^wvfiaffi^Taros. Menandr. .p. 193. (Mein.) y6<rvy j^aKw" 
T^raros ^^^Syos. X. C. 4. 7, 7. 6 fj\to8 rbr ircCrra xp^^^i^ *'<^<v>' \afiirp4' 
raros 4»y 9tafi4y€i, Pi. Tim. 29, a. 6 K6irfios tcdWurros r&y yryoyormy, 
Plutarch. Consol. 102. c. ^ A^irij x"^«^^^^t)} ira^y. On the contrary, 
Isocr. ad Nicocl. cxtr. ir6fi$ov\os ityadhs xp^^^h^'^'^'''^^ '^^ rvpayyiKA- 
raroy avdymy Kryiiidrwy 4<rri (the Superlative here taking the gender 
of the partitive Gen. teniiAdrtty). 

Rev. 11. When the idea of personality in general is to be expressed, tlie 
Masc. form may bo used, referring to woras denoting females; (in this and 
other similar irregularities, less regard is had to strict grammatical principles 
than to the general idea to be expressed,) e. g. 2i;ycXi}A.vdturiy &s 4pA iroroXcXci^ 
fUyoi &ScA^a/ re Kal ddcX^tdoT «ceu Aveifricu roffadratf fisr* tJytu 4y rp ohci^ rtffffo^ 
ptsKal99Ka Tohs 4\€vd4povs (free men)^ X. C. 2. 7, 2. 'H arttpos od<ra fi6arxos 
oinc Ay^^cToi rlKrovras &XX«vr, obx Ixoimt* o^^ Wkkc^ she oaanot enaur§ 

Digitized by 



that other penoM (Masc.) tihculd bring forth young, Enr. Andr. 711. So al&o the 
tragic poets use the Mosc, when a woman speaks of herself in the PI., e. g 
S. £1. 391 (Elcctra says of herself) ir^oo^fit^*, el xf^, irarpi rifiwpo6fi€Poi. 

Rem. 12. Sometimea the first Pers. PI., or the Pers. pronoun first Pers. PI 
is used, for the sake of modesty, instead of the Sing., the speaker representing 
his own Tiews and actions as common to others. This usage, which is very 
frequent in Latin, is rarely found among the Greclu in the Common language. 
*X1 *AXKifitdSfif Kot ^M*^' nikucodrot tfvrcs ^tyol r& rouuna lifuy {I also toax at 
that age sharp tn these nuUters)^ X. C. 1. 2, 46. "^vifoid vodr* yfily iy4hrro [the 
thought once occurred to me), Cy. 1. 1, 1. Ilcpi fi^y oZy r&y wpax^^rr^y iv r^ 
wapiyri toDt' ctx^MC fi»€iy. Among the poets, particularly the Tragedians, 
this use of the PI. is more frequent, and a transition from the Sing: to the PI. 
often occurs, e. g. Eur. H. F. 858. "Waoy fiaprvpifi^o^u 9p&a^, & 9pay ol 
fioCkofjuu, Hipp. 244. aUoi/i€^a ykp rk KtKrfiiiva fiou 

Beh. 13. In an address directed to seyeial persons, the Greek has several 
peculiar idioms : — 

(a) The Imp. Sing, tlw^ and some others, which denote an exhortation or 
animating call, e. g. &7C, ^4p€yl94,iB frequently connected in the Attic 
writers with a Voc. PI., or with several vocatives, e. g. PI. Euthyd. 283, 
b. tM /wif & "ZdtKparis rt koSl 5/tc«i ol HXKoi, Dem. Chers. 108, 74. tM 

(b) In an address directed to several persons, the predicate in the PI. often 
refers to a Voc. which denotes only one of the persons addressed j this is 
done for the purpose of making the principal person prominent. Od. /3, 
310. *AtfTiyo*f olhr»s Horiy ^tp^td^oioi utSr* 6fJi7y daiyv<r^au fiy 82. tnia 
l&^ytTtf ^ai9tfi* *OSu0'0'ffC. X. H. 4. 1, 11. fr*, f^, 6fi€tSt & 
'Hptwwida, Hoi iiido-Ktr^ ttinhy fiovXridTiyai&irepripLiit' ot fi^i^ 8^ Avcur- 
rdirrts imaa-Kov, An interchange of the Sing, and PI. often occurs 
among the Tragedians, when the chorus is either addressed by others, or 
speaks of itself, the poet having in mind, at one moment, the whole 
cnorus, at another their leader, e. g. S. O. C. 167. (civ^ot, fi^ 9rrr* &8(ki^ 
dw iroi irurre^as. 

(c) The second Pers. Imp. instead of the third, is sometimes connected with 
the indefinite pronoun r\s or xas nr, or even with a substantive and 
rls; this idiom, which is not common, occurs mostly in the Attic dia- 
logue, e. g. Ar. Av. 1186. x^P*^ Hnstead of x"^?^^"*"^) ^cv/n> vas {nrnpi- 
THIS (every servant come hither)'. Ttf^eve (instead of rolw4r^) xas ris 
{every one use his bow). Hence, also, the transition from the third Pers. to 
the second, e. g. Eur. Bacch. 327. (345.) irrcix^'r « ns &s rdxos, 4k^i»p 
8^ bdKous To{/sVf Ti^ oUtvocKowUf fwx^ois Tpudyov Kiydrpt^oy IfnroXti^) 
iral — fi4^€S, Comp. Larger Grammar, ^ 430, 2(7). 

♦ 242. Agreement when there are several subjects. 

1. When there are two or more subjects connected together 
tliere is a double relation to be distinguished : — 

(a) The subjects are regarded as expressing mtiUitude, and 
the predicate is referred to aJl the subjects equally; then 
the predicate is in the Phiral, and when there are but two 
subjects, in the Dual or even in the Plural (comp. 4 241, 

Digitized by 


310 8TNTAX. [i 342 

6)] the gender of the predicative adjective is determined 

accordiug to tlie following rules : — 

(a) With words of like gender denoting persons, tlio 
adjective has the same gender; with words of dif- 
ferent gender denoting persons, the gender of the 
adjective is confonned to the masculine subject, 
rather than to the feminine or neuter, and to Uie 
feminine rather than the neuter; in both cases the 
adjective and verb are pluraL 

(P) With words of like gender denoting things, the 
adjective is either in the same gender and in the 
plural, or is in the neuter plural; with words of 
difierent gender denoting things, the adjective is in 
the neuter pluml. 

(y) When words denoting persons and things stand in 
connection, the adjective is plural and takes the 
gender of the words denoting persons, when the 
persons are to be considered as the more prominent 
idea, or the things are to be viewed personally ; but 
when both are to be viewed merely as things, the 
adjective is in the neuter plural. 

tV fov ffdfiOTos Kax^^iw c<i tV iidyouxM ifiwiwr ova iv,X, C.S. 12^6, Xnicpd- 
T«i SfjLtkriTh y9tfOfi4yu Kpirlas t€ koX 'AkKifiidBris TKtTffra tcaxit riitf 
v6\i» ivoitiffdriiVy ib. 1. 2, 12. 'HpaKXrjt K<d Britrtbs fi6yoi r&yTrpoyc 
ytmnfUyay fiirip rod filov rod r&y ay^pdvay &i^Xi)ral KtiT^trrriffay, Isocr. 
Pan. 212. Kal ^ yvyii koI 6 iviip iya^oi ciVtv, PL Men. 73. A/ U irov 
^fi4T€pal 1^ &\oxot icol y^iiria r^Kya tlcei^ M firydpois iroTiB^yfityai^ 
n. /3, 137. 'Cis eI9e iraripa re fcal firir4pa icol &.B€\^ohs irol rijy iairrov 
yvyalKa alxh^^^''^^^^ y€yfyrin4yovs, iZ&Kpwrty^ X. Cy. 3. 1, 7. 'H' 
hpy^ Kol ^ hiffvytffia cicrl KUKaL — Sv/tcrrof KdhXos Kak Ivx^^ SeiX^ jcol 
KOK^ IvyoiKovvra irp4'Koyra ^(Jverotf, PI. Menex. 246, e. 'Evy4ytiai re 
Kol 5vyc(/iCis Kol rifial 8^A.(i i<mv kyabh Hyra, PI. ''Hy ri i^yopii koH, rh 
irpvray^Xoy Tlapi^ \i^t^ ii<rKyifi4ya, Her. 3, 57. Ai^oi re irol irXiy^oi 
KoX ^6\a Ktd K4pafios irdicrms i^pifi/i4ya> ov^h xp^<f^h^ itmy, X. C. 
3.1,7. *H rvxv *«i ♦fA.ixiror ^tray r&y fpyooy Kvpioiy Acsch. 'H JcoA* 
XlffTTj vo\ir(ia T€ Kal 6 KdWitrros iv^p \oivh. hv rj^ly cfjj SicA^eir, 
* vpayyis reical rCpayyos, PI. Rp. 562, a. 

(b) Each subject is considered separately and hy itself; then 
the predicate is confined to one of the subjects and 

Digitized by 



agrees with it. This coiistxaction is also used wheu one 
of the subjects is lo be represented lis more prominent 
than the others. There are here three positions of the 
predicate: (a) before all the subjects; (b) after all the 
subjects; (c) after the first subject. 

PI. Lys. 207, d. ^iX€i <r€ 6 irar^p koL if fA-firnp,. Her. 5, 21. €Xv^t6 <r<pi 
irol ox^t*-o.ra kcUL bfpJacovrts kcUL ri rrcura n'oXX^ vapaJKciAi. X. H. Ath. 1 , 2. 
e« Wi^T€» Koi 6 ^Tjfios w\4ow lx*«' 1^1- Symp. 109, c. atTtfud avrotf Ka\ rdt 
l^ph. rh irap^ r&w h^^fdaimnr ii^avi(tro, Th. 8, 63. ol ty r^ MiX^t^ jccd 6 
'AffT^ox^f • • • ^^^p^fV^** ^' 9) ^« McX#ter Adxup &4»tKyc7rai Ktd 
*Epfi€tdiy9€a QrifiaSos, X. An. 2, 2,1. ^aXtros ^x^"^^ *^^ ^^ *^ abr^. 

Kemark 1. Sometimes the verb, though it follows diiTcrcnt sabjocts, agrees 
with the first subject, the rcmaining subjects being then represented as subor- 
dinate, e. g". X. An. 1. 10, 1. 0a<riK€ifs 8i #ca) ol' ahy airr^ 9idiktay elsirfir- 
r«f. 8o also with the attribntive adjectiv«, c g. X. An. 1. 5, 6. hrrh ^fio* 
\oifs icol rifitofi6\toy 'Attiko^s (tlio adjective here agreeing with ifioK94$ 
rather than r)fuofi6\ioy). Th. 8, 63. *A<rTwoxoj iirv^fro riy lirpotifiix^^'"!^ 
Kol rij yaus dvcXi} Ai/i^c^ro. 

Hem. 2. The verb sometimes stands in the Sing., if several nouns in the 
PI. denoting things precede, when it is intended to represent those nouns as 
making up one whole, as a condition, state, etc., c. g. PL S.lSS.h.Kidirdxycii 
Kid xci^aCa< ko) ipvffi^at 4k w\wy€^las xai iucoafilas vtpl iWrfXa r&y rotoO' 
roay yiyytrai ipvTUc&y, 

Rem. 3. When the subjects are connected by 1i — <f , atrf — airf, Kai — ir a i« 
ef — et, oCrt — olfrff neque — ncque^ the predicate agrees with the subject 
standing nearest to it, if each subject is to be regarded sejxiratcl^ and by itself, 
e. g. ^ otros, fi iKtTyos hK-ndrj X/yct, ant hie, aut illc vera dicit; but when the 
subjects arc not considered separotely or as independent of each other, but as 
Expressing plurality, the predicate is in the PI., o. g. Dem. Aph. 817, 12. A 
^rjfuxft&y fi &riptvxli7is tx^^^*" 

Rem. 4. The attributive adjective commonly agrees with the substantive 
nearest to it, e. g. *Afi^Kn4pois ol ahrol Zpnot Kid ^vfifiax^a Kor^irrri, Th. 
But where perspicuity or emphasis requires it, the adjective is repeated witli 
each substantive, e.g. wdyrts iy9p€s koH iracrai yvyaTK€sj or the con- 
stmctions stated under No. I are observed, c.g. 'HpaxA^s iced Srttr^hs ii6yoi» 
Xlar^p KuL fiiiTvp Kcd iSe\^ol alxf^o-'^^foi yty^yjifidyoi, Qic, See 
examples under No. 1. 

2. When several subjects of dilTerent persons have a com- 
mon predicate, the verb (which is commonly plural) is in the 
first person rather than the second or third, and in the second 
rather than the third. 

'Eydf Ktd (TV ypdtpofiey, ego et tu scribimus. •^'EtcI) koI iKwtyot ypd^fitv, ego et iU§ 
tcribimus — "Eydi; ical o^ iral inuvos ypd^fiey, ego et tu el tile scribimiis. — Sfr «ra2 
iKilyos ypa^€, tu et ille scribitis. — 'Eyclx Kot ixtiyoi ypd^ofxty, — 'Xh K<d iKuyot 
ypd4>€Tf, — 'Hfi€is K(d iKuyoi ypdipofity.'^'Tfttis Kol iKuyos ypAptrt, 

Rem. y Sometimes also for the sake of a more forcible eontrasf, the person 
of tlie verb agrees with the subject nearest to it, e. g. X. C. 4. 4, 7. irc/ii roi 

Digitized by 


312 SYNTAX. [♦ 243. 

iuealov wJanf otfjuu vvr tx**^ fiVc?!', irpbs & ot^f ch otrr tty iWos o if 9 mis 9^- 
yaiT* iurr4iwfiy. I'LiPhocdon. 77, d. Hfjuas B4 fioi HoKtis <rv re iced ^.'fffnr 
^8/«r tiy Kot rovrov BuarpayfAarf^Mraff^ai {pertractare) rhy \6^oy, X. An. 2. I, 
1 S. 0- ^ re 7^ 'EAAiTV c7 Moi ij/Uis, Ck>inp. Bern. 4. 

i 243. Remarks on certain Peculiarities in the usf 
of Number, 

£. The Sing, has sometimes a collectiye sense and takes the place of the 
Pi.; thus in the poets: Siicpvov, Amt^t, ffray^Wy trrdxvSt harve$t^eic.\ 
in prose: kv/jlo, iff^-^s (like vesfts), \ldost vKlw^ott tt/ATcXos, ^ 7v- 
iro», cavalry, if &tf v /f, a ftorfy q/* frtM»pf, etc. 
' 2. Entire nations, that liye under a monarchical goyemment, are sometimes 
designated in prose, by the Sing., e. g. 6 Tl4p<r7is,the Pentam, 6 ^Apdfltost 
6 Av96sf 6 *Airtripios9 etc. This rarely occors in respect to nations that 
have a free government, e.g. rhy *£XXi}ya ^ikop Tpos^dtr^m, Her. 1, 69. Also 
the words arparid^nis, vo\4fuos and the like, are sometimes- used in the Sing, 
instead of the PI. 

3. The PI. properly belongs only to common nouns, not to proper names, nor 
to the names of materials, nor to abstracts ; still, even snch nouns in certain rela 
tious take the PL, namely, when they express the idea of a common noun : — 

(1) Proper names: (a) to denote several individuals of the same name, c. g. 
iio Kar^X'tft; (b}to denote persons that possess the nature or the qualities 
of the individual named, e. g. PI. Theaet. 169, b. «I 'HpaK\49s t§ koX Bh' 
tr4tSt men like Hercules and Theseus. 

(2) Names of materials occur not seldom in the PI., since either the single 
parts, which make up the material, or the different kinds of a given material, 
are contemplated, e. g. Sxts, salt; ^d/ia^otf sand; wpol iroi Kpi3a(; i^t- 
fios Kol OUarOf oJyoi wokvre\€is, olyoi va\aiol] (liJXa Hat Kl^os, 

(3) Abstracts in the plural have a concrete signification, since the plural is 
used when the separate kinds or circumstances or relations of the abstract idea, 
arc denoted, or the manifestation of the abstract action, as repeated in different 
places or times ; hence also when 'the abstract idea relates to several persons, 
e.g. Herod. 7, 158. ifuy pLeydkai u^tklai re koL ixavp4<r€is yvySyaffi. 3* 
40. ifwl al out ftrycUoi f 6 r v x ^ a t obn hpiffKOwri. So Ix (^ ^i immicitiae ; trroi- 
<r € I s, seditiones ; ^i\iai,ra\aiirupiai,aerunmae; ddyarotf nwrtes; ^vx^ 
K€tt ^dkvTi, ^vfiolf anind; ^6fioi, ^poyfitrtiSt rejlections; &ir/x^*'''' 
iLP^'piai, brave deeds; iy(€iai Kot ele^lai r&y awftdruy, like valetttdineit. 
etcj wltrrtiSftestimonia; tbyoias lovwaxy to show acts of kindness ; xdpires^ 
presents; in many cases, the PI. denotes a plurality of parts, e. g. »Xowro«, 
ireasureSy divitiae {vKovroSt riches, abstract) j yd/ioi, nuptiae; y^xr^s, the hours 
or watches of tlie nigJd, horae noctumae; ra^al, funera, etc. So, c. g. in Eng- 
lish, How long these nights are f when one night is meant. 

Rbmabk.* The Greeks commonly use the PI. of Abstracts as well as Con- 
cretes, when they refer to a PI. Adj., the idea contained in the abstract term 

Digitized by 


f 244.] THE ARTICLE. 313 

being then applicable to several persons, e. g. kokoI rks i^vxcCs; ica\ol rh 
0'c6/iara; Apurroi rits. ^^irtts; ical rats yr^fiats KoJt rois a^iiaai 
ty^>aW6fityoi, X. Cy. 1.3, 10. 

4. When neuter adjectives, pronouns, and numerals are used as substantives, 
the Greek, like the Latin, always employs the PL, when several individual 
things, individual relations or circumstances, a whole which is represented as 
consisting of single ports, arc to be understood by these words : the English often 
uses the singular hero, as M/s, tliat {Tavra^ iKuya). Comp. ^ 241, Rem. 3. The 
Sing, of adjectives used substantively is put in the Neut., when an abstract idea, 
a whole as such, is to be expressed, e. g. rh Ka\6v^ the beautiful in the abstract, 
Th Kcucdy, the had. The PI., on the contraiy, denotes a concrete idea, i. e. the 
different parts, classes or conditions which are implied in the abstract, e. g. rk 
Kokd, res ptdchrae; rh koitcC, makiy the evil deeds, things^ etc. 

\ 244. The Abticle. 

1. The subject as well as every substantive, takes the 
article, when the speaker wishes to represent an object as 
a definite one, and to distinguish it from other objects of the 
same kind. The substantive without the article denotes 
either an indefinite individual, or it represents an abstract 
idea in the most general manner, without any limitation. 

"Avbpturos: (a) a man, as an individual, i. e. some one of the race of men ; 
(b) man, a wan, as a species; i Ap^pwirot: (a) the man, as an individual, the 
man whom I have in view and consider as an individual distinguished from 
other men ; (b) tlie man, as a class or species, as I think of him as something 
definite and limited in respect to his entire nature or constitution; — yiXa^ 
milk, rh ydxoj the milk {as a particular substance) ; ero^ia, wisdom, ii co^tot 
the tcisdom {vieu^ as a definite jtroperty or particular kind of wisdom) ; ^lAocro^^ 
philosophy in general, ii il>t\o<ro^ia, as a particular science or a particular branch of 
pliHoaophy. When the Inf. is to be considered as an abstract substantive, it has 
the article, ii.^.rh ypdptty. But the abstract nonn takes the article when 
\t expresses a concrete idea, e. g. ii crdtris, the (particular) sedition; r& 
TpayyLOtihe (particular) dee</; hence also the PI. at errdertis, rh irpdy 

Reiiauk 1. From what has been said, it follows: (a) That the substantive, 
■I the subject of a sentence, may stand with or without the article, according 
■1 it is intended to be represented, either as a definite or an indefinite object ; 
(b) on the contrary, tJiat the substantive, os a predicate, must be generally with- 
o It the article, since the' predicate does not denote a definite individual, but only 
the abstract idea of a quality in general. Her. I, 103. yh^ ii iifi^pa iy4y€To, the 
day became night Isocr. Kicocl. 28, a. K^yos &krid^s Kot ySfUfws ko) HIkcuos i^vxnf 
iya^s Kot Turrvis t19w\6y hrri. But when the predicate denotes a definite, 
a before-mentioned, or a well-known object (No. 6), it of course takes the 
article. Her. 1, 68. (rurc/S^UXcro rhy ^OpitrrriP Tovroy cTyoi, he condudedthat 
Viis was the Orestes, namely, ^ one before-mentioned. 5, 77. ol 8* lirirofiSrai 
iKoXiopTo ol Tax^cf, the nch bore the name of {before-mentioned) iinrofi6Tcu, Ir 


Digitized by 


914 SYNTAX. [i 244. 

passages like X. Cy. 3. 3, 4. 5 fiJky rovra clir^i^ wapiikeurtv * 6 Si *Ap/Ur«of avyt- 
irooihrfixwt KtH ol &\Xoi wdm^s Ay^pwroi, iuroKoKovirrfS rhy cucp7^ri|y, Thp 
iyipa rhy iiya^6y. An. 6. 6, 7. ol 9h fiAAoi oi frapSyrts rS»y urparurrmm 
dirixtipovci fidWuy rhy A4^tinroyf itytucaXovyrts rhy irpo8<$TT}K, the article 
denotes, that the ideas expressed by benefactor^ honest man, traitor, point to a 
definite action either before named, or well-known. — When the predicate is a 
supcrlatiye or a substantive with a superlative, the article is not used in Greek ; 
the English, however, uses it here. Oi *aorri\7ral tlffi iroyrip6raroi iLy^pAmrm 
#ca2 ^^iK<&raToi {the most wicked, etc.), Dcm. 25, 2.*Ay8p2 Ka\^ K&ya^^ ipya- 
via Kparivrii, iffrX y€»pyla, X. Oec. 6, 8. Comp. ^ 241, 7. 

2. Hence the article is used to denote the whole compass of 
the idea, everything which can be included under the term 
used ; one object is here considered as a representative of the 

whole class. 

*0 (kydr^pwos ^yrir6s dart, men (i. e. all men) is mortal. Xfii 'i abrh ^^^ 
yta^tu rhy piiropa koI rhy vifioy, Aesch. Ctes. 16. 'H AvSpc^a icaX4 
itrrty, i. e. everything which is understood by the idea of &irSpe(a. Tk yd\a 
rfi^ icriy, 

Kem. 2. Where the English uses the indefinite article a or an, denotini* 
merely a class, as a man, or an individual of a class who is not distinguished 
from the others, as some man, it not being determined what man, tlie Greek 
omits the article ; hence Ay^pwros in both instances. 

Kbm. 3. Common nouns sometimes omit the article, wlierc, according to the 
statement in No. 1, it would be inserted. This is the case: (a) In appellations 
denoting kindred and the like, where the particular relation is obvious of itself, 
or is sufficiently definite from the connection or the context, e. g. var^p, M^p, 
vi6s, iScA^s, ircuSes, •yomr, di^p, husband, yurfi, wife, etc. Comp. the expres- 
sions, FaUier has said it. Mother comes ; (b) When two or more independent sub- 
stantives are united, forming one whole, e. g. iroiScs koI yvycuKts (like English 
ttV/e and child, horse and rider), irS^is koI ohctai {city and houses), Th. 2, 72 ; (c) 
When common nouns arc, at the same time, used as proper nouns ; these being 
definite from their nature or from usage, do not need the article, e. g. IjAios, oupoK- 
yrfy, Aarv, used of Athens, ir6\is, of a particular city, known from the context, 
yfj, of a particular country, /Boo-iXcor, of a particular king, commonly the kinq of 
Persia, etc. ; other like expressions arc iytfioSf ddKcurfra, etc I'ho article is 
often omitted also with words denoting time, though this is generally the case 
only in connection with prepositions, e. g. iup* rifidpasf fi^xp^ yvKr6s, ana vpdptp^ 
v€pl rjKiov tufffids, fitrh *lKiov Si\w<riy. The omission of the article is altogether 
natural when a common noun has an abstract signification, or expresses an 
action, or the manner of an action, most frequently in connection with prcpo- 
sitions, e. g. riytlffbai ^to^s, to believe in gods. *Eirl ttixyoy ^Ai^elv, to come to 
supper, to a feast, X. C. 1. 3, 6. *E^* linrov Uyai, horse-ltack. *Eirl d^pov ^(i€mu 
(i. venandum), X. Cy. 1. 2, 9. Il6rtpay itriffrayityoy ^wox**>' ^'^ (tvyos 
Xo^cty Kptirroy, ^ fiij iviardfifyoy {ad veliendum), X. C. 1. 1, 9. *Eirl ff5«p UyoA 
(aquatum ire). Her. 3, 14. 

Rem. 4. The names of the arts and sciences, of the virtues and vices, often 
omit the article, even where they occur in a definite relation, since, as well- 
knawn appellatives, they have come to be used as a kind of proper names, e. g 

cw^poaivtl. X. C. 1. 2, 23. *Eircl oSy rd, re hUaia koI rh &AAa itdXA re wsX 
kya^^ irdyra iptr^ irpdrrrrat, ^\oy cTrau, Srt koI SiKaioffvyfi jcal ^ &AXi| iro#* 
Apcr^ ao(l>la i<rri,' S. 9, 5. *Zvtffr^fifi (ipa ao^ia iffriy, 4. 6, 7. MiUiar« yip 

Digitized by 


} 244.] THE AETICLE. 315 

ifA9fi,riK'fiKtt ofrr^ /ittik ^ f, Cy. 8. 3, 25. The omission of the article is natural 
also, when an abstract is to be represented actively ^ e.g. *£ir ^i\o9o^i^ (wrw^ 
in philosophizing (in philosophando), PI. Phaed. 68, c. But where a pafticalar 
art or science, etc. is to be distinguished from another, the article is used, e. g. 
ri Pmcpue^, V iipt^fivruc^. The substantives ji4y€^os, vX^^os, C^ost 'J- 
00 St fid^ost yip OS and the like, are very often found in the Ace. or Dat 
without the article, as they are to be received as a kind of adverbial expression, 
e.g. iroroft^f Ki^vos Brofia, M^pos ivo wKd^pur, two pUthm wide, i. An. 1. 
2, 23. 

3. The article is very often used with common nouns to 
denote what belongs to an object or is requisite for it, what is 
due to it 

X. Cy. 3. 3, 6. *Epofil(9 ydp, tl tKturros rh fi4pos ^i^au'oy toW^cic, rh SXof 
tdrr^ KoX&s tx^of {pctrtem, cui praeest; cerUuriam mam), 8. 3, 3. rti/uu M rodrmw 
(r&y moX&tf) rh /i4pos ixdrr^ r&y iiy^fUimp, ^WXcutf-cy abrobs ro6fois Kwrfuip 
rohs a&T&r ^(Xovf {partem ddntam). An. 7. 6, 23. AaAiC, ^rfrt iy, Dc< rh 
iydxvpa rirt Xafitiy, &s ftiyS^ c2 4fiov\tro i^lptero %» rmira i^airaraif (the mea^ 
uTts requisite to guard against deception). 5. 6,'34. ol ffrpariwTM ipr9t\ovy airr^ 
fi X^orroi &7ro9i9pda'KoyTa, iui rify hlKfiP iiri^ffoity {the due, deserved pun^ 

4. Hence the article very often takes the place of the posses^ 
sive pronoun, when it is connected with such substantives as 

.a?iturally belong to a particular person, mentioned in the sen- 
tence. In such cases, the English uses the possessive pronoun. 

ol yoyus rk rdnyf <rr4pyov(riy {parents love' tiieib children). 'O arparrryhs 
rohs irrpari^ras ivl rohs iro\9fdovs &yu {leads HIS soldiers), Kvp6s rt 
Koreaniiffyras itrh roQ Hpfkaros rhy bwpaKa iy4Zv kvDl kyafihs irt\ rhy 
Xxxoy rh wa\rii cif rhs x<'P<>< jTXa^c, X. An. I. 8, 3. 

5. As the article may make one object prominent, by indi- 
vidualizing it and presenting it apart from others, it is often 
used, when an object is to be represented in a distribtUivc rela- 
tion to the predicate of the sentence. 

Upo^UTovffi 8^ fuadhy 6 Kvpos irtrurxv^iftu^ t^tiy kyrX SapttKov rpia iifiiiaptuch 
rod firiyhs r^ trrpariAr^ {singulis mensibus singulis militibus^ Viree half' 
Dorics a month to each soldier^ c^p. English so mudi the pound)^ X. An. 1. 3, 21. 
(comp. 5. 6, 23.) AapfiKhy %Kaoros oXffu rov firiyhs vfx&y {each of you shall 
itave a Doric each month), 7. 6, 7. 'O ih avyt^i^^tls rhy Hyu i^ufihy hi Sr^^ 
rpoir4fi7r9iy, Urt /i^ vaptiri voXXd, J^koit' tip Aa,^»» ry M xpV^^^ {singula pania 
frustra, to dip each morsel into the different sauces), Id. C. 3. 14, 6. 

6. The article is properly and originally a demonstmtive 
pronoun, and is still often used in a demonstrative sense. Thii 

Digitized by 


316 SYNTAX. [♦ 244. 

IB particularly the case in Homer, where the article almost uni- 
formly has a pronominal relation. Comp. 4 247. 

The simplest nse of the article as a demonstrative, is as follows : An object 
not before described or referred to, when it is first mentioned as an indefinite 
individual, does not take the article; bat when it is repeated, it takes the article, 
because it has been already referred to and is known, c. g. ETBor ip9pa • 6 Zlk 
hr-fip Au>< IXc{ci'. Ilcnce the article is also used when the speaker pmnts to an 
object, e. g. ^4pt ftai, £ ir«u, rh fiifixiop (Me book =» this or that book). In this 
relation, the article may be us^d with material nouns, e. g. a6s fuurh ydKa {the 
milkj whkh had been pointed out) ; and even when a part only of the material is 
referred to, the article is employed, though material nouns elsewhere are always 
without tho article, as they contain no idea of individaality, e. g. H(tm toS 
^Xyo V {of this wine). The article is often used in speaking of persons or tihiiigs 
known and celebrated, where the Latin uses tho pronoun ille, e. g. 6 ko^As iraZr, 
that beautiful boy ; this is very frequent with proper names. See No. 7. *Orc 
B/f>|f7S ky^ipas riip hvaplhfiiiTOV crpartiip liK^tp M rj^y *EAAi8a {tkat 
numberless host)^ X. An. 3. 2, 13/ 

7. Personal proper names as such, i. e. so far as they in them- 
selves denote merely individuals, do not take the article. But 
they take it, when they have been already mentioned, and 
are afterwards referred to (No. 6) ; or even when they have not 
been before named, if it is intended to designate them as welL- 
known and distinguished (No. 6). Plural names of nations, 
and also the names of countries, districts,%and festivals, are 
both with and without the article. 

"SuKpdrris t^. So also where an adjective is joined with a proper name, 
e.g. 0-o^bf 'XuKpirtii, the wise Socrates, *EviK7i<raif Brifiu7ot Aaxtiatfio- 
yiovs. *AfipOK6tias oh roOr* ^Tofi^crey, &XX*. ^n'cl ^icovc Kvpor iy KiXiic/f 
iyra, hfourrpi^ai iK ^oiyiKris waph. ficun\4a iarfiXavytyf X. An. 1. 4, 5. Kv- 
poy ih fifrtpriyLXtrai (Aapuos) . . iyafialyti oZy 6 K.vpof, X. An. 1. 1, 2. *At^ 
rov *lAi(rorov k4yrrai 6 Bop4as r^y *Cipfi^viay apirdCoai, PI. Fhaedr. 229, b 
{as wdl-hnown names). 

Rev. 5. When a noun in apposition, accompanied by the article, follows 
a personal proper name, the proper name does not take the article, c. g. 
Kp 010-09, 6 rwy Avi&y fiafftXt^s. But yet when the article is used, c. g. 
i KpoiiToSf 6 T&y Au8£y fiao'tXe^s, it has a demonstrative sense, and desig- 
nates tho proper name as one already m#itioncd or known. The noun 
in apposition is accompanied by the article, when it serves to distin- 
•^iiisli the person or thing mentioned from others of the same kind, or 
when the person or thing named is to be pointed out as one known, c. g. 
tooKpdrriSf 6 tpiKoffoipos \ iwKpdrris, 6 *A^yaiQS, Socrates^ the philosojiher^ tlit 
Athenian; Xfipi<ro<f>os, 6 Acuctiaifjidyios \ on the contranr, the noun in apposi- 
tion docs not take the article, when it expresses merely an adjective attribu- 
tive, e.g. Ilcr. 1, 1. 'Hp6BoTos 'AAikopfocto'c^i, Herodotus of Hcdicctmassus, Th. 
1, I. &ovKuliidris 'Ad-nvcuoSf ITiucydiaes an Athenia^^ or of Athens. KXccdw^ 
'Opxofk^yioif Cieanor of Orcliomenus^ X. An. 3. 2, 4. Tho names of rivers are 

Digitized by 


t 244.3 THE ARTICLE. 317 

commonly placed as adjectives l^twcen the article and the word xarafUt, 0. g 
d^'AXvs xoTotiSs {Uie river Ualys), Her. I, 72. 6 *AxcA^or xorofuJy, Th. 2, 102 
M T^v Idpov TTOTttfiSyf M rhr liipafior worofiSv, X. An. I. 4, 1. iwirhv Eik^p^ 
rriy xoTOfiitf, 11. -rp^s rhy'^Apd^riv woraft6yt 19. Examples like the following 
are more seldom : M ry worofji^ Komnrdpct, Th. 7, 80. ixl rly Itora^y rht 
^Eptyc^y, ib. 82. Sometimes the article is wanting : M "VApoy voraidy (accord- 
ing to the best MSS.), X An. 1. 4, 1 ; M "Affweuroy woraf*i6y (according to the 
best MSS.), ib. 4. 7, 18 i irorafihs ScAxyovy, 5. 3, 8. The names of mountains, 
islands, seas, cities, etc., are also placed between the article and the noun, when 
tliey arc of the same gender or, at least, of the same declension as the nouns to 
which they belong, viz. 7^, iKpoy, fyos, yrja-os, etc., e. g. M riiy 2oA.^iair K^fiijyt 

Th. 2, 96; rov Alfwv Spovs, Th. 2, 96 {6 AT/aos); ^ B6\$n Xiixyrit Th. 1, 58. 4, 
103 j ^ Mci^i) wSxis, Th. 4, 130. But if the gender (or declension) Is not the 
same, they must bo regarded as in apposition with the nouns to which they 
belong, and are placed before or after them, e. g. ry 5pei rg TcfNiref^ Th. 4, 70 ; 
rV iicpay rh Kuyhs ff^fu^ 8. 105 ; rris I8i|f tov 6povSf 108 ; 1^ Afycvkiot rb ^po^ 
pioy, 4, 113 ; rh x^p^oy cd *Eyy4a S^oi, 1, 100 ; r^y v6\iy robs Tapffois^ X. An. 1. 
2, 26. The article is seldom omitted, e. g. kwh *A/38i)p»F WAe»t, Th. 2, 97. 

8. When adjectives or participles are used as substantives, 
they regularly (according to No, 2) take the article. The Eng- 
lish here either employs an adjective used substantively, as tJie 
good; or a substantive, as Vte speaker (= the one speaking) ; oi 
resolves the participle by Jie who^ they tohot that tohicJi {= to the 
Lat. is, qui). This usage is very frequent in Greek with all the 

'O ao^Sf the wue {wtan)^ a wise {man)y ol ctTol^f, ol Katco[, p/ 9ued{oyT9s {those 
trAo judge) J the judges ;eoi kdyoyrtt, the orators; rh kytAiy, rh Ka\6y, t^ icsJidf i 
fiov\6fityos, quivis; 6 rvx&Pf whoever happens, *0 irXcurra if^f\&y rh Koiyhy 
utyiaruy rifi&v &(iotrrai. 'O vXtiara w^cX^o'af rb jc. /a. r. it^iovrcu, *0 vXc?> 
ora it^tX^cay r, K. iJi,r. it^ue^arreu, — *0 iprriiy tx^^ irAowrci /ily tvrttp 
^iKuy iroXA£y, vAovrci 8^ fral JBJiXjuy $ov\»fi4y»y ytyda^ai ical f 3 fAtp vpiirrwy %x^ 
rohs avyiia'dii<rofji4yovs, ihv 94 ri tr^oKpf od inrtufiCtt r&y fiofidiiv6y 
raty,X. An. 7. 7, 42. But when the adjectives and participles are designed to 
express only a part of a whole, the article is omitted, e. g. &ya3«f, good men ; 
piKo(ro<povyT€s, iuA6yr(% \ kcuA koL cd^xp^ tirpa^ey, 

9. Participles also take the article, when definite individuals 
are spoken of, in the sense of those^ tcJu) ; a participle with the 
article is very often appended to a preceding substantive, in the 
fomi of apposition, in order to give prominence to the attribu- 
tive meaning, somewhat in the sense of cw»t, caw, id dico, qtd, 
quae, quodt or et is quidem, qui, 

Ilcr. 9, 70. vpuroi isfi/i&oy Teytijrcu is rh ruxoSt ifol r^y a-tcriy^y rov MopSoWou 

oZroif<re» o( hi apirdtrayrts {and these are they that rolAedj etc.). X. C.2.6,18. 

sb fu&yoy ol iStdreu rovro votovvufy kKXk icol viJAcfS at r&y re koAmt fuUMrra 

iwt/isKo^fi€Puit Mol T^ mVxp^ ^fcMT« vpost4iA€yai roKkdKis voAc/aucm 


Digitized by 


318 SYNTAX. [♦ 2.10- 

Ixoiwt vp^f dAA^Aor. 3. 5, 4. Bounol ii4y, ol^pSff^ty ouV '*v rfi lain&if tpX 
uuvTfS 'A^yalois ftvcv tioKtZa^iovittP re kcUL r&p &K\»y TltXawowrfvltty i»'TiT4i 
rc<r^cu, yvv kvtikowrw avroX Ke&* iavrohs ififioKeiy us r^y 'Arrucfiy. 

10. The Greek may convert adverbs of place and time, more 
seldom of quality, into adjectives or substantives by prcfixiii5» 
the article. In like maimer a preposition with its Case may b« 
made to express an adjective or substantive meaning. 

'H &w v^Xif, the uppe^ city, 'O lura^h rimos^ the intervening place, Oi iy^^- 
&f^fwiFot or ol iybdJit. 'O pw fiaetXtit, Ol ntUoi tro^ Ay^pts. Ol rSrt, ths 
men of that time. 'H atiptoy (sc. ift^pa). *H i^alfuis furdrrcurts, 'O &c(, an I'm- 
mortoL So rh and rk pvy, now, the present time; rh irdKcu,Jbrmerlyy in th^ 
firmer time ; rh xply^ rb a^dca, immediatdy. Ol irdrv r&y arpceriwrSy, the bett oj 
the aoldiers. Th Kdpra ifrD^os. 'H Kyw itfi4\ti€u 'O AfioXayovfUyvs 9ov\os. Th 
6, 80. TJ^y hKiy9^y»s 9ov\t(ay, So also rh wdfiraif and rh wapdmof, omnino^ rh 
Kdpra, rh wapaitok^ used adverbial! j. Even: 'H r&y yt^vp&y oh ZdKvciSt the 
not destroying of the bridges, 'O lephs rchs U4pffca ir6XxfjMS, Oi ircpl ^lAo^o^W* 
the philosophers. Ol iy Arreu *H 4y Xc^^oH^o-^ rvpayyls. 

11- The neuter article to', may be placed before every word 
or part of speech, when the word is not considered in relation 
to its meaning, but is used only as a form of speech, or when 
a preceding word is repeated, without regard to the structure 
of the sentence in which it is repeated. Tlie Greek, by prefix- 
ing the article, may give even to whole phmscs the form and 
meaning of an adjective or substantive. 

Tb T^irr«, rh r^wrtis, Dcm. Cor. 255, 4. dftcts, & Aydpts 'AJ^nuoi* rh V 
&/191S ireiy cfrv, r^r ir^Xiir \4yv. PL Rp. 352, d. ou irtpl rod iirir\rxjiyroi (de ft 
levi) 6 K6yos {iffrlv)^ hK)A npi r ov Zyriya rp6woy XP^ Cv^* 

§245. Position of the Article. 

1. The article is sometimes separated from its substantive by 
intervening particles, e. g. /tip, 8c, yc, tc, ydp, &} ; by the indefinite 
pronoun rU (in Herodotus very often), and by avw tavrov. 

Thy fi^y Ap^pof r}iy hi yvytuiccu When a preposition stands before the article, 
tlie prose-writers say either : wpihs 8^ rhy AyhpOf or irfAs rhy &yhpa h4, but not irp^f 
rhy 8^ Mpa, — Tuy ris ncp(r/»y, Her. 1, 85. ToTs abrhs a&rov Hifuuri papiyerm^ 
AcschyL Ag. 845. 

2. WHien several substantives are connected by kcu or t€ — 
Kcu, there are two Cases: (1) the article is repeated with, each; 
then the separate ideas expressed by the substantives ore con- 

Digitized by 



sidered independent of each other, or they stand in contrast • 
or (2) the article is not repeated; then the scpamte ideas aift 
considered as forming one single conception. 

IS»ir/K£nff trdtna iiywro ^tohs ttiiyat, rd re \ry6fuya ical trpcerrSfitra Koi rh 
wiy^ fiov\fv6fjupa (the first two members form a whole, bat the last is contrasted 
with them), X. C. 1. 1, 19. A/ ^tovpylcu kcU 4k rov xapaxp^fM ri^oyai, 2. 1, 20. 
At iinfjL4\etai r&tf koX&k ^« itiryaA&p ^pywf, ib. Ti re trvfu^poyra kcX iccxcif'<cr- 
yAvOj 2. 2, 5. o; orpctrrryoi koI Xoxayol, An. 7. 3, 21. T^ fityaXoirpeir^s re koH 
4Kfv^4ptov KoL rh raar€Uf6y re «ca2 ityeXfi^tpoy (here th00rst two and also the 
last two form one single conception), X C* 3. 10, 5. Tohs irypobs robs imnov koI 
oUias, Th. 2, 13. O/ iratB4s re Kot ywaucts (so manj MSS.), PI. Rp. 557, c. 

3. Wlien a substantive having the article has attributive 
expletives joined with it, viz., an adjective, participle, adjec- 
tive pronoun' or numeral, a substantive in the Gen., an adverb 
or preposition with its Case (} 244, 10), then the article has a 
different position according to the idea to be expressed, as will 
be seen from the two following cases : — 

(a) The attributive is joined with its substantive to express 
a single idea, as the wise man = tJie sage, and is designed to 
contrast the object denoted by its substantive with other objects 
of the same kind. In this case, the attributive stands either 
between the article and the substantive, or after the substantive 
with the article repeated ; or the substantive stands first without 
the article, and the attributive follows i with the article. 

O iya^s iiHp or 6 Mip 6 iiyadSs or iu^^p 6 kya^s (in contrast with the bad 
man). See Hem. 1. Ol irXo6<noi voXh-cu or ol voTiirai ol w\€i6inoi (in contrast with 
^oor citizens) . 'O ifibs xarfip or 6 xariip d ifiSs. Ot rpe<s Mp9s or ol AyHpts ol rptTs. 
'O r&¥*Adrivai»r Irifjios or 6 ^fxos 6 ruy *A^val»p (the Athenians in contrast with 
another people). Ol yOy iydpctnot or ol Ay^pwroi ol vvy, 'O vp6s robs U4p<ras 
w6\ttios or 6 x6\9fjLos 6 irphs robs Tl4p<r€a (literally the against the Persians war^ i. c. 
the uxtr against the Persians, in contrast with other wars). 'Atrh ^aXdatrris r^s 
*l^yw, Tvpayyls if iy Xtppoy^fftp. *H 4y SoAc^uki vpbt rhy ll4pariy yaufuixia, Oie in 

* Where the attributive expletive consists of several words, or where tlio 
expletive is itself qualified by another expletive, it is usually placed after its 
substantive, otherwise too long' a phrase would intervene . between the article 
and its substantive ; such expletives involved the idea of some such phrase as, / 
mean, etc., e. g. ithKltr^ffay 4v reus Kt&fieus rats wirip rod veSfov rov irapb. rby 
Ktyrpirriy irorafji6y (ihey encamped in the villages [I mean] those above ^ etc.). Here 
K^fuus is qualified by iirip ircdfov, and this by wapA KeKrp{nj»^, etc., X. An. 4. 3, J 
Tpiros fieurrhs \oiirhs ^jy, . . , 6 Mp rfjs ivl ry m/pi KaraXri^tiffTis ^i;A.oicfjy rrjs 
ymerhs tmh r&y 4^9\6yrwft here 6 ^4p and what follows qualifies the word /xao-- 
r^fy X. An. 4. 2, 14. 

Digitized by 


320 STHTAX. . [f 24d 

Salainii offttinsl t> J Wsian tea-figU^ i. c. Utt teorfitfid in Sakuhis a»jainti^ etc. Ttaaa 
last cxani]>les >\'A)\\ that a substantkc liv-ith its Cose has an adjective force. 

Bemark 1. Ill the first position (bkytAhs ayfip)^ the emphasis is on the 
attribativc, c. ^. Afi vaiitias KOtymvutf rh biiXv ytyos r,fjuy -r^ riy ap^irmm 
(ti^i^ci), ri. L. 80 J, (1. Bat in the second position (6 ouH^p 6 k^nS^)^ the idcft 
cxprcsHcd hy the substantive is represented as a definite one or one already 
mentioned, or is contrasted with that of another substantive ; in the third posi- 
tion [hv^p 6 &ya^6»)^ the ides expressed by the substantive is represented as in- 
definite, but in eontrnst with another. Tt imp4ptt &p^p«fvot iMptcriff S^^pimw 
rod &«ef>arc0'T(iroVf X. C. 4. 5, 11. *H iprrii ir{fyt(m f»ky ^cois, «r6w€0Tt9^ 
kvdpdirois 7o7s & 7j^ Oi 5, 2. 1, 32. Th&purroyov rohs y6fiovs ioTiy urx^ 
ttyy iw* &v9pa rhy pm-k <ppoyii<rtws fia<ri\iK6y,Vl.V. 204^ a. ^toucovyrai ai 
ukr Tvpayyl99S koI dXiyapx^tit t9is rpSwfs r&v i^faryiK6rwy, cJ5d 
w6\fts (republics) eu 97ipiOKoaro6/i€pai roU y6/iois ro7s xeift^rats, 
Acschin. 3, 6. T^ lirxiKhv to iKtiyttv (sc. T«y :iKv^&y) oth-w ftdx^ai, rh 
31 6ir\iriKhy t6 yt r&v %\K4tv»Vj &s iyi^ \4yM, PL I4ich.i91, b. 'Ey& 
pAy oly iKtlyovt rohs &ytpas ^pl oh fioyoy rStv auftdruy r&y iipLtr^pwrn 
wardpas tJyeUf itWh Kcd r^s iXtv^tpias r^s re i)pi€r4pas teal ^vfurdyron^^ 
tSty 4y rp8f rp ^irc(p^, I'L Mcncx. 240, e. Att^fyxoyroi ras t« avfi^opks t^lm 
iic rov iro\4pLOV rov vphs &A.A.^A.ovs rip.iy ytytyrsfifyas Kcd rks ^^c- 
ktias riit ixTris or partlas rrjs in* 4K€7yoy 4 irofi4y as, Isocr.Vancf:;. 
43, 15. Sometimes the position varies in the same sentence, e.g. Ths pi 9 yd- 
\as ^9oyits icol rh iya^h r^ pLtydKa ri trti^i) koI ^ Koprtpta kcu oi 4m 
r^ Kcup^ v6yoi K<d Kly^uyoi irap4xovrm. {great pleasures and advantages), X. Of. 3. 
3, 8. U&s TOTf ^ ticparos ZiKaioa{tyi\ vphs &8(xfav rjj^y &Kparow 
lx«< ; ^1* HP' ^^5} ^ ^^cn the second position docs not differ from the first. 

Rem. 2. With a verbal substantive, the attributive expressed by a preposi- 
tion and its Case, is often placed after its snbstantive without the repetition of 
the article. So also, when an attributive explanation comes between the articio 
and the substantive : 'H o-xryicofiiB^ 4k r&y kypStv 4s rh Jiarv, Th. 2, 52. 'H ww 
hfi€T4pa hpy^ 4s MirvXt^ro/ovf , 3, 44. T^r r&y yvyautwy <ptXias vphs rohs fty^poTy 
X. Ilicr. 3, 4. Also the more definite expletives of an Inf., Part, or adjective^ 
frequently are not placed between the articio and these words: T^k tro^tay 
rohs kpyvplov r^ fio\iKopi4vtp moXovvras ffo<pt(rrhs kiroKaXovoiy^ X. C. 1. 6, 13 
(instead of rohs rV oo^lay . . . rwXovyras, in order to make prominent tlie idea 
in r^y ffoipiay). 

(b) Tlic attributive is joined with its snbstantive not to 
express a single idea, but is to be regarded as the predicate of • 
an abridged subordinate clause ; then the attributive is not con- 
trasted wth another object of tlie same kind, but witli itself; it 
being designed to show that the object to which the attributive 
belongs, is to be considered, in respect to a certain property, by 
itself, without reference to another. In tliis case the adjective 
without the article is placed eitlier after the article and the 
substantive, or before the article and substantive. 

'O iof^p iLyad6s or kya^hs 6 kyfip, dgood man (=3 kya^s &y, tike man who 
is good, inasmttch as, because, if kt is good). Oi livdptffroi pua-ovtrt rhy &v8pa ira- 
K6y or Kaxhy rhy &y8pa, theg hate the had man, i. e. theg Jtate the man, inasmuch 
as, because, if he is had, (On the contrary, t^i^ Kokhy &ySpa or rhy &y8pa t^ 
ifiSK^v, the had man, in distinction from the good ; hcnco, rohs piky ky^rit iiN 

Digitized by 



^fdnroia iiyvar&fitv, roht 9h Kcutohs fiuravfuw.) 'O fiaa-tK^s 43»*f x^f'^C^^ fo"^' 
iro\(T«f iya^oTst good citizens, i. e. if or because they are good (on the contrary, 
rots iiya^ols -roXlrtus or to7s roXircas rots iyoAots^ good citixens^ in distinction 
from bad citizens). 'O dths riiy ^vxV Kpar Icrrriv r^ iof^p^^ iifi^vtrtv (a 
sottlj as it is the most excellent), X. C. 1. 4, 13. Ol tirh rov iiXiov KaraXafar6ixeyoi 
riixp^f*»r^ fjt€\dyrfpa t^x^wriy {a blacker skin; the blackness of the skin is 
the consequence of the KaTeiX.dferttr^m &wh rov rikiov), 4. 7, 7. *Zy4irfni(rAy re rks 
cmfyks ipnfio\»s icoIt^ xP^M"^^ tvfifnracray {quia deserta erant), Th. 1, 49. *A((« 
(postulo) robs ^pdiroyras iyuA fth^ Aip^oya t& ivtr^itta vapaffKtvdCtiy, ainobslA 
lufiwhs rodrmy irrwhm (=» &sr9 aUnk i^oya cTi^oi), X. ^ 2. 1, 9. 

Kem. 3. If a snbstantive baring the article has a Gen. or a preposition and 
its Case connected with itj the position under (a) occurs, only when the snb- 
stantivo with its Gen., etc. forms a contrast with another object of the same kind, 
e. g. 6 r&y 'A^riyctioty 8^/iOf or 4 ^fios & r&y *A^yal»y (the Athenians in contrast 
with another people) ; the emphasis here is on the Gen., e. g. Od«c ii?<x6rptoy rrywrm 
styat 6*A&riyai»y Ziifios rhy Brifiaioty Zrifioy, iyofjufurficKercai^ Koirks 
Ttty 'rp-oy6ycty r&yiavrov €ls robs Brifiatovs vpoy6yovs tbtpywirias, 
Dem. (Fsephism.) 18, 186. *E^wvnltdri "birh r&y iy rp :irdprii rtX&y, X 
An. 2. 6, 4. On the contrary, the Gen. without the article, is placed either before 
or after the other substantive, when that substantive denotes only a part of that 
expressed in the genitive ; tlie emphasis is then on the governing substantive, 
e. g. 6 ifffios *A^yai»y, or *A^y9imf 6 Zrjfiosy the peoae and not the nobles. 
Hence, with this position, a partitive and not an attributive genitive is used ; 
the Athenian people is not here considered in contrast with another people, but 
a part of the Athenian people is contrasted with another part of the same, viz., 
the nobles. Compare further, i^ 2wkpi£toi/s ipi\o<yof(a or ii ^tXoao^ia ^ Xwcpdrovs, 
i. e. the philosophy of Socbates, the Socratic philosophy, in contrast with the- 
phUosopny of another, e. g. Plato's, the Platonic, with ^ ^iXotropia XuKpdrous or 
Z&uKpdrovs if piXocro^la, i. e. the philosopht of Socrates and not something 
else of his, e. g. his life. "Hsirtp olxias rk xir u^^y idomus infimas partes) 
krxvp^ara tlytu ScT, othtt mil r&y vpd^tuy rks kpx^s x(d rks bro^4' 
etts k\ii^us KcH iiKoUa thai rpos^Kcc, Dem. 2. 10. ToDroy fS f&pt^t «ca2 ^iroT- 
itvety, &s loKfi ^A^Tfyaitay r^ v\^^ft,tothe multitude, not to tlte intelligent, 
PI. Mcnon. 90, b. Tb c78os rov rati 6s (contrasted with rotyoua rov ircu- 
Ws), PL Lysid. 204, c. 

Keh. 4. When the genitive of tbe substantive pronouns is used instead of 
the possessives, the reflexives ifjuturov, trtawrov, etc. arc placed according to (a), 
e. g. Tby ipaurov rraripa or rby Tar4pa rbv ifjLovrou, etc. ; but the simple perspnal 
pronouns fAov, 0-ov, etc. stand without the article, either after or before the snb- 
stantive with the articKv e. g. 6 xar^p iwv or |io5 4 xctr^p, 4 ircerfip <rov or cov 6 
•raHip, 6 xoT^p abrov {ainris) or abrov (o^^^f) 6 itan"f\p, my, thy, his [ejus) father, 
6 iruriip iift&y^ bfiAy, y^y, abr&y, or ^ju£y, d/i£y, yfy, ojtn&y I Tarfip, our, your, 
their [eorum) father. But when the substantive has another attributive joined 
with It, these pronouns can stand between the substantive and that attributive, 
c. g. 'H vdKat rjfi&y ^Oats. In the Sing, and Dual, the enclitic forms are always 
used ; these never stand at the beginning of a sentence ; but in connected dis- 
course they can stand before the substantive which has the article. The Gen. 
of demonstrative and also of reciprocal pronouns, have the position of (a), e.g. 
6 roinau (^«r€{i^ov) irorr^/p or 6 var^p 6 rovrov {iK(lyov). Tp kkx-fiXay evKoff. The 
demonstratives are sometimes also found witliout the article after the substan- 
tive with the article, e. g. Ol kyayxeuot inttyov, Isac. 9, 10. Tk Upk iKtlyov^ ibi 
B6. ToS irarpibs rolntay, IC 3. Tp vvy tifipti ro{nov, Dem. 4, 3. 

Reii. 5. The difference bctAvecn the two cases mentioned ia very manifest 
with the adjectives txpos, iitffos, (ex^'''^'* When the position mentioned 

Digitized by 


322 SYNTAX. [♦ 240. 

under (a) ocean, the gabstantive with its attribativo forms a contrast with 
other objects of the same kind, e. g. ^ f*^ w6Ku or ir^Xis ^ /Uffrit the MiDDUi ciry, 
in contrast with other cities ; ^ ^^X^"^ i^os, the most bemotb island^ in contnut 
with other islands. *Et r^ fexoror (pvfta rrit rtitrov (in contrast with other 4p^ 
^utf't), Th. 4, 35. When, on the contrary, the position mentioned nnder (b) 
occurs, the substantive is contrasted with itself, the attribativo then only defin- 
ing it more fally. In this last case, we usually translate these adjectives into 
English by substantives, and the substantives with which they apiee as though 
they were in the genitive, e. g. M ry 0p«i Sicf>^ or iw* tucp^ ry Spti, on the top 
of the mountain (properlv on the. mountain where it is the highest) ; iw fi^frji rjf 
ic6kti (seldom irif ir&^ti fidtrp)^ in the middle of the city; iy iax^rfi rf iH^^ 
:?r iy rticrv rn ^o'x^'ni, ^n tKe border of the island 'Ev fi4aots rots iro\€fdois 
hri^ayt, X. H. 5. 4, S3. Kar& fi4aoy rhy K{nc\oy^ Cy. 2. 2, 3. Ol Hipam v«/4 
iKputs rois XfpvX xtipiioa ZoatUu Ixoiwiy, 8. 8, 17. 

Rem. 6. In like manner, the word fiSyot has the position mentioned under 
(a), when it expresses an actual attributive explanation of its substantive, e. g. 
i fUyot iroTr, the ONLY son; on the contrarr, the position mentioned under (b), 
when it is a more definite explanation of the predicate, e. g. 'O wm /Adros or 
fiSyos 6 XMS ira/(ft, Ute hoy plays alone {without company). M6y7iy r&y iiy^p^irvy 
{yKSrray) ^vofiyirar {oi i^col) oTov hpbpovy r^y ftiyiiyf i. e. ^ r&y ity^p. y\iirra 
fiuiyil icrly^ %y iToiritray oUy k. t. X., they made the human tongue only^ capabie of 
articulating aounds^ X. C. 1. 4, 12. 

Rbk. 7. When a substantive has two or more attributives, one of which 
limits the other (4 264, 2), one position may be as an English, e. g. Ol &AAoc itrgfar 
M iy^pcywoi, the oilier good men ; or the limiting attributive with the article either 
stands first, and the second follows with the article and substantive, or the 
limited attributive with the article stands first, and the limiting Attributive fol- 
lows with the article and substantive. 'O yavnic^r 6 r&y fiapfidpcty vrpa 
r6s. A/^AAcu a/ xark Th aAfia iihoyai, the other bodily pleasures^ VI. li^. 
565, d. *£y rois &AAoit ro7t ifJtoTs x^'P^^^^t ^7^* 2®^* (NVhen 4 &AAof is 
joined with an adjective used substantively, the article is commonly repeated, 
c. g. TcUXa T& xokirucd, X. Hicr. 9, 5. Ol &AAof ol irouKnvyx^oym^ X. Apol. 
11.) 'H ovx ftKirra fi\d>^a i^ \oifi^9ris wiffosy Th. 1, 23. 'Ey rfj ro^ 
At^t Tp firyiffrj^ ioprf, Th. 1, 126. 'Et mrrhy rhy M ry crd/wri rod \ifi4yos 
rhy trtpoy w^pyoy, 8, 90. 'Ev t^ itpx^^ ^? ^M'^^P? ^^^Vt ^^- Cratyl. 
398, b. T^ iy 'ApKoil^ rh rod Aths ltp6y, Rp. 565, d. The limiting 
Attributive can also stand between the substantive and the limited attributive ; 
in this case the article is used before each of the three parts, e. g. t& "rfix^ 
T& iavT&y rh, /laKpit ikirrr4Ktffay, Th. 1, 108. (But the article is omitted i^-ith 
a limiting demonstrative standing between the substantive and the limited 
attributive, e. g. T^y rolrrov raurjiyi r^y ^aufiaffriiy Kt^aX'^y, PI. Symp. 213, e.) 
Finally, if the limiting attributive with the article is placed first, the limited 
substantive and its attributive follow, both without the article, e. g. Uphs rhs 
trdpot^f ffvfi^ophs 9i>liaifioyaSt Eur. Ucl. 476. Td\as iyit rijs iy pax$ 
£v/i/3oX^r fiapttas, Ar. Acham. 1210. *Airh r&y iy rfi Zvp^girff wSxtny 
*E\\7iyttt»y, X. II. 4. 3, 15. Tiis ixh r§ Bp^xp oiKoiaas ir^Acis 'EWriyl- 
8a5, 4. 8, 26. 

Rem. 8. When an ^ittributive participle has a more definite expletive belong- 
ing to it, their relative position is as follows : -^ . 

{&) 'O irplbs rhy ir6\§fioy alp€^€\s vr parriyds, 

(b) 'O vrparnyhs 6 xphs rhyrSXtfioy alpt^tls. 

When there are two of these more definite expletives, one stands either 
tftcr the substantive or after the participle, e. g. TV irphs ECfiovXoy ytyofjJyriP 
tlorty ifi7y, Aeschin. 3, 25. T&y koI^* Oftas ireypayfiiyMy koK&v tij irtfXct, 
Dem. 18, 95. T^t yvy tnrapxo^f a^r^ 8vW^«f, 4, 4. Tits xap* lifJi&y irttof 
Xfiitcas a 6 rip ripJist 20, 83. 

Digitized by 



(c) 'O alp€i>§\s TfAs rhif viXtfiop trrparriyis* T^r hxdpxovaav r^ 
WXci Svya/ttv, Dcm. 8, 10. 

(d) 'O alpt^fls iTTpariiyht vpht rhy ir6^.tftoy. T^w wposovvaw aZo^' 
lav T^ rpdyftarif Dem. 6, 8. 

(c) 'O vflbs rhw x6\tfiop arparriyhs alpt^fis (this position is most fre- 
quent, when the participle has two more definite expletives). Tits i^h 
ro^Tov fiXaaipTifiias t ipn ft 4 y as, lSjl2S, Al-rpit rod (rrdfueros yrjtt 
wavfiaj^ovaatt Th. 7, 23. Th irphs Aifi^riif fi4pos T€rpafifi4voy, 58. 
When there are two or more explanatory words belonging to the partici- 
ple, they are either placed between the article and the substantive, e. g. 
T^y rfrt ^fialois f^firiy iral Z6^ay ixdpxo^o^^yi Dem. 18, 98; or 
they are so separated, that one is placed either before the participle or 
after it, e. g. Ol iro^ roirov \6yot t^tc p7i^4yTfSt Dem. 18, 35. 
Tadrriyr^y iiTrh rov riwov iLC^dXttay vrrdpxovtray ry xc^Aci, 19,84. 

RjM. 9. When a participle used, substantively has predicative expletives 
joined with it, these are placed between the article and the participle. Thus, 
for example, vp&rtpos, xp&rosy Scrtpost Hararos {he came first^ etc), becomes : 
6 rpjirtpos {frp&roSf tffr^pos, tvraros) k^iK6fityos (he who came 
Jirst)\ tuccay ofuundyu becomes: 6 dKuy afiaprdyuy] &y9puos yofdfrrai: 6 
ay^ptios yofil%6fAtyos\ carrhs iSucti: 6 alfrhf ikZiK&y {one doing wrong of 
hiB own accord)] rotovrSf iffrty: 6 roiovrof &y\ fiSyos ifrriy: 6 fi6yos &y. 
When the predicative expletive consists of an adjective and substantive, the 
substantive is usually placed directly after the participle, e. ^. irp wrot t*to7- 
li4yos ra^lapxos {he who had been placed as the Jirstoentunon), 

♦ 246. Use of the Article with Pronouns and Numer- 
als, with and without a Substantive. 

1. The article is sometimes used with personal substantive 
pronouns in the Ace, either when the personaMty is to be made 
prominent instead of the person merely, or, what is more fre- 
quent, when a person previously mentioned is referred to. On 
6 TTOibs, see i 344, Hem. 3. 

Thy iavrhy 9^ \4yt»y fidXa c^iiy&s kcUL iyKVfiidCuy {his important person) y Fl. 
Phaedr. 258, a. AcDpo 8^, i} 8* 8f, tit^ riiiuy, Ilot, (^y iy<&, \4ytis, ical iretp^ 
rtyas robs t>fias {i. e. Kcd rtyts tlaly oZroiy oOr K4y€ts riftas), Fl. Lys. 203, b. 

2. The article is used with a substantive which has a pos- 
sessive pronoun belonging to it, or the Gen. of a personal or 
reflexive pronoun (^ 245, Rem. 4), when the object is considered 
as a definite one or as relating exclusively to possession ; the 
possessive is placed between the article and the substantive 
[J 245, 3 (a)]. 

'O 4ii^7 wniipy 6 <rhf \iyos, thy word (a definite or particular one), 6 ifths iroTf, 
my son (a definite one of several, or even the only one) ; also 6 \6yoi (tov; rh» 
Wfturrov var4pa or rhy iror/pa rhy atainov ; on the contrary, tlie article is omitted 
when it is to be denoted, that the object named belongs to the possessor in 
common with others of the same kind, or when the substantive with the posses- 

Digitized by 


324 SYNTAX. H 246 

sivo is 11 ])i*cdtcata or in apposition : ifihs ilHik^s or oScA^k^ piov, a btvther <^ 
mine (it not being determined which); ifibs vaTs or iroTs fioui o^6s d<m(v) 
aSt\4>hs it6s or a,^f?^s ffov ; o&ro5» &8cX^s ifids or i^tXfpSs fiov, 

3. A substantive to which one of the demonstmtive prououna 
ot)ro9, o8€, eKctj'os, and even avT6s,y?se, is joined, regularly 
has the article. As these pronouns are not considered as at- 
tributives, but eitlicr as substantives (lie, Uie man), or are taken 
in a predicative sense {the man, w/io is /lere), they stand either 
before the article and the substantive, wliich is tlien in apposi- 
tion with the pronoun, or after the article and substantive [coiup. 
»245, 3 (b)]; thus: — 

olros 6 h»4ip or b Mip otros (not 6 otros ^p)) 

f}8« ^ yy^firi or ^ yu^fiTi ^5€ (not ii ffit yi^fAfi)^ 

igtTyos 6 hjrlip or & h^p iKuvos (not 6 iKuvos hyi\p)^ 

tinht 6 fiatn\€6s or b fiaaiKchs aMs (but 6 mnhs ficuriXevs [seldom {6) finrt- 
Xc^s 6 Qin6s\ signifies idem rex^ the same king). 

Bemabk 1. The substantive does not take the article : — 

(a) When the pronoun is used as the subject, and the substantive as the 
predicate (§ 244, Rem. 1), e. g. oStti icrrlv ditfipbs kp^'H) (Uiis is the virtue of 
a man)^ Fl. Men. 71, e. ASrri ttrrw Ikov^ kiroXoyla, Apol. 24, b. Klmfats 
aSni fteylirnj 8^ ToTj'EAAijo-iy iyitrrro (this was the- greatest agitation), Th. 

I, 1 ; hence a distinction must be made between rovrtf r^ SfSo^jc^CXM 
XpAyrcu {they have this teacher), and rovrtp ZiJiatrKd\(p xp^'^oi {they have th»a 
man for a teadur), TtKfAriplt^ ro6T<p xP^l^^^^^ (which signifies rovrij ^of^t 
rtKfiiiptov, f ^xp^®)» X. C. i. 2, 49. Tavrnv yy<&firiy ?x«* (which signifies 
tuShri iorhf ri yyi^firi, ^y ^x^h An. 2. 2, 12. If, however, the predicaiiye 
substantive is to bo represented as a definite object or one Mfore-mcn- 
tioned, it takes the article, e. g. 'Or^e {^Kodrris) ti ry \.^yta Sic^foi, 9iik 
T&y fu£\i(rra 6fto\oyoufi4yofy iiropt^ero, yofdiay radmiy riiy iur^t^tteKm 
ftycu K&yov (hnnc esse firmam iUam disputandi rationem, viz. such a modo 
as had been clcarlj shown by previous examples), X. C. 4. 6, 15. 

(b) When ^he substantive is a proper name, e. g. olroi, iKtTyos, abrhs Svit/nC- 
Ttjy. Ev^^fios ofnovi, X. C. 4. 2, 3. . Kucripdrou ro^rov, Sjmp. 2, 3. 
Xap/jdhis obroffl, 2, 19. Khrhy Mdvuvet, An. 1. 5, 13 ; or when a common 
name is used instead of a proper name, e. g. Atnov ^aun\4»s. An. 1. 7, 

II. *Eirl yny r4iv^€ IjX^iMey (with the variation ^irl liiv yrjy r.), Th. 2, 
74. The article occurs but seldom, and then with a demonstrative force. 
Ti SrJT* ixtiyoy rhy 0a\7iv ^avfidCofity] Ar. Nub. 181. T^ySc rhw 
'Irririy /iertire/iifw^i^, Her. 5, 91. Comp. 8, 27. 

(c) When the idea of an object is to be expressed absolutely, the substantive 
without the article is joined with the pronoun avris, Comp. 4 244, 1. 
AvT^ 8«<nrorcfa 'a^T^t 9ov\t(as, PI. Parmcn. 133, d. Aifrrjs iirttrr^ 
firis ov fitrtxofify, 134, b. Ovk abrov dfinr6Tov fi^rov, 8 itrrt ZtinrSrriSf 
ixflyov iov\65 iimy, 133, d. 

(d) When o5toj kviipis used to denote emotion, espcciallv scorn of con- 
tempt, instead of the pronoun ov. Obrool ay)ip ob iravoerai ^\vap&p \ 
Etire /ioi,.£ I^Kparfs, oIk alaxvyji 6v6fiaT^ dyiptiwy; {= Uockhcad, why dont 
you ceastif) VI Gorg. 489, b. Ovk oJV firra K4y(t5, & ^xparti, i\X* &k^M^ 
riyk ipura. 2. O'bros ay^p ovx virofitya unp^Kovfjuyos {= you,ohmaik 
eati ifott tiot iicar to be'benrjittd i lb. 505. c. 

Digitized by 



(e) In pnssiigcs liko OSroi, ody dpSrt, fidpfiapoi woXcfiu&rtpoi ^/ur firoyrat^ X 
• An. 1. 6, 16, the relative clause supplies tlio place of the article. But 
there are few passages like: ♦^p« Kafiinf x<T»i^af fJ^^f rovrovai and the 
following To^jJe x»'»'«»'o*> -^- Cy. 8. 3, 6, where the demonstrative is 
nscd like a deictic {Uiat which points out) adverb {hae, there). The poets 
VC17 often omit the article where the prose-writcro must use it. 

Beit. 2. When the pronoun oZrof or iKtivos Belongs to a substantive having 
the article and an attributive, then these pronouns are often placed between the 
attribmive and the substantive, e. g. A/ r&p Jlfkowonnivimy aZrat tnjts, Th. 8. 
80. 'H oret^ aSrv Ms, X. An. 4. 2, 6. 'O Ai/Bu» ixtiuos Xiw, Ad. H. A. 
7, 48. So 6 mnhi oZros rr6Ktfio9, Luc. de hist, conscr. c. 14. So also %vith the 
genitives /lov, aov, outow, etc. (§ 243, Rem. 4) ; likewise i^-ith xas, 8A.oy, e. g. 6 
ija^s fiov warfip ; ^ r&y 'Adtfyaiuy vaca (SXtj) m^Air. 

4. A substantive "with which toiovtos, roio^Se, ro(roOt99, 
TT/XiKovTo?, are joined, takes the article placed according to 
J 245, 3 (a), when the quahty or quantity designated by these, 
is to be considered as belonging to a definite object, one before 
mentioned or known, or as belonging to a whole class of objects 
previously named. 

^Ap* ody Zvyato rhy roiovroy &/i€}iirroy ^(\oy yofjd(tiy ; (i. e. talem, qiialis antea 
demriplus est), X C7. 5. 5, 32. n&s tuf oSy 6 roiouros hy^ip Zta^fipoi rohs 
wiovs (i. e. talis vir, quaUm descn'psimtts Socratem), C. 1. 2, 8. T&y roaoirttp 
«al rotoirtty itya^&y bfuy iica2 rots SXXxns *A^yaiois tx^'^*^ X^^" {"^ relation 
to what precedes), Dem. Cor. 327, 305. *Op&y rohs rfi\iKo6rovs ^A<(r- 
royras fjuiXurra riis yvyaatas (relating to the preceding ytpm^, but at the same 
time designating the whole class of the y^peuot), X. H. L. 1, 7. So also when 
taken substantively : 6 roiodroSf rk roiavreu On the contrary, the article must 
be omitted, when the object is indefinite : any one of those who are of such a 
nature, or are so great, e. g. Totovroy &y$pn o^k tuf iiraivolris» 

5. When iras, wovtc9, o\o^ belong to a substantive, the 
following cases must be distinguished : — 

(a) When the idea expressed by the substantive is considered 
as altogether a general one, the article is not used. 

Has iuf^pwwos (seldom ta^^ptnros xas), every man (i e. every one to whom 
the predicate man belongs; vcCyrcs Km^/mmtoi, all men. So also thri t6\i5, a 
WHOLE cUy^ fr6\is tKTi, a wltole city. Then ras in the singular signifies each, 
every. Has may often be translated by mere, or vtter, e. g. 'O ''Zp^s iy xdap &n^ 
Xlq. Ktd ayofilq, (&y, Fl. Bp. 575, a. Udyra kya^ii K(d KoXk iirep^^orroi, Polit. 
284, a. 

(P) Wlien the substantive to which rra^, warrc? belong, is to 
be considered as a whole in distinction from its parts, it takes 
the article, which is placed according to ^ 245, 3 (a). Here iros, 
nuTcs arc craplialic. 

Digitized by 


326 SYNTAX. [i 245 

'H ukra 7n» ^« wnOLB earth ; ol irirrts roXTroi, all cilisens without exeepittm. 
This uflago i§ more seldom than that under (a). This construction occurs ulso 
with ZKoSf but it is still rarer than with wSt, e. g. ^ 5Xii vikis, Tr6\u ri 5\i|, £A< 
WHOLE ctVy. Hero the singular vos always has the sense of whole, nttpaar^m 
{xpn) ffoufp a^(€ty riip waffatf 2i«fXfay, Th.4, 61. l£8o(cy aibrois oh rolts 
wap6rras fiSyop ivoKTuiftu, iMJh mi robs iiravras MiruAiyyaf ovs, 3,36. T^ 
%Xo¥hydyKnT^''dyra iiipfi cZrw, FL Theact. 204, a. *Aif^piirotirt yitp rots 
waat Kou^p roh^ofimprdtf^tp, S. Ant 1023. *E«f£M»f ftot ^alrtroi, ftrrc^ rh too 
wpos^ov fiSpta tx^t. wflbs rh $\or irp6s€nroy, PI. Frot. 329, e. Hence it 
signifies, in all. Hdfivovat x<^^vf robs wdwras 6r\lras, a thousatid kop^ 
lites IN ALL. ^vynrXrip^drioay i^ci at xaffai Una fUXurra koI Uardy^ Th. 3, 66. 

(y) When the words iras, iravn?, intended merely Ue a more 
definite explanation, without any special emphasis, belong to a 
word denoting a definite object and hence having the article, they 
are then placed according to k 245, 3 (b). Tliis is by far the 
most frequent use of tos, iraKrcs. The word oAos also is usually 
constructed in tlie same manner, in connection with a substan- 
tive and the article. 

Ol orporwroi tXxov rh (rrpar6w€totf iiraw or iway rh <rrpar6w99ow» 
OI a-rpariArat wdwrts or wdyrts ol ^rpari&rat Ka\&s ifiux^'"^^ 
Ai& r^y w6\iy 8\i}k or Hiii ZXiiy rify ir6\iy (simply through the whole 
C(/y, whereas 8i& rJ^r 8ai|j^ vtfAiy, through the whole dti^), Atafialvovo't rdyrts 
tts rh Bv(dyrtoy ol vrpariArai^ X. An. 7. 1, 7. EZ ifwh r^t *ZKKdZos 
r do IIS i^toTs i"^ hperg 3ayfu{(c<r3ai, r^y 'EA\i8a v^tpariov c5 voicu^, X. C. 2. 
I, 28. 

6. When €Ka<rT09, each, every y belongs to a substantive, the 
article is omitted, as with vwi in the sense of each, every, wlipn 
the idea expressed by the substantive is considered as a general 
one ; but when the idea contained in the substantive is to be 
made prominent, it takes the article which is always placed 
according to } 245, 3 (b). 

Yjkt\ r^y iifi^pay ^Kdo-rtiy^ Dem. Cor. 310, 249, or ko^' iKdor^y riip 
ilfi4ptiy, every single day, but o6ic hxlya «<rrl icad^ kKdtrrny iifi4pay {quotidtet 
each day^ every day, general) rouuha 6pay t« irol Aico^iy, X. C. 4. 2, 12. *A 
^Kdorji ifXiKl^ irposr^rouerai votctV, ZirrytioSfit&ay X. Cy. 1. 2, 5. Tvpayyovy 
rai 6irb Z^xa h^pStv, ot>s Aio'ovZpos hot itmnow iy ixdor^ ir^Af i, H. 3. 5, 13; 
bnt'O rttty 4y r-Q y^ ixdorp Ka\hy ^ hyadby ^, fitfiyfiooyrtu, in every smgjU 
land, Cy. 8. 6, 6. Kal rrf^ftiiy fity ^y 6 8c(nr<(n}f iKdorris rrjs olxlas^ An. 
7. 4, 14. 

7. When Udrtpo^, each of two, a/x(^ and dfifl^vrepo^, both^ 
belong to a substantive, the article is always used, since here 

Digitized by 



only two knovm, therefore definite objects can be spoken oT. 
The article is here placed according to } 245, 3 (b). 

*Eirl rmv irXevpAr 4icaT/p«y, XAn. 3.2, 36, or ^irl iKardptty r&p 
r\tvpuv» T& &Ta iifnp6r9pa or ^inp6Ttpa t& ira, *Afi<f>oty to7v 
X^.polx OT Tolv x^po7y difiipoTv. Kadr* kKdrtpov rhy isr\oit, Th. 
4,14. T^ (Srrl 4jcaT^p9>,X. Yen. 5,32. 

8. In respect to the pronoun avros and tlie indefinite pronouns 
or numerals aXXog, Ircpos, ttoXvs, irXc^wv, vXcictto?, the 
following points axe to be observed : — 

{si)*0 abr6s signifies the same, idem, e. g. 6 abrhs iy^ponros, idem homo; ra^ 
T6,the same; but 6 Mpmwos abr6s or tUnhs 6 iy^ptnros, homo ipsb. 

(b) "A AXof — aitiw, another, in contrast will ipse (o^r^t) ; 6 dXXos — rdiquus 
Ute other ; ol HkKm = rdiqm,, certeri, the rest, e. g. ^ &AAi} 'EAAor, reliqua Graedo 
the rest of Greece, in contrast with some part before named ; ol &AA01 Ay^pmwoi 
the other men or the others, in relation to definite individuals. ''Q, ^Apuut ical •. 
& X A o I iffoi i|re K6pov <pl?ioi, Ariaeus and the rest. But 'O rxovy hrt^dyti f»/tr 
iK\€fp, Glus appeared with others, in contrast with himself; — ?Tc/>or » one 
of two (it not being determined which), or it forms a contrast with 6 aMs and 
denotes difference or contrast; — 6 trtpos ^ the other, i. e. the definite one of 
two, c. g. 71 kripa x*^P "^ ^"^^n XPvrau; ol ^rcpoiin reference. to two parties. 

(c) The following cases of voX^f, tfoWoI are to bo distinguished: (a) 
When woKis, iroKKoi belong to a substantive without the article, as vo\bs viyos, 
iroXA^ ffvovHii, roXifs \6yos, voWoi tiydpttirot, an object is denoted as an indefi- 
nite one, e. g. IIoX^v Hx"***^^ x6yoy ArcXeir t^s rov tvros ^4as inrrpxoyroi 
{having much toiV). PI. Fhacdr. 243^ b. IloXXoi &y^p»xot rov xXo^ov hpl- 
yovrai {many men, general) ; (/3) but if the object is represented as definite, or 
one previously mentioned or known, the article is used with the substantive, 
and TToKis is tlien placed : (1) as an attributive between the article and the sub 
stantive, e. g. ^ voXX^ irirovS^ rh AXiii^cfof IhtlyxtZloy {magnum iUud, de quo 
dixi, stadium, that great md, of which I have spoken), PI. Phaedr. 248, b. 'uy rfyi 
rhy ro\hy \6yoy irouiro''Ayai€ey6pas {multumiUum sermonem, e scriptis ejus 
satis a^nitum), 270, a. *Ey raTs roKKats y^yi^twi {among the many genera- 
tions mentioned), Fhaedon. 88, a; ohvoWol &y&p»irot signifies either the 
many men named or a multitude of men belonging together, in opposition to the parts 
of the whole, hence also ol •woWotythe many, the multitude, the popidace, pld)s, 
or even the most, the majority (in contrast with the separate individuals), e. g. 
*0<ra ol 6\lyoi robs woWobs /i^ irtio'ayTts, iXX& Kparovyrts ypdpovifi {what the 
few prescribe to the many [the majority] not by persuasion but by force), X. C. 1. 2, 45 , 
jb To\6, the greater part, e. g. Tay •woXtpdmy rb fih voX6 Kfityty, fi4pos 8' ov- 
T«i> Mirra roTs Korh ri Hxpa {most of the enemy remained), X. An. 4. d, 24. What 
is true of the Positive, is true also of the Comparative and Superlative. *£&i> 
^i\ovs fi ir6\iy w^Xctr 8/j7, leoriptp ri irKticey <rxoX^ ro^roty t^tfX€Kfi<r^ai, 
f^ &s iyii» yvy, f^r^ &$ <rb fuucapt(tu 9uurctfi4y^ (the greater leisure, considered 
w a definite thing, or as a definite whole), X. C. 1. 6, 9. E2 iilSov, M ro6rf 

Digitized by 


228 SYNTAX. [i 246 

hp ittiou, Swf ifuA Ms lAHoif ftii iatc9olii liuif rh rXcior, An. 7. €i, 16. *Eir«r« 

rf hptrj ffJ»iwbxu clf rhv ir\cl» XP^^^^ fuHikw, ^ rg Ktutlt^ R L. 9, 2; ol 
ir\ c 10 us or T ^ irX/oy signifies the majority in opposition to tho minority (ol iJida^ 
o^ovs), therefore a definite whole; olrKfTtrroifthemost^rh •wX^XaroVithegrmieM 
part^ also to he considered as a definite whole. — Or, (2) iroX vf is joined with 
the sabstantive having the article, and is placed according to 4 245, 3 (b) ; 
wo\6s is then to be taken in a predicative sense, e. g. 'Exel 4Apa iroAX^ rk 
Kp4a {wlien he taw the fteah that it vas muckt thejleah in grepi dlbundanee)^ X. Qj 
1 . 3, 6. :Zfplfn TOXX& T& tiiropa Ivii^fii^Kirra (sc ^ktcs), Th. 1, 52. n oX - 
\^¥ r^p alriav *txo9 (they had censure %n great abmdanoe, i c. were very 
Hverdy cenmtred)^ 6, 46. 

(d) *0\iyoi,few^ e. g. Myoi Kwl^payirm; ol h\iyoi^ the few^ i. e. either the 
few mentioned, or to be considered as a definite whole, ^iz., emphatically the 
Otigartky^ considered as a whole, in opposition too( iroXXof, e. g. n^fima 
ol MiKtoi -rfhs iihf th vK^dof obic (fyaryow^ 49 tk rmt hpX'M mU roir h\lyoi9 
)Jy9» ittiKevovt Th. 5, 84; bat when only an indefinite idea is expressed by tho 
word hhiyos^ the article is omitted, e. g. Upo6oMiw» r^v *ihi9 W lKiy9ip{hy 
oligarchs^ not by the Oligarchs). 

9. When a cardinal number belongs to a substantive, the 
article is omitted, if the idea expressed by the substantive is 
indefinite, e. g. rpti^ avSpcv ^XJ^ov ; but the substantive takes the 
article which is placed : (a) according to i 245, 3 (a), when the 
substantive with which the numeral agrees, contains the idea 
of a united whole; hence also, when the number of objects is to 
be represented as a sum-total, afler the prepositions o/a^ ^"^ 
ci5, xnrip; but the article is here used most frequently, when' a 
preceding substantive with a cardinal number agreeing with it, 
and without the article,- is referred to. 

O/ r&v fioffiKiup olyox^oi ttMao't rois rpiol Saicr^Xoif hxowrts rV 
4>tdKip^ (tvUh the three JingerSy i. e. the three generally used), X. Cy. I. 3, 8. 'Hr, 
ire ^TcXcvTo, kfipl rk xiyr^Kotrra irri (he had reached about the sum (/ 
fifty years), X. An. 2. 6, 15. 'iTrrcif 9ls robs rtrpaKisx^^^ovs ^iircX^ 
yomo airr^t «ol ro^6rat els robs /ivplovs, Cy. 3. 2, 3. Tots KrpKvpatou rmw 
€lKoffi 99 &v oh •rapovff&9 (referring to tho preceding words ol KcpirvpoTof 
cfjco<rt 9ava'\9 airrobs Tpe^e9oi, Th. 1,49). 

(/3) But the article is placed according to i 245, 3 (b), when 
the numeral without any emphasis, is joined with the definite 
object, merely to define it more definitely, and when the nu- 
meral had not been previously mentioned, e. g. *Efiaxia-am 
ol fiera IlepucXcovs ottXitoi x^^^'- ^^ X^"'^ ot fitra 11. oTrXTrai, the 
hopUtcs until Pericles y a t/iousand in fiuniher^ f ought » 

Digitized by 


9 247.] ARTICLE AS A PRONOUN. 329 

Rem. 3. The article is frequently omitted with sabstantiTes which hare au 
ordinul number joined with them, as the ordinal in a measure supplies the place 
of tlic article. Tplrov Mros r^roK^fufi iTf\fvra {he died tlie third year), Th. 
2, 103. Comp. 3. 25, 88. 

^ 247. The Article as a Demonstrative and Relative 

1. The article 6 7ir6 had originally the seiue both of a demonstrative and 
rulatiro pronoun. 

2. In the Homeric poems, the pronoun 6iir6 has almost wholly the sense 
botli of a sabstantlTe and adjectire demonstrative pronoan, which refers to an 
object) and represents it as known or already spoken of, or brings it before the 
mind of the hearer, «. g, B, Oj 12, i {he) yitp ^X&e doht M tnjaa 'AxoiSr. 29. 
rijp (hgr) V iyit ob \wrtt, Od. ic, 74. ob ydp /jmi ^4fiu iarl itofufffiw oiV dmr4ff 
wtiM &¥Bpa rov (thai fium), ts «f bwa-ty &Wxdi|rai /uutdpeffcof. Hence, in 
Homer, the substantive is found in very many passages without thd article, 
where later writers, particularly the Attic, would use it. Comp.rlL a, 19 seq. 
with Fl. Bp. 393, e. Yet there are, in Homer, evident traces of an approxima- 
tion or agreement of this apparent article with the rc^ article, which was not 
fully developed before the time of the Attic writers. Thus in Homer, as in 
the Attic writers, it gives the force of substantives to adjectives and participles, 
e. g. 6 ikpteros^ 6 yuefiaas, 6 ytp€u6s ; so also, rh "rptv, rh 'wp6(Tbtv {priua) \ it is 
found in connection with a substantive and an attributive adjective or adverb, 
the attributive being placed between the article and substantive, e. g. T&¥ rpo- 
r4p»r ir4u», II. A, 691. T^y Sc^i^y Uwov ^, 336. Oi ii^tp^t ^tol ^ 274. T^ trhv y4pas 
a, 185. Th <rh¥ fidyos a, 207 ; so it is used in case of apposition, e. g. Od. X, 298. 
irol A^^Tjj^ tliov riiy TwZapiov impdKOiTiy. Od. |, 61. &yarrcs ot vcoi; further, 
"Ayrvyts cd irtpl 5/^/>oy, U. X, 535. 'Aytp&p rSnf r6rt t, 559. Th7s ot AoXfoto, Od. w, 
497 ; ahK) with the demonstrative, al ic6y^s cd!8f r, 372 ; it also takes the pUice 
of the possessive pronoun, e. g. H. X, 142. yvy fih ^ rod trarphs ituc4a ricert 
^^y {of your /uther)y and denotes what belongs to an object, e. g. Od. o, 218. 
iyK0<rfif7T§ rh tc<$x**» ^'rcupot, nif fitXtdya (^^^ re^x^<' belonging to the ship). 

3. The use of the article as a demonstrative adjeeiive, is not unfrequent in all 
the post^Homerie writers {\ 244, 6) ; but as a demonstrative subitaiUive pronoun, 
it was retained, in certain cases, through every period of the language ; thus : — 

' (a) Tb 8^ {idautem^ or on the contrary)^ very frequently at the beginning of a 
sentence; 6 f».4y {is quidem)^ 6 94 (is autem)^ ol 94 (ii autem) very fre- 
quently at tlie beginning of asenteaco; wph rov {wporov)yf&(merly; 
often Ka\ r6y^ r4iy^ei eum, et earn, at the beginning of a sentence, e. g. 
X. Cy. 1. 3, 9. Kal T^i^ «rcXcD<rai 9ovyat. In connection with xo/, the 
Greek says in the Norn. : xol is, icol fi, icol oT (§ 334), but in the Ace. koA 
rhy, ira} r^y) seldom r6 yt^ id quidemy r^, ideo, and the like. 

(b) In such phrases as, rhy ical r6yt rh ical r6, this man smdHuit man, iJns 
thing and that thing ; rh iea\ rd, varia, bona et mala, 

(c) It is used immediately before a sentence introduced by 5f, So-os or ofos, 
which sentence expresses periphnistically the* force of an adjectiie, oi 


Digitized by 


330 SYNTAX. [♦ 248. 

C8pecially, an abstract idea. This nsage ib confined mostly to Plato. 

PI. Fbocdon. 75, b. 6p4yerat rod $ iarw tcov (= rov Iffov tfrrof ), he reacha 

after tkca which u equal, Prot 320, d. 4k yrjs Ktd 'nplbs fil^tun-fs kqI Tm9 

iara wvfA ical yf KtpdirrvTat. Soph. 241 , c. cfrc fufififtdrtoif, cfrc ^ayraa-pi^ 

rwv airrwf 4) Kai wtpi r^x^^^ r&y^ taai irtpi raSrd tUru 

(d) In such phrases as, 6 fi4r — 6 8^, ol fidv — ol 94, the one — the etker 

mme^ the others. Isocr. Paneg. 41. «ls itjkv'tohs t^iComts, rott 8^ SovAc^or- 

Tft, treating Bomemthooniempt^ and being Haoes to others. Very frequently 

rh fidy — rl 8^, ri fi4y — rk 8/, partlif — jKzrt/y, r.y fi4y — rp 84, 

on one side — on the other side, 

4. In the Homeric language, the demonstrative 6 4i rJ, is frequently used in 

place of the relative. IL a, 125. iA\& rk fihf woXitnf i^€wp4i^ft§y, rit B^aarui 

{quae ex urbibns praedatl snmns, ea stuit distributa). The relattre use was 

transferred from Homer to the Ionic and Doric writers also ; so the Tragedians 

take this liberty, though very rarely. Her. 3, 81. t & fjAy *Ordn}r t rrc, XcX^x^^ 

acJk^ rttttra* rk V it rh irX^ot Ibwyc p4p§tw rh KpdroSf yr^fuif ^' iipfan^ 

iutiprnK*. Comp. Larger Grammar, Part IL ^ 488. 

4 24fif. Classes of Verbs. 

In relation to the subject, the predicate can be expressed 
in different ways. Hence arise different classes of verbs, 
which are indicated by different forms : — 

(1) The subject appears as active^ e. g. 'O trak ypd<f>€i, 
TO aj^o^ ^dWec, — But the active form has a two-fold 
signification : — 

(a) Transitive^ when the object to which the action is 
directed, is in the Ace., and therefore appears Kspas- 
sive or as receiving the action, e. g. Tinrroi rov iraHBof 
ypd(l)Oi> r^v iwtaroXijp, — Transitive verb. 

(^) Intransitive, when the action is either confined to the 
subject, as To aj/^09 ^aXXct, or when the verb has an 
object in the Gen. or Dat, or is constructed with a 
preposition, e. g. ^Eirfyvfrn Trfi aperrjf;, %a//>Q) rp aoj>ia, 
fiaSi^G) ek rrjv mXiv, — Intransitive verb. 

(2) Or the subject performs an action which is confiued 
to, or is reflected upon itself, e. g. TvTrrofuu, I strike my- 
self; ^ovKeuofuuy I advise myself, or I deliberate ; tuttto- 
IJLOA rtjp K€(t>a\i]v, I strike my own head; Karaarpi^fJAu rijp 
yQv, I subjugate the land for myself ; afLvvopuu to^ iroKepU' 

Digitized by 



0U9, I keep off the enemy from myself, — Middle or Reflex- 
ive verb. 

Bemark 1. When the reflexive action is performed by two or more Bubjecta 
on each other, as Txnrromaxj they strike each other; StoKcXci^rrai, iheu exhort each 
other ^ it is called a reciprocal action, and the verb, — Reciprocal Tcrb. 

(3) Or the subject appears as receiving the action, i. e. 
the action is performed upon the subject, e. g. Oi (rrpariaiTcu 
xnro TKov TrdKefiiayv iSuir^^aav, were pursued^ — Passive verb. 

Bbu. 2. The Act and Mid. hare complete forms. For the Pass., the 
Greek has only two tenses : the ITut and Aor. All the other passive forms 
arc indicated by the Mid., since the passive action was considered as a reflexive 

Rehabks on thb Classes of Vebbb. 

{ 249. A. Active Form, 

1. Many active verbs, especially such as express motion^ 
besides a transitive signification, have an intransitive or reflex- 
ive sense. (So in English, as he leads, the birds move, the car- 
riage breaks, tfie snow m^Its, which have also a transitive sense ; 
so the Lat vertere, mutare, declinare, etc.) * 

^ ^Ax^pcay rorofjhf isfidWti 4s r^v A/fu^y, Th. ], 46. 'H B^A^Si; \lfufri i^irf 
irtv 4s ^d^Mrvoaf, 4, 103. *E77i»s ij 7 or ol *EAAiyv« (comp. to draw near), X. 
An. 4. 2, 15. So also iiydyttw, to go back, to withdraw; iidyttp, perstare, to 
continue, arc found in prose. — *EAa(/yciy or 4\aivtiv Xinr^ (X. An. 1. 8, 1), 
to ride; Tpost\a^yttw, adequitare, to ride up to. — Many compounds of fidXAtur, 
e,g,4fi$d\\fiyB,n6. t Is fidKKtty, to faUiido, to empty (of a riyer)] 4icfid\' 
Kety, to spring forth, to put forth (of plants, etc.) ; fitrafidWtty (like muiare), 
9ta0'd\\§iyfto cross over; wposfidWtty riyi, to make an attack upon; irv/i* 
fidWtiy rtyt, manus conserere, to engage in combat with; 4rkfid\\eiyy to fall 
upon; 6r€pfid\\ety, to exceed, to be prominent, — KXfyciy and its com- 
pounds, e. g. 4riKXly9ty, to incline to something; hroK\iy€ty, declinare. — Tp4w€i y, 
Mke vertere; 4irtTp4w§iy, se permiitere, to entrust one's sdfto. — Srp^^ctv (like 
mutare) and its compounds. — Uraifiy, to strike against, to stumble; irposirraleiy, 
as fieydXws •Kpositrrtucraey, they suffered a total shipu^eck (Her. 6, 95). 'AiraX- 
Kdrretyyto get off, escape. — Compounds of ti^Syai, as 4yZtli6ycu, to discharge 
itself (of a stream) ; 4iriM6yai, prq/icere, to increase, advance. — Compounds of 
i4yai, c, g. ityt4yat, to rdax, be remiss; 4^4yai (sc. kwrhy) Icx^p^ yiXmri {indul 
gere), PI. Rp. 388, e. Compounds of filay§ty, iiiyy(tvai, as avfifdaytty, 
commisceri; wposfuyy^ycu, to fight with, also appropinquare, e.g. vpos4fu^ay r^ 
rtix^i, Th. 3, 22. A1p€ty,to get under way, set out (of ships, to weigh anchor), 
also copipounds, e. g. ol fidpfiapot Miptaf 4k rjjs A^Xov (to set sail), Her. 6, 99 ; 
hrraipeuf (sc. x^^pf^) "^^^t ^ J^9^ ^^ ^ withstand. — 2vydvT€iy, manus con^ 

Digitized by 


332 SYNTAX. [♦24a 

fererv.— '%X«(>'> ^ ^J"^* ^X'U' 'ro^' (desUHert), Th. 1, 112; tx9»» wieh adveiiM, 
as c2y KoXms, KOKwSf like bene^ male habere; %x**^ ^^ ^'> ''i aliqua re oocupactum 
esse ; wpos4x*uf (sc. yovy), attendere^ to give miis attention to, or appcUare, to land; 
vpo4xftVi praestare; ix4xft¥, se sustinerej or expectare, in mente habere, c. g. InZ- 
xov arpcert^ta^tu ; Koerix^w,, se rdinere, also to land; -Kapix^iv, c. g. t^ fdov^ucp^ 
mtisicae se dare ; iardx^tp, to he distant from ; iurr4xft¥f resistere. — TIpcCxTcor with 
adverbs, c. g. t S, ksuc&s, or with the Ace. of adjectives, e. g. icoX^ ircurtCy to ./imt 
t£«2^ or tV/. — AtarptfiMitf {oontumere),vertarijtoempli»fone^s self. — Compounds 
of ^^p CI y, as 9ia/p4p€tPf to be different, differre; ifw%p^4p*w {eminere) wKa&rm.'^ 
'A¥aKafAfidv€iv,reJicif recreari. — OikcTv, admtnistrari, 6, g. 'ir6Kis oIk^i {the 
stale is nuMna(jied)^'P\ai, — T«A.f vrar, toendjtodie.—-Karcp'^ovpf to succeed, — 
fit Kay, to prevail, e. g. iyUa ^ X^^^^ ''^^ yvtoyAwy (like vineit sententia), Her. 
6, 1 09. 'E X X c (ir € I y, officio suo deesse ; &iroXc/ircij^, to remain behind, etc 

2. Several active verbs with a transitive signification, -which 
form both Aorists, have in the first Aor. a transitive, but in the 
second Aor. an intransitive sense : — 

9^, to wrap up, first Aor. Dvo'a, I wrapped up, second Aor. (HOy, Iw^cnt tn, 
tmniu, to place, " farriiray I placed, " turjiv, I stood, 

^<m, to produce, " f^MTo, I produced, " ll^w,Iuxis produced, 

erK4\Xa», to make dry, " {fcKtiKa, poet. / make dry), " HaKXnv, I withered. 

So several active verbs with a transitive signification, -which 
form both Perfects, have in the first Perf a transitive, but in the 
second an intransitive sense : — 4 

iyeipot, to wake, first Pf. iyfiytpKa, I have awakened, sec^d Pf. 4yp4tyopa, lam awake, 
tKKiuiu, perdo, " oKdtKtKo, perdidi, " thM\a,perii, 

vcl^u, to persuade, ^'- ir4xtuta, I have persuaded, " 'w4voi^a, I trust, 
hfolyw, to open, " iaf4wxu,, I have opened, ** hf4^pya, I stand open 

(h 187, 6), 
irpd-TTv, to do, " v4irpaxc^ J i«w done, " v4irpaya (so. cJ), / 

fare well 

Moreover some second Perfects of transitive verbs, which do 
not form a first Perf, have an intransitive sense : — 

SyvvpLi, to break, second Pf. 107a, lam broken, 
^iiyyviu, to tear, " tppwya, lam torn, 

•H\Kta, to smelt (iron), " r4niKa, lam smelted, 

ir^TW/ui, to fasten, " Winryo, I am fastened^ 

trlpru, to make rotten, ** a4(rrpra, lam rotten, 

^vu, to show, " ic4^va, I appear, 

Rehark 1. The Pass. a\tcrKOfiat,tobe taken, has an active form in tlie 
Perf. and Aor., viz., idXuKa, I have been taken, idxwy, I was taJxn{S 161, 1). 

3. Intransitive active verbs are sometimes used in the p?ftce 
of the passive. 

Digitized by 


i 260,1 CLASSES OF VERBS. W ^DLE FORM ' 333 

This is particnlariy the case with iri^'x"'') v^vrciv, ^e^yciv/c?, ica- 
icifs dKo^ttw, bv4iaK9i9y more Beldom rtX^vrav, These actiA^CTcrhs 
with iftrh and the Gen. are rery commonly used instead of the passive of such 
verbs as ASuccir, fhrrtar or /3d(XA«iy, Scc&iccty, irrtiytiy ; MiaKtar in certain forms 
is always so used (4 161, 13). Mtydha 'r€<r6yra {evena, were destroyed by) 
vpfffYiuKra iith rifnr6vtaVi Her. 7, 18. AtofSxtpw iv6fu(oif tlvat K€unis ^h r&y 
9o\tT&w hKoitiv {audire, they thoughtit worse to he evil spoken of by the citizens), 
f KoXAs Mp rijs w6\€<at hroMi<rK9af, Isocr. Pancg. 56, 77. So iicrtirrtip ^^6 
riwosj expdU ab aliquo ; very often ^c^iv hr6 nvosyfugari ab aiiquo, to he put 
to flight by some one^ or in a judicial sense, accasatum esse ab aliquo, e. g. ia^fitlas 
^e6y€ty 6x6 rtvoSf to be accused by someone of impiety. E2f, K€ut&s wdwx» 
hr6 ffov, I am benefited, injured by you, *ErcA«^rii<rair «^ *A^i}ya<wy 
iinterfecti sufU), Her. 6, 92. 

Reh. 2. It will be seen (§ 279, Rem. 5) that intransitive active /erbs are 
f*t^qucntly used in poetry in a transitive sense, e. g. iurrpdMrtty ff4Xasy 0aiy9iy 

"Rem. 3. The transitive active is not unfrequently used, when the subject 
does not itself perform an action, but causes it to be perform^ by another; 
yet this usage is admissible, only when it is evident from the context or from 
the nature of the case, that the subject docs not itself perform the action. X. 
AiLl,AflO,KvposrhyrapdBua'oy i^iKo^t Ktd rh ficurtXtta Kar4icavaMV,caxtsed 
to-be cut down. So frequently ftronrciyeiK, ^dm-taff olKa9ofAMiy and simiUur exam- 
ples ; often also BtHirtteuf^ iritUUw (comp. PL Prot 320, a. 324) d. Menon. 94, b). 

♦ 250. B. Middle Form. 

1. The Mid. denotes an action, which is performed by the 
subject, and is again reflected upon it or is confined to it. Two 
cases are here to be distinguished : — 

(a) The Mid. denotes, first and most frequently, an action 
wliich the subject performs upon an object witliin its own 
sphere, i. e. upon an object belonging to the subject, connected 
with it, or standing in any near relation to ii. In English, this 
relation of the Middle voice is expressed by a possessive pro- 
noun, or by the preposition to or for with a personal pronoun. 

riwrofuu, irv^iiy r^y KtipaXiiy, I strike, J^struck my own Head (r^irrcfy «., to 
strike the head of another) ; \o6aeur^at robs r^Sor, to tcash one^s own feet (Xo^eiv r. 
IT., to wash the feet of another) •, iiroKpin^bM ri lavrov, to conceal one's own 
affairs ; irtpifi^^Mr^at xtr^^a, suam vestem, to rend one's own garment (vcpi^^^^ai, 
alius, that of another) ; xapasrx^a^ai t<, to give something from one*s oim means, to 
furnish of one^s self as wavs, hence also to show, e. g. tCwioy xapdx^o^cu (on the 
contrary vapdx^iy rtvt •rpdyfiaTa, if>6$ovt etc., to cause trouble, fear, etc., to sotne 
one) ; — hroBtl^cur^al ti, c. g. fpyov, yv^vmi^, ZitvafiWy to show one's own work, etc. j 
iweeyytiKtur^ai ti, to promise ; in a reciprocal relation : velijuaff^ai ti, aliquid inter 
se partirr, to divide something with wch other, so fupivaff^cu ] — wotfiaaadtd ti, to do 

Digitized by 


334 SYNTAX. [♦ 250 

or mak^something for one^a adf e. g. ilf4iyiiP% cwoMs (mMco', iodoor ac c o mpU tk)^ 
woff)craa^at vJAc/aov, to carry on war; ^irift^Aciof, to use care ; Sytvhm yvpautOf to 
take a wife fir one^s aef^ to marry ; i\4<r^cu rt, sibi sumerey hence to choose, prefer; 
Spair^cd Ti, to take up fir one^s sdf to lay on on^s self (aXpeiif ri, to take up mmethiwg 
in order to lay it upon another) ; tdrfiotur^ ri, to ask for onis self{alTcat, to ask) ; 
vpd^eur^ai xpHt'i'Btrd rira, sibi ab aliquo pecuniam exigere ; fiur^^tur^at, conducere, io 
hire fir ont^s self (bat fiurl^SffM, locare, to let out) ; fi^rar^fff^^at, to cause to comae 
to one^s sdf to send for ; Karaorpi^^daif «caTaBov\^8Hrdai t^k, sibi subjicere ter- 
mm; iufufritourduiriya, sibi deoincircj to make dependent on one^sselfi iaroK&na^ai 
riMy to free for one^s self to ransom ; woplacur^ ri, sibi aliquid comparare {woptC"'^ 
rt Tiyi, alii aliquid comparare), Koid^tur^tu, e g. Ukofftuus ircuSoi md yvt^aSueoM 
iitK€Kpf»tirfi4yot ^ffa¥ is rhs'Ad^fyaSf Th. 2, 78; icrfiiraffdaAf waparinvda»g'' 
bat rtf sibi comparare ; bicrbtu and ypJa^aabat v6fiovs are used of one who makes 
laws for himself, or of a law-giver, who is himself, also, sabject to the law» 
which he has made for others ; on the contrary, btlyai andypdi^ v6ftoif are used 
of one who is not subject to the law which he has made, or generally of ono 
who gives laws to others, without expressing any further relation, e. g.'Exocs 
fty ctrciv, 5ri ol &»bpttiroi rohs iypd^vs y6/iavs (dtvro] *Eyif fihf ^tobs eifyuu 
rohs y6fious ro^ous rois iiy^pi&irots btiyai, X. C. 4. 4, 19 ; — i^^Fo^doi rous ro\^ 
fdous, propulsare a se hostes, hence to defend one^s self against any one (d^i^ycir, 
properly to ward off, then to hdp) \ riftatfyfi<ratr^ ri, to revenge one^s self on some 
one, to punish hinr (riprnpuv rm, to help one) : rpi^wrboi, to put to flight; kr^mr- 
3ai KOKcC, a se propulsare mala ; iaron4ii^affbal tiya, a se dimitiere ; iiVo<r§lffaTdat 
ri, a se depellere; wapair^e-atrbm, deprecari; Zw^ifrbai, i.7roB6a'bai, to sdl; &av 
Tp4r^batf ii,Tofia\4obat, iaroKpolfirturbtu, Several Deponent Middle verbs also 
belong hero (f 102, 3). 

(b) The Middle denotes, second, but much more seldom, an 
action which the subject performs immediately on itself, so that 
the subject is at the same time, also, the object of the action. 
The English here uses tlie active verb with the Ace. of the 
reflexive pronoun, e. g. rvm-opjoij I strike myself; hv^afjirfv, I 
struck myself. Here belong particularly Uie following verbs: — 

*k7Fi,ylui rwd, to strangle some one; ivdy^aabat, to strangle one^s self; 
r^j^acr^ai, K6}^acrbat, to strike one's sdf; K^tl^aobat, to bend one's se/f 
down; olKleao'^ai, migrare; ^wi0a\4ff^at, to apply or devote on^s odf to 
something; wapairx^vda'affbat, se parare; rd^aobai, to place onis self in 
order ofbatde, e. g. ofhtt fAv KtpKupeSoi ird^ayr o, Th. 1 , 48 ; [but also to fix or 
establish for one's self according to No. (a), e. g. rd^aurbat ^dpoy, to agree to pa^ 
tribute;] vpos^dobai, se adjungere, to agree with; Xoravbai (rr^Mu« ItfrdEwvu) 
and its compounds, to place one's sdf [but also according to No. (a), sibiponer^, 
ioplacefir one's self eg. Tp6watoy]\ dpfitoaabat, Ka^opfita'aabat^ to Uma 
(comp. Th. 4, 15); icuK\Aoaobat, to encircle (corap. Th. 5, 72), but kvkXm^ 
MM, to form a circle or place one's self in a circle; rpaw4irbat [not rpt^atr^m, 
■eeNo. (a)l totumone's self {Th, 5. 29,13) , iyyv4iiraff»aiy to pledge oite's aei/. 

Digitized by 



waiffac^at, to cease {{rom vovw, to cause to cease)] ^tl^aa^aifto show one^s 
self: particularly verbs which express an action performed by the subject upon 
hid own body, e. g. Xovaacr^at, vl^aa^ai, &\€i^a<r^ai, xP^oaa^ai, 
{^iraar^atf yvfiydoaff^ai, KaXu^^ao^ai, Koofi^aaa^aty d/i^icaao*- 
j^ai, iyJiiffaff^atf iKdio'ao'&ai, Ktipaa^ai, iivofi6piaff^at, se abster 
gere; i^rofi^^acr^aii se emungere; ixot^iiffaa'^ai, se abstergere; vre^a- 
v^ifaa-^at] o'TclXao-^at, to get ready, to JU one's self out; also some few 
verbs which in the Mid. express internal^ mental action, CQ.^vXd^air^atfto 
he on one^s guards to be cautious (but fuXdrrtty rtyd, to guard some one) \ ^rfi^i' 
aac^at, to determine or decree by vote (bat ^^iCstv^ to put the vote) \ fiovK€6' 
vaffbaifto deliberate, to advise ont^s self {hut fiouKtUw rwt, to advise some one) ; 
yriirao'^ai, to taste (yc^iy, to cause to taste, to give a taste of )] rifittpiia'ar' 
^aif to avenge; the reciprocals 8ia«raraX^a'a<rda( 'rp6s ru^ to be reconciled 
to any one; vvv^iv^atf to bind on^s self to agree with any one; irw§iaaff^at, 
to make a treaty, peace with; hvo^x^^^^h to restrain one^s seff to abstain 
from; several compounds of Ti}/u, e. g. iiptta^at, to strive; ^<pl€(r^ai, to 
yield, beremiss; fit^lta^ai, to neglect, be remiss; dymrot^o-air^al rtyos, to 
strive for something; ikifrt\afi4ff^ai rur6f, to lay hold of something. Here 
belong, also, most Deponent Middle verbs (§ 197, Rem. 2). 

Remark 1. This immediate reflexive relation is expressed also: (k) by middle 
verbs with a Fass. Aor., c. g. SioA^cif, to separate, hwXv^vm, ^ujJurw^tUy to 
separate one^s self discedere (see 4 197, Rem. 3); (b) by the active form, e. g. 
ficra/3^AAciy, to change one's self {see 4 249, 1 ) ; (c) by the active form with the 
Ace. of the reflexive pronoun, e. g. iwcuytTy iavriy, Mprav iauT6w, to attach one*s 
sdf to, to make one^s self depend on any one ; iaroKp^nrrtiw i€un6y, i^iCtip imn6¥<, 
wapdxfuf kmnSvt iaroKO^iv iavroy, to free one^s self iirooipdrruy iaurw, Aironrct- 
tf€Uf kwm6¥ ', the Mid. then has the signification of the Pass, j thus, ixaivtiabai^ 
dhrorre/yc<rdcu, kmHr^rrtv^tu, laudari^ inlerfia, jugtdari ab alio, and has for its 
Aor. and Fat. a Fass. form. Sometimes the active form with the reflexive 
pronoun is used, even when the verb has a middle form. This mode of expres- 
sion is very natural in antithesis or contrast, e. g. *E^ptv€y hirh Xtnrov, imirr^ 
yvfitfdaat kav7 6tf T€ Ktd rohs twout, X. An. 1. 2, 7. 

Rem. 2. The Mid. in the same manner as the Act. (f 249, Rem. 3), can be 
used, when the subject does not itself perform an action, but causes it to bo 
done by another. There is this difference, however, in the two cases, that in 
the Mid. the action always refers, in some way, to the subject. 'O irar^p robs 
muSos idilid^aro (Iraidc^aro), which signifies either, the father educated the chil- 
dren for himsdf, or, if it is clear from the context, he earned them to be educated 
(as X. C. 1. 6, 2 ; on the contrary, ^iHtrxtty, irai5«^iy are used without referring 
back to the subject, \ 249, Rem. 3) ; Ktipaer^, to share one^s seff, or to get shaved. 
'Apyuoi aA4m¥ €hc6wea •rotiiadfitifot {having caused to be made) Ar^covr 4s 
AcA^o^r, Her. 1, 31. Uawrcofias rpdirt(ay Htpaueiiy iraptri^rro {caused to be set 
lefore him), Th. 1, 130. Oi AaK€9atfx6yioi ictipvKa Wfiifroin'cf robs ytKpobs Siciro* 
fit ff ay TO {caused to be removed), 4, 38. 

Rem. 3. The reflexive relation of the middle to the subject, is often so 
slight, that in our mode of considering it, it almost disappears, and sometimes 
consists only in a very gentle intimation, that the action will be completed to 
the advantage or disadvantage of the subject, c. g. II. o, 409. oint irori Tfmti 
Aaya&y 4ti6yuyro ^(Ucryyaf Prj^dfityot {in- suum commodum) xKialpct fuytifitym. 
Hence the reflexive pronoun is not seldom used with the middle, particularly 
m antitheses, in order to bring out emphatically the reflexive sense which 
exists in the middle only in a general and indefinite manner, e. g. Utyo^ih 

Digitized by 


336 SYNTAX. (♦ 251. 

fiouXt^MTu iavr^ tvofta kcH ZCrc^wf frtpifroi^cracr^ai (to gain a name and 
power Jbr himself) X. An. 6. 6, 17. *Eirf Sct^arro rkt aOr.&v &f»cr<ir, I«kt. 
I'aucg. 58, 85. '?4^ufwy auTols Kartar^iirayro rhv ^oi; G3, 108. TV 
i/Aavrov yy^fxriir ivo^air^/iCKOf, Id.Pcnnut.309, 22. 

Hem. 4. In many verbs, the actiTe and Mid. appear to have a similar sig- 
nification; bat on a closer investigation, the difference in the meaning is 
obvious ; the active expresses the action absolutely, or objectively, without any 
accessary idea; the middle, on the other hand, expresses the same action in 
relation to the subject, or subjectivelr. Hence, the middle is employed wiien 
the literal meaning is changed into the figurative, e. g. Stoucco^ of on outwx&nl 
arrangement, ^loiKtiffdai of mental; 6pt^iif literally, 6pi(t<Tbai figuratively; 
ara^ftoM only in a literal sense, to meatwre^ but trrtAiMffhai also in a figurative 
signification, to wd^ or meamtre in one*s nUnd, aliquid tecum perpendere ; tnuww, 
to look at something^ ffKorti&^cUf to look mmlaUy^ to congider; so in derivative 
verbs in -c^ and' -c^/tcu, the active form is used absolutely, to he in a certain 
stcUe ; the middle, on the other hand, signifies, to act the part of that which is 
indicated by the root, to show one^s self as such^ to have the tendency or habit, /o act 
as such, e. g. voyvipc^, to be bad, wotnipe^ofuu, to demean one's skf badly ; mikf 
rc^, to be a citizen, woKirtvofuu, to live and act as a citizen ; rofutiu, to be a 
manager, rofAtci/o/iou, to conduct business, to arrange, especially in a metaphorical 
sense, e. g. robs v6ftovs ; aTpart6t», to undertake an expcaition, used of a general or 
a state, arpart^fuu, to engage in an expedition, used of the soldiers. Derivatives 
in -iCofuu correspond in sense to those in -€^fjuu, e. g. ibmfi(oftat, to demean my- 
self as a citizen ; xap«>^^CoMcu, to act in an agreeable manner. Still, derivatives 
in 4(m, from names of nations, reject the middle, c. g. S«/>(^», to demean myself or 
to speak like a Dorian. 

Bem. 5. Several verbs which in the active have a causative sense, in the 
middle have a simple intransitive sense, though some of them are conitmcted 
with an Ace., e. g. ^fin^^oA, to cause to fear, ^p4\^ardm, to fear; olxrxyim, to 
make ashamed, euffxwM'^ai, to be ashamed, to feel shame ; vopcuireu, to cqxtse to 
go, to convey, woptiaoff^cu, to go; wtpaiwrcu, to cause to pass over, irtpai^wbat, 
to pass over; KoifiriffaA, to cause to sleep, lull to sleep, icotfi'faaff&ai, to sleep; wmom* 
to cause to cease, wa6aaa^aij to cease; vKdy^ai, to cause to wander, wxiy^^ffbtut 
to wander, etc. 

Rek. 6. The middle form, as already stated (§ 248, Rem. 1 ), is often used 
to express reciprocal actions. This is particularly the case with verbs signify- 
ing to contend, vie with, converse with, embrace, salute, to make an agreement or com- 
pact, e. g. fidx^a^^ai, to Jiyht with ; kfJuKKatrhcu, to contend with ; iyvW^eirdai, to 
strive ; 9ia\4ytff^ai, to converse with ; iunrdCftr^, to salute ; ravra ovyridt irdcu, 
miUuallu to agree on these points ; inroy^s ovlyi^tr^eu or wouttr^m, to make a treaty 
{<nroy»u iroictv signifying to make a libation). So also, where the action is not 
strictly reciprocal, but where the idea expressed by the verb necessarily sup- 
poses two persons or two parties, as in questions and answers, e. g. rvydtlyc«'dai 
and Ijpctf-dca, to inquire; itwoKplytcr^u and Aroficf^Scirdat, to answer; evftfiovXt^- 
«4rdcu, to consult with one, ask his advice, and iLyoKotyowrdai, to consult one {iumcotyovy 
being especially used of consulting oracles). 

$ 251. C. The Passive. 
1. From the reflexive signification of the Middle, the Passive 
is derived. Here the subject receives the action from another 
upon itself, — permits tlie action to be performed upon itself. 
Hence the subject always appears as a passive or suffering 

Digitized by 



MaoTiTOv/uu, (fifuovfuu {M riyos), I receive UotcSf pumshmentf I let mytelfht 
struck, punitfied ^ I am struck, punished (by some one) ; iSAiirrofuu, Aducou/iai, 
I suffer injury^ injustice; UtidtrKOfMoi, I let myself he instructed^ I receive instruction, 
I learn, hence MTi¥os,fiom some one — doceor ab aliquo; irtl^ofjuu, I persuade 
myself, or I permit mysdf to he persuaded, M ra^os, by some one =^ I am per* 

2. Yet, there arc but two tenses, the Fut. and the Aor., which 
have special fonns to express tlie passive sense of an action ; 
the remaining tenses are expressed by the Mid. 

3. Hence the following rule : The Fut and Aor. Mid. have 
a reflexive (or intransitive) sense only; but all the other tenses 
of the Mid. serve at the same time for the Passive also. 

Heuabk 1 . Still, the Fnt. Mid. has sometimes a Pass, sense also. The reason 
of this may be fonnd in a great measure in the shorter form of this Fat. compared 
with that of the Fut. Pass. This passive use of the Fut. Mid. is fonnd most 
frequently with Pure verbs; much more seldom with Mute verbs, and very sel- 
dom with Liquid verbs ( probably not at all in A 1 1 ic i)rose ). Matrriy^o'craf, 
ffTptfik^trtrai, HtH-fieerai, iKKovd^trerai rit^aXiui, rtXtvrwv wdyra Katci 
Tti^Stp iunurKiyZvktvd^fffTai, PI. Hp. 361, e. T^ ruy XP^/*^'''^'' ovditti irwA.^- 
voyrat, Th. 1, 142. "Hr ris fiov\ri^ Koxhs ytviabaii Ko\affb4i<rrrai rp irpcTo^tfn 
fyfdff ol 9^ iyodol rifi^aoifrai rois xpos^Kovffiy Si^Kois' rris &ptT^s {hut the 
hrave shall he honored unth the h^fitting rewards of valor), 2, 87. TltfH r&y ff^vrl- 
pmy ^poupttay, &s iTifiovXfVffOfJLtywy, iro?iXAKis Tpdyfuxra tlxo^f X. C. 6, I, 
10. lLlp^6iJLt^a {includemur)^ X. An. 6. 6, 16. 'H yrj ti ^y\d^trat ^h rAy 
fpoupo^cfy. OvK iyyoowrts, thi iyedpf6ooiyro &wh r&y woKtfUcty, H. 7. 2, 
18. Very commonly &8i«cili 0*0 /lac, ip^ofiat (from ipx^f i'^P^ro), fiKdilfo- 
fiai, ^o4iifOfiai. So always aK^a-ofiai. Some verbs have both forms 
of the rutnre, as, e.g. ^A.<7y, fyt^ovy, trrtptiy, ^ fifty, Sytiy; then the Mid. 
form seems to denote a condition, the Pass, an action received. But in very 
manv instances, the Pass, sense is only apparent, e. g. *H WXif fipax^ iier^T&a 
/uyAa (11 fi. doer at, shall suffer great /oss therefor, in contrast with fipax^a 
V5., Th. 3 40. 2oS C^yros, fi4\rtoy ^p4y^oyrat iral xatZ^iooyrai (they 
shall grow up better and educate themselves), PI. Crito. 54, a. 

Rem. 2. The use of the Mid. Aor. instead of the Pass, is, in all instances, 
only apparent; so Od. d^, 35. xo^/w Z\ 8^ ica2 fr^yrfiKoyra Kpiydc^tty icen-i 
S^fior, means* let them select for themselves (on the contrary, 48. Ko^ptt 9h icpty 
^4yTe ZU»K, xtyr., the selected), Hcs. Sc. 173. Kdtrpot 8o<ol itxovpdfttyot ^ 
xds, they had deprived each other of life. PI. Phacdr. 244, e. ry 6p^s fuiy4yri Ktd 
Kara<rxofi4y^, " in Jine frenzy " and in ecstasy, 

Kem. 3. It has been shown, ^ 197, and Bem. 3 (comp. ^ 250, Bem. 1), that 
the Aor. Pass, of very man^r verbs is employed b^ the Greeks to denote a 
reflexive and intransitive action, e. g. fio^Xoiuu, I will, ifiovX^&riy, I willed; 
tbfpaUw, I gladden, cheer, tv^palyofMU, I am glad, eh^pdy^riy, I was glad. In 
a few verbs, the Pass. Fut. is used in the same way, e. g. fjHofuu, 1 rejoice, 
^ffdriy, I rejoiced, i)o^oofMi, I shall rejoice. See § 197, Bern. 1. 

Bem. 4. The author or cause of the passive condition or state is generally 
expressed by the Prep. Inr6 with the Gen., e. g. Ol arpart&rai Ixh r&y jtoX' 
einimy iZt^x^^^"'^' Instead of {nr6, irp^i with the Gen. is used, when at the 
same time a strong and direct influence of a person, or of a thing viewed as a 
person, is to be expressed, e. g. *^rt^^d((te^al, tZtKeixr^m trp6s rtyos. Bayou- 


Digitized by 


338 SYNTAX. [^ 25L 

irucal r4x''cu §lK6rots iio^o^tnrai xphs r&y ir<(Xc«y, X. O. 4, 2 ; also wmpJi 
with the Gen. is used, when the author is at the same time to be represented :ts 
the ])crson from near whom, or from whose vicinity, or through wiiosc mcanai 
internal or outward, the action has proceeded; hence used specially witfi w€ff 

iwiifiiantffdm (denumttrari)^ e. g. *0 6yy€?ios i x 4fif^fi vapii fia<rtX. /w s (sent 
both by and from near the kmg). *H iieyifmi tbrvxia ro&r^ r^ &tf9pl wapii 
S^€&¥ 8^8orai. Tlo?iXkj^t>^futraKvp<p'irapitT&ypl\(ay <rvu€ tK^yft^ra 
^y. T& SwfM v^/iirera< irapoi ro 1/ /SaflrcXc^oyror, Her. 7, 106. 
tSw ^c«y o'iyfia<y({/ieya, X. Cy. 1. 6, 2. UapiL irdyTtfw 6fio Xaymtrai, 
An. 1. 9, 1. Olfitu ydp fu rraph. <rov co^las irKupttb^ia ta^ai^ PL Sjrmp 
175, e. *£« is still stronger than irapd(,u8edespedally with verbs of giving; yet 
it is seldom used by the Attic writers, e. g. *£ice(Ky cUmy i^ xS»pa, Ik /3a0-<A/«s 
^8^;&iy, X. H. 3. 1, 6; in Ilcr., however, ^k is very often used instead of 6W 
simply. The use of 6*-^ with the Dat. is almost wholly poetic, e. g. hofx^yoi 
httl T ty t ; in Attic prose only in certain connections, e. g. vlSi hir^ r-^ ttmrpl 
T€bpQ/iti4yoSf TL Rp. 558, d. Tutx^c* ^^^ waiiorpTfip kyab^ wtwatMww 
fidyost Lach. 184, e. When the passive condition is not caused by persons, bat 
by tiUnffs, the Dat. is commonly used (a- Lat Ablative), e. g. 'II w6\u «- o WmTs 
avu^opats iwidCtro, the eiiy was distressed by great misfortunes. — The above 
usage corresponds with that of the Xiatin, the voluntary agent with a passive 
verb being put in the Abl. with the preposition a or ab^ the involuntary agent 
in the Abl. without a preposition. 

Rem. 5. The Dat. of persons, however, is very often used, particularly with 
the Perf tense, and regularly with verbal adjectives. The Pass, has in snch 
instances an intransitive or reflexive sense, and the Dat. indicates the person by 
whom the action was performed, or for whom it was performed. While b-ri 
with the Gen. denotes merely the author of the passive action, the Dat., at tlic 
same time, denotes that this action stands in relation to the author, e. g. "Cls 
fiot vpirrtpoy M^Xwtcu, i.'c. as the thing has been before pointed out by me, and for 
me now stands as pointed out^ Her. 6, 123. 

4. It is a peculiarity of the Greek, that the Act, not merely 
of tiansitive verbs with the Ace, may be changed into the per- 
sonal Pass., hkc the Latin, but also the Act. of intransitive 
verbs with the Gen. and Dat. • 

^boyovpLai vir6 rivo\ (from 4>:^ovf7v riyi, incidtre alicui),\. q. I experience 
envy from some one, am envied (in Latin, on the contniry, inviddur rnihi ab 
aliquo). X. Conv. 4, 29. Kpt7rr6y iori xttrrtvtirdai bith Trjs varpl^s fuiWoy, ft 
iijriffT€tffbai (from v-iorct^ciy and iiriorrcti' riyi), / am trusted, lam distrustfd. 
Th. 1, 82. rifius bn 'k^vaiay itrifiovKtv6fi€ba {imfiou\fv(iy rtyi). PI. Kp. 
S. 417, b. Kol im$ov\tvoyreSt Kol i^ifiov\ev6fi€yot itd^ovtri wdyra-vhy -fiior. 
8. 551, a. iurKtircu 8^ rh &cl rifio/Atyoyf iifttKeirai Zh rh i,rtfia(6fityoy, X. S. 
4^31. obKiri itirtiKov/iatf iXA,* ff^ itxtiXQ HAXots. 'So kpxdv'^a-j xparti' 
ftijrai, 4iyefioy€vb^yat, Kara^poym^^yai bv6 rtyot (from lipx^t^t Kpa- 
Tuy, ^cuoyc^cty, Kara^poyuy rtyos), ^irixecpiyl^^yai (from iirix€ip€ty rtyt). 
On K^rropuu r^y Kt^akhyf hrvrp^oyMi r^y ^vAoiri^y, see S 281, 3. 

Kex. 6. The Greek may form a Pass, from other intransitives also, yet, for 
the most part, only when the subject is a thing, particularly a Neut pronoun, 
or a Part. used ns a Neut. substantive, e. g. Koi iJMcpik kfiaornb4yra {vel parva 
peccata), X. An. 5. 8, 20. 'Arvxv^^yrcty (rentm infmciter (^cstorum), l)em. 
Cor. 298, 212. 'EtI roinois iyi» kXn^^voikiyois Ziltapl aot rhy ^ftV 8c{/«' 

Digitized by 


4) 252, 253.] tensbs and modes. 339 

{ea conditioner ut haee vert dieanhtr), X. C^. 4. 6, 10. lEu M M^ voXX&y Ape- 
T^ Kiy9v¥ti€^dai {in periadum vooart)^ Th. 2,35. 06 ^loy r& ^h woXXdy 
ff trSvrt v^^^rra d^* Ms ^dyptUf LjB. 5, 112. 

4 252. it0mar^5 on the Deponents, 

It has been seen aboye (^ 102, 3) that Deponents are simply yerbs whicli 
occur either in the Mid. onlj, or in the Mid. with a Pass. Aor., and hare a 
rcflcxire or IntnmsitiTO signification ; and, also, that they are divided into Mid. 
or Pass. Deponents, accoiding as their Aor. has a Mid. or Pass. form. The 
reflexive sense of many Deponents is so slight, that they seem to be, in our 
mode of regarding them, merely transitive verbs, e. g. Uxofud ri, I take (namely, 
to myself) aomeUangy ipydCo/iai ri, fitdCofioi rtpOf etc. Such Deponents are often 
nsed in a Pass, sense, particnlarly in the Perf. and in the Pass. Aor. Examples 
of the Pres., Impf., and Fnt in a Pass, sense are very rare, and are foond only 
in such Deponents as have in single examples an active form, e. g. fiidCtcbaif 

IlcU^a kir^ipyatrrai ry i^c^, PI. L. 710, d. Mtfiifirifi^yos {ad imUaiuh 
nem expressus^ made like)^ Her. 2, 78. "El iyr^^viiJiikipov { well-considered), PI. 
Crat 404, a. N^es obx ixp^^^il^^^ {adhibitae sunt), Her. 7, 144. 

Rehask. Several Deponents have both a Mid. and Pass. Aor. ; the Pass, 
form has then a Pass, sense, e. g. iZt^dfirfy, excepi, i^4x^iir, 'exc^)tus sum ; 
iPtaffdfiriy, coCgi, ifiidc^fiy, coactus sum; ixTiio'dfiiiiy, mihi compamvi, 
iKT^^Hy^comparatfts sum {I was gained)] dXo^vpao'^ai, to lament, ^Xo- 

rvp^ijyait to be lamented; dfc^traa^ai, to heal, kxea^fiyaifto be healed; 
voK piya^^atf to replif.&iroKpi^riyat, to be separated. In a few verbs only 
are both Aorists used without distinction of meaning (^ 197, Rem. 1). 

4 253. Tenses and Modes of the Verb, 

(a) Tenses denote the relation of time expressed by the 
predicate, this being designated either as Present, Future, or 
Past, e. g. the rose blooms, wiU bloom, bloomed; 

(b) Modes denote the relation of what is affirmed in the predi- 
cate to the subject; this relation being denoted either as an 
actual fact, as a conception or representation, or as a direct 
expression of the will. The mode which expresses a fact, as 
the rose blooms, is called the Indicative ; that which denotes a 
conception, as the rose may bloom, the Subjunctive ; that which 
denotes the direct expression of the will, the Imperative, as 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

310 BTNTAX. [H 254, 255 

^ 251. A. More Particular View of the Tensc^. 

1. The tenses are divided, according to their form and mean« 
ing, into two classes : (a) into Principal tenses, which, both in 
the Ind. and Subj., always denote something present or futare; 
(b) into Historical tenses, which in the Ind. always denote 
something past, in the Optative, something present or future. 

2. The Principal tenses are : — 

(a) The Fr«8ont: (a) IndictitiTO, e. g. ypd^ofuiff nanUmm; (/9) SubjunctiTO, 
e. g. yplpmitMw, taribamut ; 

(b) The Perfect: (a) IndicatiTO, e. g. ytypd^ofuv^ acripnmut; (0) Sobjuno- 
tire, e. g. yrypipttfimf^ $cnp§enmui; 

(e\ The Fatare IndicatiTe, e. g. ypJa^o/up^ scribemut^ we $haU write ; SabjvDO- 
tiyo wanting ; 
' (d) Tho^ Ftttnre Perfect Indicative, e. g. fitfiovXti^ofuut I shaB have adoited 
vufulf^ or I shall have been advised; Subjanctive wanting. 
The Subj. Aor. also belongs here, e. g. ypSfw^ scripserim or scribam. Sea 
I 257, 1 (a). 

3. The Historical tenses are : — 

(a) The Aorist: (a) Indicative, e.g. Kypai^ I wrote; (/S) Optative, e.g. 
ypS^atfu, I might write, or / might have written ; 

(b) The Impcifcct : (a) Indicative, e. g. Pypn^v, scribebam ; (fi) Optative, 
e. g. ypd^tfu, scriberem ; 

(c) The Flaperfcct : (a) Indicative, e. g. iyeypd^ty^ fcripseram ; (0) Optative, 
e. g. yrypd/poifUf scripsissem ; 

(d) The Optative of the simple Future, e. g. ypS^fu, I would write, and of 
the Fnt. Perf., e. g. 0§fiov\§v€roiiiriiff I would have deliberated, or I would have 
been advised, when in narration (and consequently in reference to the 
past), the representation of a future action, or of one to be completed at 
a future time, is to bo expressed, e. g. 6 iyytkos IXcycr, Sri ol xokifuoi 
riKiiffottPfthe messenger said, that the enemy would conquer; IXcTtr, Jri 
xdarra (nrb rov arpaTfryov c3 fitfieuKt^ootro, he said that everything 
WOULD be well planned by the general, 

♦ 255. (a) Principal Tenses: Present, Perfect, Future* 

I. The Present Indicative represents the action as taking 
place in time present to the speaker. The Present i.. often 
.ised, in the narration of past events, for the purpose of a more 
vivid and graphic representation ; past time is then viewed as 
present. This is called the Historical Present 

Digitized by 



Kvpop vpottKaOvovTOy X. An. 1. 7, 16. ''Hk rts TtptofuZQr yt^wros IIoA^Mpof, 
*ZKdfiiis ircur, tr 4k Tpotas ittotirar^p ^iHotai Tlplofios h Z6fLots rp/^ciy, Ear. 
Hcc 1 116. The Uist. Fres. is sometimes used even in passages which in them* 
selves, aside from adverbs like ir or^, wdKai (poet mCpor), are considered as 
Involving past time, e. g. Zdr/ tlseaco^tras «tu9a, ftr 4k 9^(91 xor4^ Enr. £L 

K&MABK 1. An action is often viewed hy the language as present, which 
belongs, indeed, to the past, bnt at the* same time extends to the present, or in 
its rcsulto reaches to the present. In this manner, the following verbs particiH 
larlyare used: (a) verbs of perceiving, e.g.&ico^M, ww^dpofiai, alir^d' 
yofiai, ytyydffKC9, fiay^dy» (like Xat. au<f 10, vtVfeo, etc., and £ng. to Aeor, 
to see, to percdve^ to o&Krve), when the object of these verbs is to be represented 
as still continaing in the present ; {h) ^t^yta, I have given myadf to jUgkt^ and 
I am now a fugitive^ hence to live in exile; yiK& and Kpar&ll am a vidor^ 
hence have conquered)^ 4irr A/iai {Icon vanquithedyhave been vanqmahed)^ &8t«6 
{lam in the wrong, kait dom wrong)^ ylyyofiai (I am detcenaed), eU, ; (c) in 
poetiy: ^oytim (lama murderer, have murdered, e. g. S. Ant. 1174), ^yfio'Km 
(Tarn dead, have died, S. El. 113), t/ktw, ytyyH {lam a father or mother, Ear. 
Ion. 856. Her. 209), etc. This usage extends to all the Modes nid Participials 
of the Pres. as well as to the ImpL etfueroKK4a ovk ^Koieis iy9pa iiryodhy 
ytyoySra ; Fl. Goig. 503, c. Tldyra irvy^ay6fi€yos 6 Kpourot twtfAire 4s Sircfp- 
nyif 4trvy4Kovsy Her. 1, 69. TtU\ aif 4Kuyo Air^iroaf, tn Mvvol mU tluftZai 4y rf 
fimffiXitf xApa KaT4xoyr€S 4mf/iyiL vdyv x^P^ 9vyayrat (ny ^Ac^poi ; ^— Kol rovri 
y, f^, liKovtf, hati thou heard? Airo^w, yes, I have knoicn of it, X C.3. 5, 26. 
Aw€eyy4krr9 'Aptai^^ 5ri iintts 7c ytK&fAty fiaffiXia^ Koi^ At ^pSre^ olMs lifwf 
trt fidxrrai, An. 2. 1, 4. T«y yiK^yruy 4ctI mil rk hurr&y er^Ctty koI t& r&y 
hrr»/A4ytty Xofifidytty, 3. 2, 39. Aaptov Ktd Uapvcdri^s veSB^s yiyyoyrai 
tCo, 1. 1, 1. 

Kem. 2. Ofx<'M«' Ai^d ^iif^f ^ith Pros, forms, are often translated in Eng. 
by Perfects, namely, ofx^^M^i, I have departed, and I^Km, I have come; yet 
•fX^M^if properly means, / am gone, and ^km, / am here (adstfm), e. g. Mj^ 
Xvwovt Zrt *Apd4rwas ofx <'''«< <<< ''^ohs woktfUouSf that Araapas u gone, has 
departed (» trans/ugit) to the enemy, X Cy. 6. 1, 45. "Hkm y€Kpuy Ktvdfi&ya 
KM ckStov tIXos Xardy^ Enr. Hec. 1. 'Tftcii lUhis a^ucyuff^tf 8ro4 ^/itis vdJuu 
tico/ity.XCy. 1.3,4. 

Bbv. 8. Bnt the langnape often considers an action as present, which is not 
yet accomplished, bat is either actually began, or is began in <mr mind, or pur* 
poee ; snch an action is virtaally fatnre, thoagh considered as present. Cran- 
pare the English : I go to-morrow, i. e. / ahaU go, I intend to go, ana the like. This 
nsage also belongs to all the Modes and Participials of the Pres. and the Impf. 
It specially holds of the Pres. of c Tft t, which, in the Ind. has regnlarly the mean- 
ing of the Eat, / ehaU go; the Subj. includes a Eat meaning in itself {S 257, 
Bcm. 4) } but the Inf. and Part have both a Pres. and Eut. meaning. "^ ir ci r a 
Td re vvy ivra 4y ry xapaififf^ dwU 9lStfui 001, jcal &XAa ucarroSairit o-vX- 
X/{«, X. Cy. 1. 3, 14 {9i9wfit^I offer). ^affT6s ris (Tti»€y Uwoipvyra 
inroariiycu r^y itpxh^ (pcrsnadere stuaebat), X. An. 6. 1, 19.^ MiTvXijraToi ivl 
M^i^/xytuf its irpoZiiofi4yiiy 4arpdr9vcaaf (putantes parari ibi proditioucm ), 
Th. 3, 18. In like manner often the Pres. Pari, after verbs of motion, e. g. 'H 
udpaXos 4s riis 'A3^raf frXcv<rcv, lLwayy4\\ovffa rk y^yoy^ra, {for the purpose 
of announcing), X H. 2. 1, 29. Kal rf fiyei kirwKX^fit^a, Kcd x^^" vA.(t(rTi| 
l^y {we expected to perish). An. 5. 8, 2. — oiu c&d^s i^^ o* w abrhy, ov8* & veiftt, 
cmX' 4p'fo'ofAui uinhy ir«^ 4lerdcei, PI. Apol. 29, e. *£«•! h MarSdb^ wu^tr* 
mtvd(vro As hw%ov9a udKuf lep^s vhy Mpa^ Aciro ulbr^s 6 'Arrwrfyiyt nrroXcrcor 
f^Kip9r,XCy. 1.3, 13. 


Digitized by 


342 SYNTAX. [$ 255. 

Bbh. 4. Bat also actions or ercnts whollr fjitnro are sometimes indicated 
as present, by the use of the Pres. tense, when in the view of the speaker 
the action or event yet future is vividly apprehended, or when he is so firmly 
convinced of its occurrence, that it appears already present, e. g. 'Ey fuf t*^X!r 
r4v9cT^y X^P^ if poster avbt fca2 iK^iniv ftaXXoi^ i\€v^€povr€ (you ffain^ 
will gain, and free), Th. 4, 95. *'H¥ bavfis ffi, wcus 58* ix^tiyti lu&pow vov V 
oh dtXoiinis nvr^wuVf rorSc rrciw, Eur. Andr. 381. 

2. The Perfect (Indicative) represents a past action in time 
present to the speaker ; the action appears as ahready accom- 
pUshed at the present time. Hence the Ferf. represents not 
only 11 past action, but i\s present effects or results. 

rdypa^a riiw iirurroKiiw, I HAVB WBITTEH the Utter, the letter I8 »ow wkit- 
TEK, whether written now, or some time ago ; the writing is the past act, the 
letter is the result still present 'H w6\it tKrurrai^ihecity was built (in past 
time), t» NOW baih, and there-it novo stands built, 'Affrvdyris r&v 4y M^ois wdrrtt^ 
iftnrSrfiP iaxnhy ireiro(ijic«>', X Cy. 1. 3, 18. OvUy irrt K^fitaXtArtfow rem 
tnicay 6 yiip Kpar&y ifta vdyra irvyfipvaK€, koI robs &y9pas, leaL rhs yvyaSicas, 
4. 2, 26. 

Bbm. 5. Since the Perf. brings past time into close connection with the 
present, the Greeks in many Perfects contemplated less the peculiar act of 
completion, than its residt as exhibited at the present moment; and hence they 
used the Perf., in order to indicate a present condition or state that was occa- 
sioned by the completion of the action. As such a use of the Perfect docs not 
belong to the Iki^lish, we translate many Greek Perfects by onr Present, where 
the present condition is more prominent than the past act ; the Plupf. of such 
verbs is then translated by our Impf, e. ^. r^vriKa (I have died), lam dead 
(Eur. Ale. 557. r^hyaoiy oi ^ay6yT€i, those who died, are dead); Kiimiiua (I 
have acquired), I possess; rt^adfuuca (I have been wondering), lam astonished; 
0€fio6Kwfiau (I have taken counsel with mvself), /am determined; vt^ya (I 
have shown myself), I appear; oTSo, nom (I have seen), I know ; r^Aa (I hare 
blossomed), ZlMtwiR; ir^oi;^ (I have convinced myself), I trust; $4$fiKa (I 
have taken steps), / am ping; fi4fun/ifuu, memini (I have called to mind), / am 
mindful, or remember; KtaXrifAat (I have been named), / am called, etc The 
Pres. and Impf. of many verbs, especially such as express the idea of to sound, 
to call, are not used at aU, or but very seldom, so that the Perf. and Plnp. seem 
to take entirely the place of the Pres. and Impf., e. g. KtKpeefOy I cry, properly, 
lama crier; /i4fWKa, I roar. 

Kem. 6. The transition from the completed action to the condition or state 
produced by it, is more obvious in the Pass, tlian in the active. Comp. ^ b^ 
K^Kktioratfthe door has been shut, and it is now shut. So particularly the 
third Pers.' Sing. Perf. Imp. Pass, is often used, when one would command with 
emphasis, that the thing spoken of should remain fixed and permanent in its 
condition, i. e. not only that the action should be performed, but partiadarly 
that the result should continue, e. g. rh kyichpioy hvtoirdxr^ot, let the anchor be 
drawn up and remain so ; XcXc(^^, rdiquum esto. Jet it remain permanendy ; irerec* 
pdo"^, let it be tried; yvy 8^ rovro reroXfififfbw tlxetv. So the Inf. in the Oratio 
obliqua, X. H. 5. 4, 7. 4^i6yr€S 9h tttrov, r^y bipay ice^cAcicr^cu, that it be sliut, and 
remain shut 

Keu. 7. The Perf. is used with special emphasis, even of future actions, the 
occurrence of those being affirmed with the same definiteness and confidence, 
IV if they had already taken place. II. o, 128. Zt4<pbopas! you are lost, will be 

Digitized by 


f 255.] PEINCIPAI. TENSES. 343 

hst. So ^XflpXa, like Dmi\ intent, actum est de me, tt*s all over with me^ will 6^ 
etc. PI. Phacd. 80, d. i} ^vx^ iiraXAarro/i^yi} rov a^/jutros^ tv^vs 8<aire^</o'i}* 
Tat Koi &ir<JXMXcv. 

3. The Future (Indicative) denotes an action as future in re- 
lation to the present time of the speaker. The Greeks very 
oilen use the Fut. Ind. in subordinate clauses, even after an 
Hist tense, to express that which shcUl, shotddy must, or can be, 
where the Latin employs the Subj. ; the other forms of the 
Fut, particularly the Part., are also so used. 

V6ftovs &wdp^u 9e« rotoirovfj 8i* &p roif i^kv iya^ois UtrrlfAOS ical i\§^€pos 6 files 
xapaaKtvaff^'flirtrai {should be obtained), rots Z'k kcucoTs rcnrfty6s re koI &\- 
y^ivhs Kol 6 alinf iiravuKtio'erat {should be imposed upon them), X. Cy. 
3. 3, 52. Ol fts r^y fiturtXuciiy t^x^^ ToiStvSfityoi rt Btcupdpovot r&y i^ kydyicfis 
KOKova^o^yrofyf cf y€ trtty^icrovai Keil tt^^irovtri fca2 pty^aovvt kcUl &7« 
pvry^ffovri {if they must hunger, etc.), C. 2. 1, 17. "'E'io^^ r^ Si^/iy rptdKovra 
iy^pca Mff^aty otrohs xarpiovs y6fwvs ^vyy pd^ovffty ko^* ots iroXircvtrovo'i 
{icho should draw up laws, according to which they should live), IL 3. 2, 3. 

4. The second person of the Fut Ind. is often used to express 
commands, exhortations, admonitions, entreaties, and, in con- 
nection with the negative ov, prohibitions ; here the accomplish- 
ment of what is affirmed is not demanded, as is the case in the 
Imp., but is left to the choice of the person addressed, and is 
only expected. This diifers chiefly from the Imp. only in being 
a milder form of expression. On the contrary, the Fut is used 
with th5 negative ov, interrogatively, when, in a strong and 
indignant tone, the accomplishment of the action is expected 

'op a o2y koX wpo^vfiov icariSeiy, 4^ wots wpSrtpos ifjtould^s, Kcd fu>i ^tpd' 
fftts {you will communicate it to me ^^ communicate), PI. Rp. 432, c. *X2f oZy 
xot^a fT€ fca2 ir€t^t<r^4 fAoi {you will do thus, etc. = do thus), Prot. 338, a. 
O V Zpdfffis rovTo, thou unit not do this,.a$ Ihope = do it not; but od Zpdvets 
TovTO; wilt tliou tiot do tftis f = ch it, Oi tralfffp \4yuy; non desines diceref 
instead of desitie dicere, PI. Symp. in. ob xtptfitytis ; unit thou not wait f Dcm, 
Phil. 2, 72. ov ^v\d^fa'^\ f^y, 2hr»s fiii i€(nrSniy c9pirrc; But when in this 
manner, a negative command is to be expressed, the negative fi'^ is to be used 
with oh ; and when two sentences of this kind, one with an afiirmativc meaning 
and the other with a negative, follow each other, oh stands in the first sentence, 
ift^ in the last. Ou /i^ ^\\fapfii<rus \ Oh /i^ AaA^o-cis, iAA.' h.KoXov^'hv^ti 
ifiot, Ar. Nub. 505 (instead of ^^ <f>Xvdf€t, /i^ \d\ftj iiW* iuco\o^ti\ PI. Symp. 
175, a. od« oZy icaXc<s ahrhy koX /t^ kpiiffeis. 

Digitized by 


314 SYNTAX. [f 2o6 

5. The Future Perfect (Indicative) represents ^futwre action 
os^osiS (completed) in relation to another future action; lieuce 
a future prior to another future. Such an action is future with 
reference to the present, past with reference to another future. 

Ked To7<r( /ir/Li/|cTai i9h>J^ KOKoiiriv {the good shall have been mixed taiih ev3), 
Hes. Op. 177. 'H voXntta r^Xitts K€KOir/iiia§rat, iit» 6 rotovros auriftf 4mta^ 
Korf ^^Ka^ 6 Tolrrnv ivurrfifMi^, PL Rp. 506, a. As the Greek Pezfl frequently 
denotes the present condition or result of a completed action, so the Fat. PeiC 
frequently denotes the future condition or result of a completed action^ Xlcnce 
the Fut. Perf. of those Terbs whose perfects are translated by the present tense 
of other verbs (see Hem. 5), must be translated by the simple Fut., e. g. /ccyMr^ 
rofuUf meminero {I shall, haw reminded myself) y I shall be mindful^ shall remember 
(but furfiaoficu, I shall remind myself) ; Micrfiaofuu {I shall have acquired) ^ I ahcUl 
possess (but, I shall acquire) , etc. 

Rem. 8. The Fut. Perf., like the Porf. (Bem. 7), is used instead of the sim- 
ple Fut., to express a things emphatically. Here as in the Perf. used for the 
Fut., the speaker look^ upon the action as already accomplished ; hence the 
Fut. Perf often denotes the rapidity and certainty of the action, the process 
or progress being left wholly out of view, e. g. ^fxC^c, fcol irtirpd^trat {and ii 
shall te [CEBTAINLT, immediatelt] done)^ Ar. Plut. 1127; IplXos rifur ovMs 
XfXfl^trai (no friend will [certainly] be left t»), X. An. 2. 4, 5. So also in 
the Inf. Avoir ^ rpi&if rififp&y ravra vfTrpd^ea^ai, Dem. 19, 74. In the Act. 
the periphrasis fiefiov\tvK&>s ttrottm is found. 

Hem. 9. The Fut Perf is used in Greek only in principal clauses, and in 
subordinate clauses introduced by Zrt and &s {tnat)^ by c 2 used instead of Srt, 
and by Asre (w ihat)^ all with the Ind. In all other subordinate clauses, the 
Aor. Subj. (more seldom the Perf) is used instead of it, in connection with a 
conjunction compounded of &y, as ^cU, htdr^ hrti^dr, 5ray, irpir &v, fsr* jb^, ts 
ir, etc., e. g. '£^ tovto \4^'ifs {sihoc dixeris)^ ofiapHiari. 

i256,(h) Historical Te7ises: AoriiU, Imperfect^ and 

1. The Aorist (Ind.) expresses past time, in a wholly indefi- 
nite manner, with no other relation, e. g. cypo^ lu^rote, Kvpo9 
voXXa iSvYf iyuofo-eif. It thus Stands in contrast with the other 
tenses which express past time ; still, so far as it indicates past 
time indefinitely, it mav be used instead of cither of these 

2. Both the Impf. and Plup. (Ind.) represent an action as 
past, but always as having relation to another past action. But 
the Impf expresses the action as contemporary with this other 
past action; the Plup. expresses the action as already past 
before this otlier past action. 

Digitized by 


f 256.] HISTORICAL TENSE& 345 

'Ewfvh I V ai (c s, iy^ typa^oPy lehUe you teere ptayhg^ I tra^ writing. *Ort 
iyyhs Ijirap ol pdpfin^t, ofEhXriyts ifidxopro. ^Ort ot fidpfiapot ivtkriK^' 
^€<Fay, ol^ZXXnyts ifidxovro. T^rc {oriu rairp t§ ft-dxp) ofEAMiytf 

iiV9T§f9^yt&ay, "Ort (A ff^fiftaxoi ^irAijo-fofoy, oi*A^yeuoi rousTlepa^ 
iw€PiK'fiK€ffay, 'I'.ytypd^tiy t^v iirurroX'fiy, I had written the letter {before 
the friend came). 

Behahk I. It is to be noted that the Greeks freely tise the Aor. instead of 
the Plap., when the relation of the post time to another past time can be easily- 
inferred from the context, and no special emphasis lies in this relation, e. g. 
*Eirci^ ol "EWriytt iwiiX^oy (qomn Graeci venissent)^ ol iro\4fUM i,jr§wfft{ryf 
ew. The Aor. is often employed ercn instead of the Perf., when tiie relation 
of the past time to the present need not be expressed emphatically. 

3. Hence the Aoiist (Ind.) is used in historical narrations, in 
order to indicate the principal events, while the Impf. (Ind.) is 
used to denote the accompanying circumstances. The Aor. 
narrates, the Impf. describes. Hence- in the narration of past 
events, the Aor., which introduces the principal jfacts, is very 
oAen interchanged with the Impf., which describes and paints ; 
often, also, with the Hist. Pres., which, like the Aor., relates the 
principal events, and places them vividly in the present ; not 
seldom, also, with the Plup., sotnctimes with the Perf. By tliis 
interchange of the tenses, the narration has the greatest hveh- 
ucss of representation, and the finest shades of expression. 

^fxos V *EMS^6pos ttcri p6ws ipiwy M yeuaof, rfifios wvpKeu}i ifiapatytro, 
•wa^aaro 9h f\6i {the fire upon the funeral pile begem to abate, and the flame 
ceased), H. ^, 228. Toht TcXrourr&f iZi^avro ol fidpfiapoi ica2 i/idxoyro* 
fxfl 8* iyyhs Ij^ay ol SirKireUt irpdwoyro* icol ol ircXrcurral tltdbs tXwoyro 
{the barbarians withstood the pdtasts and continued to fight with them ; hut when Hie 
koplites drew near, they fled, and immediately the peltasts set out in pursuit), X. An. 
5. 4, 24. Uvy40i r^ iJioiehrv ical i^ajrlyris kfi^oripw^tv robs *At^ytdovs ^opofiti- 
^vai' Kot rh fji}y *b^yvfju>y xipas auruy, trtp 9}i icol rpoKtx^P'flittif c&^vs 
kiropboyly t^vy** mSL b Bpturl^as, birox»povyros ffSi; abrovf hrixapiity rtp ^€^i<Pf 
riTpAiXK^rai' koX wtcrSyra ahrhy ol fily *At^yaioi obK ale^dyoyraif ol Z^ 
ir\7jfrloy ipcarrts kv^ytyxay iral 6 ft^y KXdcty, &s rb wp&roy ob 9ttyo€7ro 
fiiyttyf tb^s ^c^Twr, ital iraraXiT^eh bwh MvpKiylov jrt\raffrov, hTo^y^cxtf ol 
8i abrov ^varpa/pdrrts ivKtrai iifibyoyro k, t. X., Th. 5, 10. 'O /lir Wx*/uof 
kfrdyruy ri/ms rmy elpilfi4y«fy kirtirTip'UKf Koi ydp rotirtytor4pous irc«-o(iyicc, 
/fol vo?iKobs Kiy^Ayotfs irofi4yuy liydyxaat, xctl vphs robs *EXA»;wi» ZiafidfiXii' 
K« «fol Tdyra rpdiroy rtraXaiir^piiKty ^/laSf Tsocr. Pac. 163, a. (The 
Perfects denote the rei^uU, the Aorist the event.) 

Kcm. 2. Tnasmiich tis the Aor. Ind. represents a past action indcpcndentlf 
and abrolutely, uncon icctcd with any other past time, while the Impf. Ind. 
represents n past ndion as alwa^'s connected with another past action, being, 

Digitized by 


346 SYNTAX. [^ 25a 

conseqnentljf employed in exhibiting an action in its duration and pro g ren, and 
hence used in deacripUm ; accordingly the Aor. expresses a moment or point of 
time^ while the . Impf., denotes duration or continuance. The Aor. therefore 
describes a momentary action or a single action ; the action, however, described 
by the Aor. may be a continued or protracted one, but the writer in using the 
Aor. presents no sach view of it, communicating merely the fact of the occur- 
rence. The Impf., on the other hand, describes an action in its continnance 
and progress, — not merely a single act, but a series of acts. It often depends on 
the choice of the writer whether the Impf. or Aor. is used. An action graphi- 
cally presented in its duration and prog^ss by the Impf., can be stated histor> 
ically as a mere past act, by the Aor. And so, many actions stated in the Aor. 
might be more yiridly described by the Impf., if the writer wished it 

4. On the use of the Lnpf. and Aor. Ind., the following things 
are to be noted : — 

(a) The Impf. appears sometimes to stand instead of the Fres., since an 
action which continues into the present time, is refened to a past time in which 
it occurred, or was known to the speaker. Kvpos ^leXa^f^ci — M r^ XiUor 
xoTatt6yf Sma rh ^pos wKd^poVf irX^/n} 8* Ix^^y luyiXanf koDl lepaUtw^ ots oi 2^p« 
dtohs iv6fii(otf K(d &StKtiif oifK cfttir {whidi the Syrians C0N8ij>eb as gods, 
namely, as I then saw), X. An. 1. 4, 9. "A^tKotno irpht rh Mii^ias HmKoifUPW 
TctxoT * — &«- cix c Si Bo^vXwyos oh iroX^, 2. 4, 12. Tfi tk ^pJ^ ^^4*? ^k^hcorro 
hr\ rhv TOTttfU^, 8f &pt(€ rify re r&w Mcucp^yuy [x^poy] Kai r^r r&ir "Xiaidamy, 
4. 8, 1 . *Ar^, i haipt, 2p* oh t6Bs ^v rh S^vSpor, 4^* Swsp ^s ^fua ; PL Phaedr. 
230, a. OitK ip* iiya^hs t& woXn-uch IIcpMcX^r Ijy ix roinov rov Kiymt (namely, 
when he so appeared to us, consequently =^ ohK Up" iya^s iaripf &s i^airsro, 
he is not there/ore distinguished^ as he then seemed to 6c), Gorg. 516, d. — From the 
idea of duration or continuance contained in the Impf several other relations orig- 
inate : (a) The beginning of an action, e. g. ixtl iyyhs iy^i^oyro, i^artrtis ol pl^ 
auT&y iro^tvoyy some of them began to sitoot their arrows; — (/3) habit or custom, 
e. g. avrhy otwtp xp6s^€V xpostK^uovy, irai t^c xpostK^tniirs^f those who were 
before accustomed to do obeisance to him, did it then also ; — (7) wish, endeavor or 
attempt, e. g. wp&ros Kx4apxos robs a&rov crparularas i$id(tTO Uyut, Clearchus 
endeavored to compd his soldiers to advance, 

(b) The Aor. is often used in general propositions which express a fact bor- 
rowed from experience, and hence what is customary; here a single fact which 
has been observed to be true in many instances, but not established as universal, 
is stated to be generally true, — the truth frequently observed in regard to a 
single event, is considefled as holding in the case of other similar events. In 
such cases the Aor. is usually translated into English by the present, or by the 
verb is wont, is accustomed, with the Inf. IL p, 177. cuc( re Aihs Kptlvaw riot 
atyi6xoio, irrt koI iKKtfioy &y9pa ^ojSci, Ktd &^€(X«to t^iKiiy ^tBlcos {u^*o 
inspires the brave man with fear, and bears off tJie victory). X. Cy. 1,2,2. at p^P 
yitp ir\utrr<u x6\€is Tporrdrrovat toij ToXtrais /i^i KK4irruy, fi^ apirdCtuf, ired riAAa 
rk roiadra &sa&T»S' l^y 94 rts ro^eoy ri irapafiaivp, C^/^/as avrois iv^^tiraf 
(were accustomed to impose a penalty upon them). Dcm. 01. 1(2). 20, 9. Srayis 
w\toy€^las Kol iroyriptas tij, &sirfp oZros {^iKinros), IffX^^y ^ vp^rri irpS^affit 
tai puKphif jmucfia iwarrn ay^x^^'"'^^* *^^ 9i4\v<rtym 

Digitized by 



Kem. 3. When the idea of being wont to do^ as found in the Aor., is to b« 
made prominent, or when a native habit is to be expressed, the Greek uses the 
verbs ^eur and i^4\tuf. Her. 7. 10, 5.^ iX ^ c i yiip ^ l^cif rh ^tf>ixorra irdirra 
KoXo^iy. 157. r^ tZ /SovXci^cWi Tp4iyfuen rcXetn*^ &s rh Mvcty XPV<^ i&4\€i 

(c) Hence in poetiy, the Aor. is often nscd in comparisons, instead of the- 
Ptes^ since comparisons contain facts that are known and founded on often' 
repeated experience. II. 7, 33 — 36. in 8* dre rls re dpdKopra l^if iraXiyopa-os 
iLw4irrii oCp^os 4y fifyrcpSf 6ir6 re Tp6fiOS (Kkafie yvtu, &^ r* Ayexf^pif^cyy 
ftxp^f t4 fUM elXc in^cidk • As adrtt Kodt* ZfuXAW tiv Tp^up hy^p^x^^ (^C* n^pif)* 
IL ir, 482. ^pnre 8*, &s 8t« ris ^pvs ^ptircy. 

(d) The Tragedians often use the Aor. in dialogue as an impassioned or 
emphatic expression of a decision or determination, which has respect, indeed, 
to the present time, bnt which the speaker wishes to represent as haying been 
previonsly established and settled in his own mind. The English often trans- 
lates such Aorists, in a very imperfect manner, by the Pres. Here belong 
especially verbs expressing strong feeling or passion, e.g. h-wixrwa {I do 
Mor)y 4y4kaaa{I cannot hdp lavghing)^ ^irj^Kcoro, ^/Att^a, 4^aifia<ra, 
inr^fioffOf ^a^riy. S. Phil. 1434. & 8* &y Xdfijfs ab ffKuKa rovSf rod arparoVf 
r6^wv 4fJMy fumifuid, wphs wvpiuf 4/i)iy K6fu(§ * Kot trol rcuh-\ 'AxiAA^wf T4Kyoy, ira- 
p-fytat^ this I counsel thee^ this I have counselled thee. Ear. Med. 223. xph 8^ 
^4yoy fJL^y ndprra irposx^P*"' (m acoommodare) ir^Xci ov8* iurrhy ffy^a*, Sstib 
«&dft8ijs Tcy^s vutphs iro?dreus 4cTly hftd^as Ihro (nee laudot nee unguam laudavi), 
Hec. 1276. Polym. : koI trfiy '^kyAytcn ireuSa Kaffdyipay ^ayCy* Hecuba : &ir^ir- 
TV (TO, this thought I do abltor = a thought whidi I have abhorred. 

(e) With like effect the Aor. is often used by Attic writers, apparently instead 
of the Pres. in urgent appeals or commands, expressed in the form of a question 
introduced hyriolvohovrloh. The speaker wishes, as it were, to see the 
desired action already accomplished. X. Cy. 2. 1, 4. ri oly^ t^ & Kvpos, ob leci, 
r^y Zlyofuy i\§^ds fwi (quin igitur mihi rect^ses f why hast thou not yet told me of 
the forces f in8f*jad of tell me forthwith f) 5. 4, 37. rt oZy, ^^, ^ ro5(£ra, 
odxl t4 /iir Tfixii ^i/XoirJ ^X^P^ 4froh<'o.s (why therefore have you not made 
the walls strong by a guard i = at once ftcike them^ etc.) ; PI. Phaedon. 86, d. 9I oZy 
rts Ifiuy §virop^€pos 4fiov, rt obn J^^fKptyaro; (is quam ceUrrime respondeat^ 
let him answer at once). The PrwJ- is also so used ; yet the expression is then 
far weaker, e. g. Ti oty, Ij 9* ts, ovk 4p(or^s\ (stronger than 4p<iTaf but 
weaker than Tl oZy oix iipyrrioas or ilipov]) PI. Lysid. 211, d. T( oZy oh 
tf'ICOTOVftf f, X. C. 3. 1, 1^. 

(f ) The Aor., like the Pcrf. (§ 255, Hem. 7) is used, when the speaker confi- 
dently considers a future event as already taken place. H. 8, 160 — 162. rfxcp 
ydp rt iral ahrliC 'C^tJ/tirtoy oIk ir4\fira€y, Hk tc koI or^f^ reXe?, u6y re fitydK^ 
iLir4rtoay <rby ir^ffiy Ke<f>a\fa-i yvyai^t rt Ka\ rtKeecatp (then have they paid a 
heavy penalty, th'n shall they pay). Eur. Med. 78. &.ira\6fita'dr'' &p\ el Ktuchy 
wposoicofiey yinv xa\cu^ (then we sltall perish, if. etc.). 

(g) The Aorist is very often used in all its forms to denote the coming into a 
condition; this the Ind. alwiys represents naturally in the past. BcurtXc^, / 

Digitized by 


348 SYNTAX. l^ 257. 

am a kit»g, 4fiafft\tvca (not /teas a Jang, but) I came to he a king, taas 
king, fiatrikt^iraSflMtoiiig beeu wiatU Jang^ rex factut. Bov\€w», I am a MenoLtom 
{X.C.l.2,S&h$ov\€^ras,haanng beenmadeaaenatoTySeMMiorJaetus (ib. I- 1, 
18). ^ov arparvy'fl<r<tPTOs, te duee Jado {ih. 3. 5, 1). *l4rx^, I mm strong^ 
i^X^^^^* l^oving become or been made strong, potene foetus (Th. 1,3). Avkiv- 
»cU,fMtefiliamiMKiiis. 'Airdfy^o-ai, to have become tide, in morbum ineidinc. 
KJupos liyd^^n mrrU (Kh^a^w), X. An. 1. 1, 9. Cfrus came to admire ib'jR, efwm 
admiratione aqttts esL 

♦ 257. Subordinate Modes, 

1. As the Aorist Indicative expresses a past action as inde- 
pendent and completed, having no relation to another past ac- 
tion ; while the Imperfect, always representing a past action in 
relation to another past, and being used in describing and paint- 
ing, presents the action in its duration and progress, so the 
same distinction holds in regard to the subordinate modes of 
the Aorist and Present : i The subordinate modes of the Aor. 
{ Subj. Opt and Impr.) together with the Infinitive and Partici- 
ple, are used, when the speaker wishes to represent the action 
by itself, as completed ; the subordinate modes of the Present 
together with the Infinitive and Participle, and also the Imper- 
fect Opt are used, when the speaker, considering the perform- 
once of the action, wishes to represent it descriptively in its tbira- 
tion and progress. In this way the following modes stand in 
contrast with each other : 

(a) The SnbjimctiYe and OptatiTe Aorist with the Subjanctive Present and the 
Optative Imperfect, e. g. ^vyt^w and ptiymficw, let us flee. With 
f^yttfi€v, the idea of fleeing it»df is nidged and is had in mind; with 
^ev7WfAcr,I rather have reference to the performance and progress of 
the action ; the Aor. expresses the action with more energy, as it denotes 
an instantaneous, momentary act. The same distinction exists in all 
the following examples. Tl wodiouiuw ana iroM»/icr ; what shall we dof 
A^» In fid^pf and Ipa /Aap^d^^s, ut ^soas; f\ryo9, tn it,d&oi$ 
and fm iiav^dwois, ttf disceres. The Greek &abj. always refers to tlie 
future, and hence is never nsed, as in Latin, of the present and past, c. g. 
Laudat pncram, quod diligens sit or fuerit, because he is or has been. In 
subordinate danses with bs tuf, fajr, h-aar, etc. [^ 260. {^)]^ the Subj. Aor. 
corresponds with Latin Fut. Perf. (^ 255, Rem. 9). 'E^ toOto X^y^s, 
itfui(^rfl<rp {si hoe dices or quotieacunque hoc dids, ermbisy, *Eib^ rorr 

' The subordinate modes of the Imperf arc supplied bv those of the P^ 

Digitized by 



A ^( 9 5 , jififlpr^vp («' ^ dixeriay if you thali have said). Comp. tbo exam* 
pies under ii 333, 3. 337, 6. 339, 2, II. (b). The Impf. and Aor. Opt. has 
the sense of the present or fatore in clanses which express a supposi- 
tion, conjecture, or undetermined possibility, in prose commonly with iy^ 
in hypothetical clauses with f2; the Opt in this sense is found in clauses 
denoting a wish, in final clanses, and in direct interrogatiTO clauses, 
particularly in deliberatiye questions. Tevro ^i»s hf yiywotro or 
yipoiro, this might easily be done. See ^S ^^% ^ ^^^ ^t '^^ ^^i 4. IX 
rwro k4yois or A^|fiai, afiaprdi^oit or i^/^dprots Jb^, if you 
should sc^ this, you toould err. See \ 339, II, (a). ES^c Tovro ylypoiro 
or y4yeiT09 that this might be! See \ 259, & (b). 'tAcTW, tm 
laavi^dvois or ikdboiSy%Adiaceres, See4330,2. TlsToiai^a dwoXa/i- 
^^rot or 6vo\«(i3oi; who woM suppose such things? See ^ 259,3, (e). 
Obm stx^t iwot Tpexoipifiw or rpsLvotti'nif<, I knew not what I shodd 
do. See 4 259, 2. The following case also belongs here : When the 
subordinate clanses in ^S 333i 3. 337, 6. and 339, II, (b), are made to 
depend on an historical tense, and the Opt without i^ takes the place of 
the Snbj..with U 6^^ trrtoft ivsMiy^ Mwf^ etc., the Opt has a future sense. 
Ohs ty Xhtt rk KQt^Jh, hrvnfit^yras, ripil^m (qnos mdero), 'iLftiy ots 
Xiotfit rh Kakh iirennMorrus, rifi^fvur (quos visurvs essem ). *£ ir • 1 8 & r 
eb fio^kp 9ti\4y€9batt col 9ui\4^ofiM (si or quotiescunque vis). 'E^r, 
iweiZii ffb fio^Koto ZiaXiyta^ai, vol 9ui\4^9adm (si or quotiescunque 
veUes, of the future). In other kinds of clauses, the Opt of the Impf. and 
Aor. has a past sense, so that it corresponds with the Ind. of each of these 
tenses. Tiffou^pptis iUfiaXt r^rKvpor, 6s 4iri/3ouXc^o> aury {that he 
was plotting against him), "EAc^oi^, 8ri Kvpos ivo^dwoi {that C, was 
dead), 'Oir^c oi^EXXriyts rots woKtftlois iviotev or 4n4\bott¥, &ir^ 
^wyw, quotiescunque impetum faciebant). 'Am^io^r tXaytP^ d 4ku 
f 8oi (what he had there seen, a dependent question). Comp. No. 2, (b). 

(b) The Imperative Aoristwith the Imperative Present, e. g. *6ys and 
^ c S 7 e^flee, a6s and 8{8ov /mi t^ fitfi\ioy, give, Mj^ dopvfi€7rt,& difBp^s 
'AdifvoiM, dAA* itAti€lyar4 /coi, oTs iU^driy bftAy, fxii ^opufiuy 4<l>* oTs hf 
X4y9» (the principal £act is here ifxfuiiws, the more definite explanation 
3opv/3crrc). PL ApoL 30, c. *Erci8^ dnarra duco^onr*, Kpiyar^^pAi trp6' 
TCMW" vpo\afi$dy€r9, Dem. Ph. 1 . 44, 1 4. 'AAA\ i 'X^Kptgrts, tri ko) 
WW 4fuli wel^ov icol a^^riri PLCrito44,b (» ^/ioi ircid^fwror o-ifidirri. 
i. e. by a process of persuasion, save yourself). In precepts respecting 
the rules of life, etc. the Pies, is the natural and usual tense. Tohs fUy 
^eobs ^0i9oD,To6f 8^ yopus rifia, robs 9b ^iKovs alffx^f^^f^t To7t 
9b v6ftots vsl&ov, laocr. Demon. 16. Comp. 4 259, 4. 

(c) The Infinitive Aorist with the Infinitive Present, e. g. 'E&4\w ^vytip 
and ft^ytty, I wish to flee, 'hcaySs €lfu voirja'ai and voitiy ri. 
('H ytupyla) fia^t7y rt ^arri i96KU tlvai icol i\9i<m\ ipyd^tirbai, X 
Occ. 6, 9. MprrdartpSv icrn jcoXwi &xo^ay97y,1i (riw alcxp^s, Isocr. 
Pan. 95. Ov rb fih \afitiy rb. iya^b ovru yt xoAcwrfv, &s'ir€p rb \afi6yTm 


Digitized by 


350 SYNTAX. [* 257. 

rrepij^^yai Xinnyp^ir, X. Cy.7.6,82. KtKf6w at Hovtfai and Bt96y^ 
fioi T^ 0tfixlop. KoXcVos 6 Kvpos *Apdairqif MfjZoVf rovrov ix^Afvirf Sia^v 
hd!^eu airr^ rtip rt ywaaca md tV fficn^Vy X. Cy. 5. 1,2, with whicb 
compare in 3. following : raOniy oZy ^K^Xcvtrcy 6 Kvpos 9ia«pv\dTr€iP 
rhv *Kpdaini9^ tns hf aibrhs \dfip {to continue to guards the subordinate 
clauso necessarily implying dnration in 9ia^vXd(rrc<ir). In tho orcUio aUiqua 
after rerbs of saying and thinking, the Inf. Aor. and Pres. is frequently 
used to denote what is past; then the Inf. Aor., like the Ind. Aor., is used to 
denote the principal events, the Inf. Pres., like the Ind. Impf.^ to denote the 
accompanying subordinate circumstances, e. g. 'Adrivauu Xiyovtrt^ Bucalws 
i^€\daai {robs Tlt^Mryo^sy Kwroueri/i4vovs yiip robs n^Keuryobs Awh r^ 
^/i-iw^ iy^€vr€y ipfitttfiiyouSf ii9tK4fty riSc* ^oirar yitp mI rhs 
v^rripas Shryaripas re iral robs ireSSas h^ SBvp * ob yi^ ^Jpoi Tovroy rhy 
Xp^Mr ff^Wi K9t olKiras ' Skvs Zh Hx^oiey oSrcu, robs UtXaryobs vwh tfipun 
fimrM^ ff4>€as k. r. K» {Oratio recta: i^riXdaafi^y ol ykp XIcAoffTo) 
^tUovy T«(8c* i<^oircfy, etc.) Her. 6, 137. Tho Inf. Aor. has a 
past relation only after Teibs of saying or Udnking, and in the construction 
of the Ace. with the Infinitive with the article. *Evrtui^ \4y€rai 
*Air6xXmy iK^ttpai JAapviw ical rh Zfyfta Kp€fidca't iy r^ Uprp^, X 
An. 1. 2, 8 {cutem detraxisse — suspendisse^ to have jAfed^ and hung up), 
Comp. No. 2, (c). Bw/uBrrhy ^Kdyerai fwi rh vtig'^ijyai Tiyas, in 
^Mcpdnis robs y4ous 9t4^€ip€y, X. C. 1.2, 1 {persuaswn esse quibusdam^ ' 
that certain individuals had been persuaded). Tb fi^itfAtay rwy wixtwy 
aKwyai iroXiopir(^ fi4yt(rr6y im ffrifUioy rod ilk roi/rovs wt'iir^dyras 
robs ^»K4as ravra iradcty, Dem..l9, 61. (But when by the Ace. 
with the Inf. with the article, a purpose is expressed, the Inf. Aor. has 
naturally something of a future relation, e. g. *£ircftcX^di7v rov Btddc 
Ka\6y ludrtya y^v4tfbai^ I took care that I might have some one as a 
teacher, X. C. 4. 2, 4.) In all other cases the Inil Aor. has the relation of 
present time. 

(d) The Participle of the Aorist with the Participle of the Present ; comp. 
Ki^ fvyAr with xdydayt ^^yon*. Tl^pt4vK»oy JEoiytoy, fiouK&fi€POi ^^ytu 
dLirtK6fi9yot 4s rb t/srv {wishing to cmne into the eitg sooner) Her. 6, 115. 
Tobs ity^p^^wtfs kfiaofuy 4 ir i ir€ ff6yr§s {will secredgattadk),X, An, 7.3, 43, 
In all such examples the Aor. does not express the relation of past time, 
but merely the action of the verb taken by itself; the time is denoted by 
the finite verb with which the Part is connected ; the Aor. Part., there- 
fore, denotes only that the subordinate action (expressed by the Part.) is 
contemporaneous with the principal action (expressed by the verb). Yet 
it is to be observed, that the Aor. Part, is commonly used to designate 
past time, e. g. TaiJT' thri^y &W^ = rcwr* cTire koI &«-4/3iy. — It may be 
added here as a general principle, that while the Aor. Part generally 
denotes past ttme, the subordinate modes of the Aor. and Present, of 
themselves denote no relation of time, the Aor., however, designating • 
Qiomentory, the Pres. a continued action. 

Digitized by 




2. The subordinate modes and participials of the Aonst, fonn 
a contrast also with the subordinate modes and participials of 
the Perfect and Pluperfect ; the former denote an action abso* 
(alely, as past or completed ; the latter, on the contrary, in rela^ 
lion to the subject of the finite verb ; by this relation the sub- 
ordinate idea of the duration of the result of what is denoted by 
I he verb, is naturally derived. In tliis way the following forms 
•SI and in contrast with each other : 

\!i) The Sabjunctivo Aorist with the Snbjanctive Perfect, e. g. '£^ <nro>8a2 
yivtivraif &^owrt¥ (^iccmtc), Ky^ty t^ovat rk iwtTffifut {{fa treaty shall 
have been made), X. A. 2. 3, 6. ^Oi^ i» yy^tfioy {K6»y tip), iunrdCrrm, khy 
fiTithf v^oT9 ^ aibrov iya^hy V€v6y&p {wfumuoever he reoognizes, he 
greets, even if he shaU have received no favor from him), PI. Rp. 376^ a. 
*AWxc<r«^e r&y iiWorpittyf Xt^ lur^aKUrrtpw rohs oIkcvs robs 6fitT4povs wr&y 
KtKTfiv^s, Isoc. Nic. 49. ( Comp. ^ 255, Rem. 5. ) It has already been 
stated No. 1. (a) that the Greek Sabj. always refers to the fatare. 

(b) The Optative Aorist with Uie Optative Pluperfect, e. g. O/ *Ij/8o1 IXc^oy, 
9rc w4fi^fi9 ar^ 6 'lyiwy fieuriXf^s {had sent), X. Cy. 2. 4, 6. "Eittaay, 
tt^ Xdrra ris &5vtp Kwr\y ^fuiy ifAVtvrdKOi {that some mctdness had 
fallen upon us, the effects still contiouing), X. An. 5. 7, 26. *Ay7jo'l\aos 
^t^H TTis ir6\toti A^ivoi ainhy ravnis rrjs ffrpamiyias, \4ywy, Sri r^ trcErpi 
a^ov iroXX& diTT^pcr^Koi ^ rwy VLayraf4w x6\is iy ro7s irpbs Mtirtr^yiiy 
iro\4fxois, II. 5. 2, 3. In what instances the Opt. Aor. is used of the 
present or future, and in what of the past, has been stated in No. 1, (a). 

^c) The Infinitive Aorist with the Infinitive Perfect; comp. iwo^aytly with 
T^ytiK4yat. Harphs Kvpos K^yrrai ytyitr^ai Ktififiictu, Htpirwy fiari' 
\4ats X Cy. 1. 2, 1. A^ycrai Ay9pa rtyii rwy tH'tfitiy ^icir(irX^x<^" 
TFoXhy 8^ rwa xp^yoy H\ r^ kcUAci rod K^pov {stood or continued amazed), 
lb. 1. 4, 27. Comp. § 255, Bern. 6. 

(d) The Aorist Participle with the Perfect Particq)lo ; comp. ikiroday^y with 
rt^yilKt&s, Pint. Acm. Paul. c. 36. extr. Ilepo'c^s ju^v fx^i icol ytyticTi' 
fi4yos {even though vanquished, in the condition of one vanquished) robs 
wmSas, AifdXios th robs abrov (sc. ToSBas) yiK^ffas kir4fia\ty » ytylKtirat 
fi4y — lfx« 94 — , ivixriff^ ti4y — &W/3aXc 5^. Perseus even though conquered 
still has his children ; Aemilius in his otherwise successful war, lost his. 

Rbhabk 1. From the above explanation, it is evident why the Aor., though 
an Historical tense, has besides an Opt. a Subj. alsoj the Aor. Subj. stands m 
contrast, on the one hand, with the Subj. Pres. ; on the other, with the Subj. 
Perf. The Greek Put. has no Subj. as in Latin (e. g. Gaudet, quod pater ven- 
funis sit), because the Greek Subj. of itself denotes future time. But the Aor. 
has an Opt., which stands in dependent sentences after an historical tense, and 
consequently, in direct discourse, takes the place of the . Ind. Puturc, e. g. 
^TTCiAev, tirt iro\4fitoi yiK-haoity {that the enemy would ccmquer). X. An. 7. 
1, as. (\vyty, tirt thotnos fft| irY^urdm abrots tls rh AlKra KoXovfityoy, Hy&a iroWk 

Digitized by 


352 SYNTAX. [♦ 20a. 

K^ ieytAii K-h^oiyro {where ihejf woiTU> receive). X. Cy. 8. a, 43. iitt^XMrm 
tints fi'hrt Atriroi, fi^c &iroroi irorc ftroiyro. (Bui ^iri/AcAcrrcu, Svws .... Iirop^ 
rot). X. A11.4. 1,25. 1^ cTrai &rpoir, 6 cl/i^ nr irftoKaraX^if^oiro, &8^vvrrcr 
f(rc<rdai irapcAi^Zir. ( Ora^/o recto .* ci rpoicorraX^crai, dSiivarov lorcu l^ap^^^maf^l 

Kjbm. 2. Verbs of willing, refusing, delaying, entreating, persuading, 
manding, forbidding, hindering, of wing aole, and unable, expecting (vpes^ 
9oK&, ^ir{8o(^s tifUy €Ik6s iartVy it i» likely, to be expected), when they relate to a 
future object, are sometimes connected with the Fut Inf., sometimes with, the 
Pres., sometimes with the Aor. The Fut. Inf. is used, when the idea of futurity is 
to bo made specially prominent, e. g. a condition continuing in the future ; the 
Inf. Fres., to denote a continuing or permanent condition, the idea of fatnritj, 
evident of itself, being left out of sieht j this Inf. is also used to denote the 
immediate occurrence of the action \ tne Xn£ Aor., when the idea of the actum 
itself is made prominent. In English all three forms of the Inf., when the subject 
of the Inf. is the same as that of the goreming rerb, are translated by &e Acs. 
Inf.: VL4?Jsm yodi^eir,ypdfeiW9 ypdi^at {I cun now about to tonle, tnteNdu^ 
toxarite). *A9 iv arc I €lffip iwtfjLtXMis iff €C^ai {unable to become and c 

careful), X.- Oec. 1 2, 1 2. *A9vyarol tlaiy fis iwtfU\€uaf rw kot* kypbv fyyetm 
iratdc^ccrl^ai, ib. 12, 15. 'AS^varoc ^fuy tarovr ai rovrnv r^y iwifiiKtm^ 
StZax^V^^h ib. 12, 13. *Awafid\\erai voviitrttw r^ 94ovt€l, Dem.31, 9. 
*JidnwaSot kytfidKKoifTo rh war fiiixar'fiarair^atf'H.eT. 6, 58. *£Xv/^ca 
^Uos buas ^^airar^o-ciy, Dem. 860, 54 {he hopet to deceive you). 'EKwl9ms 
7rap4xtTai rifMS tvtalfjLoyas voiriffai, Fl. Sym^. 193, d. {he gives hope that ha 
will make us happy). With rerbs of willing or being able, the Fut Inf. is mora 
seldom than the Aor. or Fres. After rerbs of saying, promising, Bweaiing, 
thinking, the abore threefold construction (Inf. Fut., Fres., Aor.) is uBcd, but the 
Inf. Aor. regularly expresses something /xis^ (see No. 1), seldom what is future, 
e. g. 01 nXaranis 4y6fii<ray 4wi^4fifvot p^ims Kparijaai, Th. 2, 3, (se victaree 
fore), *Air6Kpivai, 2 ^Ay6paT€' obyhp oJfiat v* f^apvoy yfy4<r^at, h 4ymmia9 
A^nyaltty atrdyruy ^iro^^os, Lys. Agor. ^ 32 {credo te negaturum). After vcibt 
of saying, thinking, hoping, the Inf. Aor. and Fres. with &y, is often used in 
nearly the same sense as the Inf. Fut. without &y. See ^ 26.0, (5), (a). 

$258. B. A more particular View of the Modes. 

The Indicative, the Subjunctive (Optative) and the Im- 
perative Modes [k 253, (b)], are distinguished as follows: 

(a) The Indicative expresses a direct assertion, an actual fact 

Th p6lioy i^(iAXffi. 'O variip y4ypa^€ .r^y 4irurro\4iy. OI vo\4iuot 
hir4^vyoy. Oi iroAirou rohs iro\€fdovs yiK^iaovaiy. 

(b) The Subjunctive denotes a supposition, conception, or 
representation. The Subj. of the Hist, tenses is called the 

"Ivfityl eamusi — T( wotufity ; quid faciamus f wltat shall we do? Ovk fx^^t 
oxoi rpdirvfiat^nescio, quo me vertam. Ovk c7xoy, twoi rpairoipriytncacic' 
ham, quo me vcrterem. A4yct, V « Mp y, dioo^ nt scias, in order that you may know 
it. "EAf ^a, Ik* « 1 8 € ( »j s, <fix/, ut scires, in order tliat you might know it. 

(c) Tlic Imperative denotes the immediate expression of the 
mil, being used in commands, entreaties, etc. 

Digitized by 



rpS^v and ypdptf\Lrite, BpaSites {iJkv ^(Kos ytyrov, ywiiitvos tk irtipA 5m^^ 
ycu', Is. Dcm. 7. Tpat^Tw and ypap^reof let him write (^ 257, 1. b). The com- 
mand expressed by the Imp. is not always to be understood as a strong com- 
mand, entreaties, exhortations, and coonscls, being also expressed by the Imp. 

Rbhark. The Modes exhibit the relation of an expressed thought to 
the mind of the speaker. Hence they denote nothing objective, i. e. they never 
show the actual condition of an action ; the Ind., m itself, docs not denote 
something actual ; nor the Subj., in itself, something possible ; nor the Imp., 
something necessary ; the language represents these ideas by special expres- 
sions, c. g. itXii^ws, ^^twr^atj 8c?, xf^i, etc. The modes express subjective rela- 
tions solely, i. c. the relations* to the mind of the speaker, showing how he 
conceives of an action. A mental operation is either an act of perception, an 
act of supposition or conception, or an act of desire. The Ind. expresses 
an actual perception ; it indicates what the speaker conceives and represents 
as a reality, whether on actual, objective fact, or a conception ; even the future, 
which, in itself is something merely imagined, can be conceived by the speaker 
as a reality, and hence is expressed by the Fut. Ind. The Subj. expresses 
a conception; it indicates what the speaker conceives and represents as a 
eonceptim, whether it has an actual objective existence, or is a mere mental 
conception. The Imp. expresses desire ; it denotes what the speaker conceives 
and represents as something desired, whether it be an actual objective necessity 
or not. 

♦ 259. Use of the Subjunctive, Optative and Im- 

1. Tlie Subj. of the Principal tenses, the Pres. and Perf., as 
well as the Sub. Aor.,alway relates to/w^Mrctimc [} 257, 1, (a)], 
and is used in Principal clauses : 

(a) In the first Pers. Sing, and PI. in exhortations ' and warn- 
ings, where the Eng. uses let, let us, with the infinitive ; the 
negative is here /i^. 

(b) In the first Pers. Sing, and PI. in deliberative ^ Questions, 
when the speaker deUberates with himself what he is to do, 
what it is best to do ; here also the negative is ft?}. 

"Iw/Acy, eamm I let us go, suppose we go ! M^ Xwfity. "Ay^ (^^f>Ci ^o) f m /i c k. 
^4p€ fSw (come now, let me see). Her. 7, 103. «/pc 8^, ^ 8' St, ire i pad » vphi 
ifuis ioFoKoyfia-aff^at, PL Phaedon. 63, b. Such an exhortation is very often ex- 
pressed in the form of a question preceded by /So^Aci; yet in this case, tlic 
subjunctive is a subordinate clause dependent on /So^Xci, e. g. Bo^Aci oZy, Su« 
ffSi; ^u/jLty ireidovf ; {do you then wish tliat toe propose two I'inds of persuasions = 
let us propose), PL Gorg. 454, e. Tf »oito/*ey/ quid faciamusf what shall we 
dof Etira/Ky, fj artyu/jify; Eur. Ion. 771. In no7 ris tppoyriZos fA,3p; S. 

* This use of the Subj. is called Conjunctivus adhortativus, 
' Conjunctivus ddSberuiivus. 


Digitized by 


354 SYNTAX. [♦ 259. 

0. C. 170, rU is nsed instead of the first Pers^ where shaUone gof {= -ro^ Ix^m 
or ^A^^w/icy, like woi 4>ptyw l^X^u; 310). M^ %po»iMi; shall 2 not askf XL C 1. 
2, 36. *0(ra ol hxiyoi robs iroXXo^s /i^ vtUrcantiy iXXk Kparovrrfs ypd^vo-t^ w^' 
tpoif ^ay ^d/Acy, ^ /x^ ^wfttv clvai; 45. So also ia indirect disoourse^ 
and in all persons. Obx fx^> ^^ rpdwufi^y {I know not, whUher I shall ters 
vysdf^ what I shall do), Ovk t^oiwty iKuvoi^ Zivot, ^ 1(7 w o- i, X. An. 2. 4, 20. Oi»ik 
oIS* cj <« (r^ fmrv/ia), /c2o fiot know whether I shall ^ve the cup^ Cy. f 8. 4, !&. 

Remark 1. In the second and third Pers. the exhortation takes the Ibnn 
of a command or wish, and hence is expressed hy the Imp. or Opt. Od. x» 77. 
fkdeofitr 9* kyii turrVf fioij 8* &Kurra yivoiro. Tet there are also passages 
in which the second Pers. Sabj. stands in connection with Jkyw and ^4p€ in^t^^d 
of the Imp., e. g. *4p\ i riicyov^ vvp koL rh r^v iHiaov /id^ps, S. Ph. 300. 

Rek. 2. On the nse of the second Pers. Subj. with /i^ to express -a prohibi- 
tion, e. g. fi^ Tpi^ff, ne scripseris^ do not write^ see No. 5. 

Rek. 3. A wish is reiy seldom expressed by c£^ with the Subj. instead of 
the Opt Efi^* tu^ipos 6yt» vrwinidcf o^vr6you Htk irvc^futrof iKwvl §a [o m 
Qves me swrsum in adherem per awras stridentes eapiant), S. Ph. 1094 (without variA- 
tion). Comp. Ef^^t rtris ciiwl Sucalwif biuwaltt¥ ^i^ "Afryei ^av&ff% rdtcpotmv 
Ear. Snppl. 1028. Ety — eitrxtoy cI8os Arrl rov koXov Kd$tt (in some MSS. 
Kafi€hf), Hel. 262. 

Rem. 4. In the third place, the Subjanctive is somewhat frequently used in 
principal clauses, in the Epic language, instead of the Put. Ind., though with a 
slight difference of meaning. Both express a present conception of a fatore 
action ; but the Put Ind. represents what is stiU in the future as known and 
certain in the riew of the speaker, while the Subj. represents what is future aa 
merely a concession or admission of something expected. II. {, 459. lad 
wot4 tis fivpffiv {and on^ mat say, it may be expected or conceded (hat one ufM 
say). II. If, 197. oh ydp rls fu $lp yt ixiay iUxoirra ittirai {one will wA force me 
away = I will not admit that one will^ etc.). a, 262. ov ydp irw rolovs t8oy iydpos, 
oM t9ufiai {na th I expect that I shall see such men, nor am I to see; oCiSc 
df^fjuu, would mean, / certainly shall not see). Od. ^, 201. ottK tc^* cSros Mim 
Bico^r fipor6sf oy9h yiv^rai. ir, 437. ov«c licri^* oVros ijrfip^ odS* Haaertu oM 
yiviirai {nor is it to be expected that he will be). The frequent use of .the Subj. 
with ohh\ pJi in the Attic writers, is wholly analogous to the principle just 
stated. See under f 318, 6. 

2. The Opt. Impf. and Aor. is also used in principal sen- 
tences, to denote deliberative questions (i. e. such as express 
doubt and propriety), but differs from the Subj. in such ques- 
tions in referring to past time. 

Thcocr. 27, 24. iroXAo( /i ifunCorro, v6o¥ 8* ipJbv oSrts taSe ' — «ral rl, ^os, 
^ 4 ^ai fi I, ' ydfioi wK-fj^vauf iyias, i. 0. quid FACEBEM ? sc. turn, quum multi nup- 
tias meas ambiebantf sed eorum nuUus mihi placebatf what could I then do t The 
deliberative Opt. is very frequently used in indirect questions, in relation to a& 
historical tense in the principal clause. *E«^pcTo 6 2c^s rhy ireuSa, c^ waiotuw 
mxrrSy, X. An. 7. 4, 10 {u^iether he should put him to death). Oi *Einid/A¥uu vlfi* 
r^mirrts is ^€\^hs rhv ^thy hrfipoirroj cl vapaSotcy Kopip^tois riiy wA?uy, Th» 
1, 23 iwlieiher they should surrender the city). 

Digitized by 



Rek. 5. In the principle gtren in No. 2, the act of supposition or conception 
belongs to the past, and this is the common use of the Opt (the Subj. of the 
historical tenses), in subordinate clauses. But the Opt. is also used, where the 
act of supposition or conception is a present one. When a present conception is 
expressed by the su^unctire, e. g. Xiwficv, eomtis, rl ^vm/uy ; quid dicamus f 
then the realization of the conception may be assumed or expected from the 
present point of time. But when a pi^ent conception is expressed bj the 
Opt. (SuDJ. of the historical tenses), the speaker places himself back, as it 
were, out of the present and the vivid connection, which exists between the 
present and the actual accomplishment, and represents the conception as ono 
separate from his present point of time. Hence a present conception expressed 
in this way, veiy naturally suggests the subordinate idea of uncertainty. Thence 
arises the following use : 

3, The Opt- Aor. and Impf. ( Subj. of the historical tenses), 
is used, in principal clauses, of present or future time in the 
following cases : 

(a) To express, in a general manner, a supposition, a present 
or future uncertainty, an undetermined possibility, presumption 
or admission. The prose-writers here commonly use the modal 
adverb ay with the Opt, ♦ 260, 2, (4), (a), but the poets very 
frequently use the Opt without ay, A negation is here ex- 
pressed by ov (ovk). 

*0 9h abrh airr^ iufifMwv cfi} <cal 9idpopoyf arxo\$ y4 to6 rtf &AA91 tiioutv 1^ ^tXiow 
yivoiro (that taould toarody be like or friendly to another^ as one would readily 
admit), PL Lysid. 214, d. 'Avo?iOfUyiis Hh Trjt f^xvs rSr JjJij t^f ^6aty t^j 
iff^tytias ^Tidctjcv^oi r}i o&fia iral rax^ vcarky Ztolxotro {animo exstincto 
turn vero corpus imbecillitatem suam ostendat et intercidat^ it is natural to suppose or 
assume^ that the body wotdd give signs of voeakness)^ Phaed. 87, e. 

(b) To express a wish. A negation is here expressed by fnif. 

IL x» 3^' M^ fUb' iunrou8( 7c ical Ixk^ms iiiroKolfiriy, may 1 not perish I S. 
Aj. 550. i ircu, yiyoio irorpbs Mbrvx^trrtpos, rii 8* &AA* H/ioiosl koL yivoC h» oh 
KWcSst may you-be more fortunate than your father^ but in other things like kirn I then 
you would not be wicked. X. Cy. 6. 3, 11. *AAX\ 2 Zcu lUytort^ XafitTy fioi 
yiyotro tdniiyy &s iyit fio6\ofuUf may I be able to take him. The wish is com- 
monly introduced by cC^c, c2 ydp (in the poets also by d alone). Od. 7, 205. 
c< yitp iftol roffo^iyBt ^«ol Ziyofuy irapa^^Ttyl X. Cy. 6. 1,38. c2 yiip 
yiyoiTo! (In poetry its is used like Lat utinam. Eur. Ilipp. 407. &s 
kw6Ko IT o ToyKOKusI) 

Rbm. 6. When a wish is expressed, which the speaker knows cannot be 
realized, the Ind. of the historical tenses is used, e. ^. ££^c rovro Myytro t 
cl^c TovTO iy^yero I uiinam hoc factum essetJ that this were done, or had been 
done I So AptKts ypd^eu I that you had written I (but I know that you have 
not). X.An. 2.1,4. &AA' &^c\< /UrKSporC?''/ that Cyrus were still alive I 
(bat I know that he is not). Also cfdc, tl ydp. As A^^Koy, cs, c(i') with 

Digitized by 


366 SYJSTAJU £f 2^9 

the Inf., particularly in poetry. On tbo wisli expressed b^ rih if with the Opt, 
see 4 260, 2, (4), (d). Oa the infreqaent use of the Subj. to denote a iriabv wem 
liem. 3. 

(c) A command is also expressed in a milder way, in the 
form of a wish. 

Od. (, 408. rdx^rrd fiot KySoy ircupoi c7c v, /«< my companions come unih£n» IL 
ichpv^ tIs ol inoiro ytpatrtpos, let same herald follow, Arist. Vesp. 1431. 
(p^oi Tts V iMurros tiSe^ rixyn*' X. An. 3. 2, 37. ^l fihf oSy £x\«9 ^ig 
fi4\rtoy 6p^^ &\^MS ^ x ' '' • ' *^ '^ M^» Xtiplcro^s fthf rjyoTro. 

(d) The Optative is used to express a desire, wish, and 
inclination, in a general manner, wilhout expecting the realiza- 
tion. A negation is here expressed by /iij. 

Thcocr. 8, 20. ra^ay (tV a^ptyya) Kardtinv (I would be loUUng or desire 
to phce)' rh 5^ toI jrotrphs alt Kara^aw, Her. 7, 11. fiii y^ ctif y ix Aaptiom 
ytyoyt&Sj fiii rifutpvio'dfityos ^A^ycdovs, I should not be descended from Darita^ 
' unless^ etc. 

(e) In direct questions the Opt. is used, when a mere admis- 
sion or supposition is expressed. 

(a) In Homer the interrogative clause then forms, in a measure, the protasis 
to the conditioned clause, i. e. to the clause depending on the condition ex- 
pressed by the question. II. 5, 93, scq. Ij pd y^ puoi n ir/^oio, AvKdoyos uf^ 
ZoA^povi TKatris kck MtytXdij^ iirnrpo4fi€y rax)ty I6yf iraari t4 Kt TpAecffi xif** 
Kol jcDSos Jipoio^ will you now listen to me, L e. if you wiU^ you would dare, etc. (the 
same as ^ ri puu wi^oiOf r\airis Ktv^ etc.). Herg vfd^oio, etc. is the in- 
terrogative clause containing the condition, and rXtkiiiSt etc. the conditioned 
clause depending on the preceding. When the question has two members, the 
first, expressed by the Opt. without &y, contains the condition, the last, ex- 
pressed by the Opt. with &r, contains the conditioned clause. IL (, 191. if ^ 
y6 fioi r wt^oio, ^tXov r4Kos, Srrt Kty cfirw, ^^ Ktv &py'f^aralo Koretraafttrri rdy* 
dvfi^ ; will you be persuaded by me^ — or will you refuse f (i8 ) In the Attic writers, 
the Opt. is also used in a question without reference to a conditioned clause. 
These questions, however, always imply a negative. Aesch. Chocph. 4aa' 
{tKipro\pM¥ kyUpbs ^piynifia ris \4yoi; who could describe? — no one, i. e. wfto 
can you suppose could describe f S. Ant. 604. recCv, Zcv, B^yourtu rls hy^pStv hrtp- 
fiaffi^ Kardcx^^i ^^^ could restrain? i.e. who can be supposed to restrain? 
Arist Pint. 438. Svof ''AiroXAoy ical ^toty iro? ris ^6yot, where could one fly f 
Dem. Phorm. 921, 1. mil lea fiky ttirt fierit rijs hXin^titu, nh xpn^"^^ ^cir^i}^^ * & 
h* if^v^axvro rh ScTtpoyf irt<rr6repa rav^* dtroXdpoirt ttycuj haec vos veriora 
existimaturos quisputct ! PI. Kp. 437, b. ip oZv — rrdyra ra rotovra r&y ivwnimw 
AAA^Aoir ^iy\s; can you consider all such things to be opposite to each other? I e^ 
om / assume that you, etc. 

Digitized by 



Rbx. 7. The deliberative Opt. (No. 2) differs from this. 

Rbm. 8. All the cases mentioned under (a) (b) (c) (d) (c)>are to be regarded 
as elliptical sentencei^f which have onginated from a conditional scnteucu like 
€Tti <xo<'* 8o£ijs iy [^ 339, II, (a)J, if you had^yoa wovMgive. 

(4) The following points in addition are to be observed 
respecting the Imp., [} 258, 1, (c)] : Though the Imp. always 
refers to time jyrcsent to the speaker, yet the Greek has several 
Imp. forms, viz., a Pres., Perf , and Aor. These forms, how- 
ever, do not express a dilTerent relation of time, but only the 
different condition or circumstances of the predicate. The dif- 
ference between the Imp. Aor. ypa^ov and the Pres. yfid.if>4y has 
been explained, k 257, 1, (b). The Imp. Perf has always the 
sense of the Plres., with the accompanying idea of the perma- 
nence or continuance of t^ie result, e. g. fUfunffao, memento, be 
mindful, remember; 17 3vpa jccjcXcio-.^a), let the door be sliut 
(and remaih shut). See i 255, Hem. 5. 

5. In negative or prohibitive expressions with /ai; (ne), the 
Greek commonly uses only the Pres. Imp., not the Aor. Imp. ; 
but instead of the Aor. Imp., the Aor. Subjunctive is used. 

M)i ypd^€ or /x^ yp^^V' (^^^ neither fiii ypJufqis, nor fi^ ypd^oy), M^ 
ypa^4v» or /i^ ypd^\f,ne scribito (but neither fi^ ypd^, nor fi^ ypoolfdru). 
M^ pun ityrtK^y^ or ^^ ftot ityrt\4^'pSf do not speak against me (but 
neither /lii krrikiyps nor yAi krrlx^fynf), Isoc. Dcm. 24. VLniiva. ^ov ir 1 v 
Jtpiy h» ilvrJunps, wAs K^xf^at rois irp6T(poy ^(Xoir. 36, 29. ^i}8eyl avfi^ph.s 
iyti^lajlis' KOiyii yiip ii ritxn koI rh /i/XAov Upaeroy. Th. 3, 39. KoXaffbifrfiKray 
Z\ iral yvy h^lws rris iBixias, Kot fi)i rots ii\v^ h\iyois ri edrla vposrt^p, rhy Zh 
Sq/iov inroK^trrirt, 

Heu. 9. Ye» Bomctimdk in the Epic poets, though very seldom in othc/ 
poets, ft^ is found with the second Pers. of the Aor. Imp., e. g. II. 8, 410. ryi 
fill fwi iror/fws. vodr* hpuoixi ^vhto bvfi^. The third Pers. is frequently found 
even in the Attic prose writers. X Cj. 8. 7, 26. /iijdcls l94ru, 

6. The third Pers. Imp. is very often used (the second more 
seldom), to denote that the speaker admits or grants something, 
the correctness or incorrectness of which depends upon himself 
This is called the concessive Imp. 

Oth-tts ix^"*"^^ &s <rlf \4yfts {admit that it is as you say), P. Sjmp. 201, c. 
*£ IK /t » 8^; {ff y^vx^) ^vfup{mp ^vydf^tt bicovripov (tvyovs tc kcH r}yi6xov Iff^tfU 
that the soul is like, etc.), Phacdr. 246, a. Aty^ru mpl alnov, &s fKoarot 
ytyy^Kti {admit that each one speaks of it]^ Th. 2, 48. 

Digitized by 


358 SYNTAX. [4 260 

Bem. 10. In the interrogative formnla of the Attic poets: o!ff^* % hpSi/o-vw, 
•^oUrdr* &s wolriaoy; {do ymi know what you are to do f)j the Imperative is to be 
explained as a transition, easy to the Urecks, from the indirect to the direcs 
form of speech. It is also explained hy considering it the same as BpSaw, 
o7ad* 8; oSo, — do you know whatf The formnla is a softer mode of expreasioii 
than the Imp. Zpaoov or Tolri<rov. The use of the third Pers. Imp^ not only 
in dependent questions, but also in other subordinate sentences, is according to 
the same analogy. Her. 1, 89. yw &P volncov &6€, cf rot ipdaxtij rk ^ycU'A^yav * 
gdriaotf Twv 9opwp6pw M irdajiiri Tp<ri ir^Ap<n <f>vXdKovs oi Kty6¥Twr , *» 

olroi Kt'^ivruvt who should say^ or and let them say). Th. 4, 92. Sci^^oc, 
5ri — Karitr^otvap, they might cktain ! 

Hem. 11. On the transition of the third Pers. Imp. to the second see ^ 241, 
Rem. IS, (c) j on the use of the Fut instead of the Imp., see f 255, 4, and on 
the Opt. with 6^ in the sense of the Imp., S 260, 2, (4) (b). 

k 260. The Modes in connection with the Modal 
Adverb ay (kI, k4v), 

1. The Modal adverb av (Epic ic€(v), Doric ko, Kav), denotes the 
relation of a conditioning expression or sentence to a condi- 
tioned one ; indicating that the predicate of the sentence to 
which it belongs, is conditioned by another thought either ex- 
pressed or to be supplied. By the particle oEk, the realization 
of the predicate is made to depend upon the realization of 
another predicate. Therefore, where a predicate is accom- 
panied by av, the predicate is represented as conditioned by 
another thought ; av always refers to a condition. 

2. A complete view of the use of av cannot be presented 
except in connection ^vith conditional , sentences. Yet, as it 
is used in all kinds of sentences, it is necessary to explain 
its construction here. It is connected : 

(1) With the Fut. Ind. The predicate expressed by the 
Fut Ind., seems to the speaker, at the time then present, 
always to depend on conditions and circumstances. Whenever 
this idea of dependence is to be made* specially prominent, ap 
(Epic K€) can be joined with the Fut ; yet this construction is 
rare in the Attic dialect. 

Od. p, 540. c2 Z^ 'GdiM-c^s fAi^oi — , al^d icc <rvp $ wathl ^tas iL1rori&€Ta^ 
kyZpaVf he would punish. II. (, 267. &AA.* 1^*, ^7^ 94 k4 toi Xaptrwy fiia» 
&w\Qrr9piwv B^ffM hwvt4ft€ycu,dabOy8cil.sitibilubuerit. X. Cy.6. 1,45. i$pt<rr^oip 
yofdCvy cdir6r, tZ oW 8ri ifffitros hv irp^s &y8pa, oTos <rb tt, iLTa\Kay4iirtTa4 
(so the MSS.). 7. 5, 21. Srov 5i koL (dc^vrat iiftai iyZop tmaSj iroXh ftr in fMAAoy, 
I vvr, kxpfioi tffoyr at Hh rod ifcrtwKjix^M (&' is wanting in only two MSS.). 

Digitized by 


i 260.] MODAL ADVERB dv. 359 

Remark 1. With the Pres. and Perf. Ind., &r is not used. For that which 
the speaker expresses as a present object, cannot at the same time be expressed 
OS something, the realization of which is dependent on another tbougtit. In 
those passa^s where 6m is foand with the Pres. or Perf. Ind., either the reading 
is questionable, or iv mnst be referred to another verb of the sentence, e. g. OitK 
olS* &y cl Ttiacufu (instead of tl^tlffaifu &v), Eur. Med. 937 ; so often jfoijJ(ot &y, 
olfiai &y and the like followed by an Inf., where &y belongs to the Inf. ; or it is 
to be considered as an elliptical mode of expression, as in X. S. 4, 37. iyii 8^ 
otrrw ff-oAA^ lx») &s in&Xis ovr^ ical M» & v alnbs t&picK», I have so many things 
that I with diffiddty find them^ indeed if I should seek for them mvself I should not 
find them. Nor is &v used with the Imp. For what the speaiker expresses as 
his immediate will, cannot be considered as dependent on a condition. The 
few passages referred to in proof of the use of &y with the Imp., are all, criti- 
cally considered,, questionable and prove nothing. 

(2) "Av is used with the Ind. of the historical tenses : the 
Aor., Impf. and Plup. : 

(a) To denote that something might take place under a cer- 
tain condition, but did not take place, because the condi- 
tion was not fulfilled. The condition is then expressed 
by eZ with the Ind. of the liistorical tenses. 

EirpvTo dKryts {$\f^as)f ri/idpray^s {lifiaprts) &y, i. e. if you said Mis, 
jfou uxre wrong, or if you had said this^ you would have been wrong, but now I know 
that you did not say it, consequently you are not wrong; Lat. si hoc dixisses, 
errasses (at non dixisti; ergo non errasti). TEX rt cfx^^M^^* imofi^p 
(Hiofitif) Avfif we had anything, we would give it to you, or if we had had any- 
thing, we would have given it to you ; si quid halmissemus, dedissemus. Also with- 
out an antecedent clause, e. g. 4x^f ^» laetaius fuissea (scil. si hoe vidisses). 

Rek. 2. Here belong also the expressions, tpifitiv tv, llyy» ti» &y, 
^erbtr6 rif&y, ^cr^ ris &y, and the like, as in Latin, putares, crederes, dicereSy 
eemeres, videres, you {one) would think, or you (one) would have thought Here tt 
vofniVj cl IXcTffv, c2 c78cy, ct tZivoxOy and the like, as conditioning antecedent 
clauses, are to be supplied. . "Ei^da 8^ ty.v » tu Ik v rovs dfuntfiovs ircirw^cv^^- 
wwj, &s 8«i (turn yert videres, then one might see, were he present), X. Cy. 3. 3, 
70. "^t^a 9ii fyytt us &y, tffov &|ioy cfi} rh ^tXua^at ipxovra urh T&y Apx^P^^' 
pww, 7. 1, 38. Ei^s a-by robots €lsini^(rearrts tls rhy vriXhy dSfrroy, fj 6s rts tiy 
^c TO, fAtrt^^vs i^tK6fiiC€ty riis ofid^as (celerius, quam quis crederet), An. 1. 5, 8. 
^Ewtj^p^ff^il 8' iy rts Kixtiya l^iLy (one might be encowraged if he saw those 
Jhings), Ag. 1, 27 

Hem. 3. With the Ind. of the historical tenses, 6y is often omitted. Then 
the speaker has no reference, in his representation, to the condition contained 
in the protasis or antecedent, on account of which the action expressed iji the 
apodosis or conclusion could not be completed, but he emphatically represents 
the predicote as an actual fact. X. An. 7. 6, 21. Efiro* ^ ns 6m' Oifkovy mcx^ 
owT« liupms i^aroT^tifyos ; Nol /iA A(a ijffx^^^P^'^^ fi^yroi, cl 6irb iroAcft/ov yt Irros 
i^ffwari^v ' ^l\^ V tvri iltKtrceray cBhrxtiy Moi Sokci cTmu, ^ ^{cnraTao-dcu. Lycuiv. 
Leocr. p. 154, 23. cl /acm oly fwv irvyxoyty 6 'Afi^yras, Utiyoy atnhy vaptix*' 
fitly' yvy9h ifiiy icaA» robs ffvyuZ6Tas, The ellipsis of 6m is most frequent in 
expressions which denote the idea of necessity, duty, reasonableness, possibili- 
ty, liberty, and inclination, e. g. xp^^* ^8ci, &A€\oy\ with ycrbal adjectiyea 
ia r/os; with vpos^irc, Kaip^s ^y, clicbs i)^; Kahby ^v, alo'xP^i' %tf^ 

Digitized by 


360 SYNTAX. [^ 260. 

123,3. XfVy Were, ^irtp1i(r^axpV<rr6s, iroXh fuiWov firiyvr^y yty^a^ou' rvm'Sd 
aov tA ipya^w€pk yey tyrrrau k, t. A., i/ou ought or you ought to /uice bom 
{ojwrtebat). XL C. 2. 7, 10. tl iiiy roiyvv ai<Txp6y ri (/ji€Woy ipydaatr^ai^ ^a^et- 
roy Ait* o6to0 vooaip^rioy ^y' yuy ^ h fiey Soice? K<U\iaTa «oi irp^irtoBdaT^pa 
ywaa^y tlycu Marayrau, &s foxicc k. t. A., mors prae/erenda erat. So aL«io with 
the Inf. ^X. C. 1.3, 3. olh-e ykp ^tois t^m KaKws ^X*'"* « '»'«*» fJLey^Xmt 
^iHrieus fiSXKoy fj rats crfUKpats fxaipoK, ybr Ae said it would not he proper Jitr tki 
gods^if,etc. Very often without an antecedent sentence, c. g. alcxp^^ <» 
toOto 'Koiitv, turpe erat, it would be basc^ would have been; i^rju tovto. vo»c<y 
licebat, it would be lawful ; xaXSts « 7x « • Comp. with the above the use of the 
Ind. in Latin, where the Subj. mi^ht have been expected, in such expressions as 
aetpium, ^ustum, rectum est, it VDoxUd be proper, longum est, it would be tedious, and 
the participle in dus in the conclusion of a conditional clause, hm Si Hafnae 
Cn. Pompeius privatus esbst, tamen is ebat bsligendus. 

Rem. 4. In all the above expressions, however, 6y can be used ; so also in 
Latin, the Subj. is sometimes found instead of the Ind. Dem. Phil. 1. 40, 1. 
CI T^p iK rod irpofKnXv^Sros xp^yov tA Uorra oZroi ffvyefio^Ktvcayt oiik^ \r 
vfjMs yvy fZei fiovKt^fa^ai, So also in Lat. the Subj. is used instead of the 

Rem. 5. The Pros, tense of xf>^, »€?, Trpos^Kci, moXws Ixei, etc., is ased of 
things which can yet take place. Comp. possum commcmororc, which implii^a 
that I still can do tho act, and poteram commemorarc, which implies that I 
cannot do it. 

Rem. 6. "Ay is very naturally omitted, if in the apodosis there is an Ind. 
of an historical tense of the verb Kiyivyvtiy, to be in danger, to seem, since 
the verb bv itself implies that the action expressed by the Inf. connected with it, 
did not take place ; for what is only in danger of occurring, actttallif does not 
occur. Th. 3, 74. 4i ir^Xis iKiyHiytvct wcura Bteup^apfiyai, ci iytfios iv^y^^rra 
Tp AKoyl M^pos is oMiVy the whole city was or would have been in danger 
of destruction, if Aeschin. c. Ctes. 515, R. ct ^i^ 9p6fup fi<J\is i^ftpvyo/i^y €« 
A€\ipo6s, iKiyHvy^^ffafi^y &iro\^a'^€tt. So if in the apodosis, 6Ktyor^ 
fiiKPov, rdxch nearly, almost, SLTQ- joined with the Ind. of a historical tense 
in the concluding clause; for what only nearly takes place, actually does 
not take place, hence the Ind. without &y is appropriate in both these cases. 
Plat. Symp. p. 198, C l^yofyc iy^fio6fi€yos, Sri cunhs ovx ol6s t* Hffoiiai-ovS^ ^YT^s 
Tovruy oudiy KoXhy ciirc?y, 6ir' odax^*^^ 6\iyov Airo5f>As ^fX^M^'^f*^'^ ^^X^*'* 
Ihadxdmost fled for shame, if Without a protasis, e. g. X. Cy. 1. 4, 8. koI wi»» 
iia^yfiwy o&ry 6 %-kvos triwra tls yoyara, icol fiiKpov Kvcttyoy ^(crpax^^^' 
a-ty, Comp. the Lat. prope (paene) cecidi, I came near falling. 

(fi) To denote that an action takes place (is repeated), in 
certain cases, and under certain circumstances. The his- • 
torical tense in the principal clause is then commonly the 
Lnpf. The